High and Late Middle Ages1050-1450
Where it beginsFeudalism is the way of lifeChurch & Nobles have a great deal of the powerMonarchs will attempt to take power back
Whos NextKing Edward diesHarold vs. Duke WilliamDuke has Popes supportInvasion of England
William The ConquerorMonitors CastlesAllegiance of VassalsCensus- DomesdayHad to follow CustomsJury SystemWilliam vs. ChurchThomas Beckett- Archbishop of CanterburyTrend?
King JohnSon of HenryFaced Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and his own noblesLost to Phillip, Lost Anjou & NormandyLost to Pope- excommunicatedLost to Nobles- Magna Carta
Magna CartaRebellious BaronsAffirmed Feudal RightsLegal rights- People/ChurchDue Process & Habeas CorpusMonarchy must obey lawCouncil before taxation
ParliamentEvolved from councilsUnified England, How?House of Nobles & House of CommonsChecks who?
Successful Monarchy of France987- Capetians take throneUnbroken for 300 yearsEffective BureacracyTaxes & LawGained Middle class backing
Phillip IIGranted ChartersStanding ArmyNational TaxGained English lands in Anjou & NormandyAt time of death, most powerful ruler
Philip IVRuthlessly extends royal powerAttempts taxes from clergyIgnored rules and arrested clergy that did not payClashed with Boniface VIIISends troops to seize Pope- diesPapalcy moved to Avignon France- why?
Louis IX King & SaintJustice & Chivalry2 Wars against Muslims, persecuted Jews & HereticsRoyal CourtsOfficials to check on officialsOutlawed private wars-ends serfdom- significance?
Estates GeneralReps from 3 classes- clergy, nobles, townspeopleDifference from Parliament?
Holy Roman EmpireAfter death what happened?Duke Otto I - King of GermanyWhat is Germany?Central & eastern Europe, parts of France & ItalyBishops appointed to governmentHelps Pope against rebellious noblesCrowned- HREEmperors chose bishops, issue?
Pope vs. HREPope Gregory VIIWants to separate from secular rulersBanned Lay InvestitureEmperor Henry IVHenry is exiled, Forgiven before new HREHenry invades Rome, exiles Pope1122- Concordat of Worms- Church picks Bishops
Struggle for ItalyFrederick Barbarossa- tried for Northern Italy, defeated by the pope and Lombard LeagueFredrick II- Clashed with PopesHRE- fragmented in feudal statesSouthern Italy & Sicily- upheavalSpain, France, & Pope try to gain influence
Height of Church PowerInnocent III - Claimed Papal SupremacyLaunched Crusade against French that wanted to purify churchMonarchs begin to centralize power, clash over clergy taxationPhillip- helps get Pope elected, power of papacy declines
CrusadesHoly LandPope Urban IICrusades on EuropeEconomic expansionIncreased Power of MonarchsThe ChurchWider World View
Reconquista in SpainExpel Muslims 1300 Christians Control much of Iberian Peninsula except for Granada
Ferdinand and IsabellaDrove Muslims from Granada- Spain unifiedUnder Muslims- Religious tolerationIsabella Ends tolerationStarted the Inquisition
Inquisition & Impact
Literature, Learning & Arts
Women and Education
Europeans Acquire New LearningSpread of Learning- Muslims
Science & Math
Medieval LiteratureEpics/Long narratives
Dantes Divine Comedy
Chaucers Canterbury Tales
Architecure & ArtRomanesque
Post-Plague ChurchMany died during the plagueTough spiritual churchLuxury- for Pope in AvignonCaused a schism-1378-1417, ended with new pope from church council
Hundred Years WarEnglish vs. FranceLongbow helped Britain. Joan of Arc rallies FranceFrench have cannonKings expand powerParliament will have more power as well
Ready to ChangeRenaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration