Hausa Language Study(NYSC)

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Hausa Language Study

Text of Hausa Language Study(NYSC)

A Handbook ofLanguage studyfor Corps Members(Hausa)

Copy rightByNYSC DIRECTORATE HEADQUARTERSLAGOSFirst published 1985

All right reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission in writing to the NYSC Directorate Headquarters, Lagos.

FOREWORDThis language text if intended to provide, for corps members. A basic linguistic guide to those languages spoken in the various communities to which corps members are deployed.The ultimate aim is not to give a comprehensive account of these languages, but to give a snapshot of the basic vocabulary and expressions needed by the corps members to integrate functionally into the communities.In furtherance of one of the cardinal objectives of the NYSC and, more pertinently, the need and responsibility to encourage and assist corps members in order to effectively integrate into any cultural setting in Nigeria, texts have been developed in 10 languages. The ability to understand and speak languages other than ones own, especially when one has to live and work in a completely different cultural milieu, has, undoubtedly, proved a great benefit to man. It is expected, therefore, that corps members will utilize these texts to benefit them immensely.While commending these texts to corps members during the service year, it is my hope that they will also encourage the corps members to delve further into these languages and the cultures from which they have grown.

PREFACEThis text is an outcome of a Language Study Workshop, organized by the NYSC Directorate in May 1984, with participants mainly language co-ordinators drawn from all over the federation. The workshop was consequent upon the trial use of our previous language texts.The first language text published by the NYSC Directorate in 1979, titled Handbook of Nigerian Language Hausa Igbo - Yoruba, was written by three corps members Mr. O. B. C Nwolise, Mrs. G. M. Ojo and Dr. Dikko.The expressed aim of the authors of the Handbook is to particularly meet the communication needs of corps members and foreigners who are interested in learning the languages contained therein. This secondary aim loomed quite large in the execution of the project as is evidenced by the wide coverage of linguistic data of the three target context covered in the Handbook is also wider than is really needed by corps members, while the detailed grammatical descriptions of each language goes beyond the scope of the learning requirements of corps members. Experiences gained through states (2 for each target language) confirmed these observation and prompted the need for an abridged version tailored to the realities of the language study programme in the orientation Camp.In response to this expressed need and in order to ensure more fruitful results, a committee was set up at the Directorate Headquarters to review the original text in the light of these experiences and recommendations from the field. The committee in discharging its function, ensured that the selection of content is strictly on the communicative needs of the prospective leaner. Consequently, the extensive grammatical description of the target language in the original Handbook was committed. Anticipating that the learners use of the language will be for oral communication, the spoken forms of the language was presented in the text. Finally, the committee adhered more consistently to the situational approach in the presentation of the language materials, with some illustrative dialogues.The Directorate also decided to print the three language into separate texts with English as the common language to all.What eventually evolved was the abridged version of the original text, which was again committed to trial use in the states during the 1982/83 service year.Experiences of the trial use revealed that the content of the abridged version even though now more suitable to the situational needs of corps members, was rather too brief that the next was just enough to be covered during the orientation course period.Therefore, anticipation that corps members will need to continue learning the language throughout the service year in the text to last the twelve month period, it was decided at the workshop that the content of the language texts be expended to incorporate materials from both original Handbook and abridged version. A committee was then assigned the task of drawing up the course content for the language text, and what you now have is outcome of the committees work.At this juncture, it is essential to acknowledge with thanks the immeasurable contributions of our language co-ordinators in handling the translation of the course content into the various language text. It is also noteworthy to mention that the enormous task was handled free without monetary consideration, thereby making their worthwhile contribution into the progress of the NYSC Scheme.We envisage that this current text will actually meet the dire needs of corps members in the process of learning the local languages of their states of deployment. The consequent understanding of the local language by the corps members would undoubtedly be an invaluable asset and would also help in fostering one of the cardinal objectives of the NYSC which is to imbue in Nigerian youths a spirit of selfless service to the community and to emphasize the spirit of oneness and brotherhood of all Nigerians, irrespective of cultural background.F.N BALOGUN (MRS.) & A.K SOMEFUN (MR.)PLANNING & EVALUATION DIVISIONN.Y.S.C DIRECTORATE HEADQUARTERS, LAGOS.

CONTENTSForwardPrefaceCHAPTER 11.A BRIEF HISTORY OF HAUSA SPEAKING PEOPLE2. Cultural Background3.Dress4.Religion5.Family life6.Housing7.Occupation2 1

CHAPTER 2GREETINGS & INITIAL COMMUNICATIONSECTION A GREETINGS1.Morning2.Afternoon3.Evening4.Night5.Reception6.Farewell7.Greeting the worker8.Greeting the Successful9.Casual Greetings10.Asking about members of the family3 6SECTION B Hausa GREETINGS SITUATION TO BE USED

CHAPTER 3MAKING ENQUIRIES REQUEST & SEEKING INFORMATION7 11

CHAPTER 4CARDINAL NUMERALS ORDIAL NUMERALS 12 16Counting of moneyCounting of things

CHAPTER 5TELLING TIME, DAY & WEEKA.Nouns related to time and periodB.Time in hoursC.Days of the weekD.MonthsE.Years 17 - 18MARKET TRANSACTIONS

CHAPTER 6A.NAMES OF DIFFERENT FOOD ITEMS AND SOUP INGRIDENTS19 - 21B.SellersC.Number and amount to aid pricingD.Interaction in the market and possible Conversation.

CHAPTER 7NAMES OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF TRANSPORT AND NOUNS RELATED TO TRAVELING22 - 231.Possible Conversation when negotiating for taxi2.Informing neighbours about and intended journey3.Finding your way4.Boarding a vehicle5.Cautioning the driver

CHAPTER 8DINNING SITUATION SOME DINNING RELATED NOUNSPossible Conversation asking for foodAsking for waterOther requestSubstitution table to aid practiceAsking for drinksInvitation to dinning24 26

CHAPTER 9EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONSAppeals and warningDisapprovalsWarm words27 - 28 CHAPTER 10SIMPLE SENTENCES ON EVERY DAY EVENTS IDIOMS AND PROVERBS29 30

APPENDIX 1Alphabets 31 36Capital lettersA B CZSmall lettersa b c..z

APPENDIX 11a.Nouns related to human bodyb.Nouns related to the homec.Nouns related to schoolsd.Nouns related to animalse.Nouns related to human relationsf.Nouns related to climate and whether g.Nouns related to religion h.verbs are words that enable us to make assertions personal nouns

CHAPTER 1A BRIEF HISTORY OF HAUSA SPEAKING PEOPLEIt is difficult to narrate the history of Hausa speaking people comprehensively in a short chapter of this nature. However, efforts will be made to only bring to light the salient points that will make and introduce the reader to the background of Hausa language and its speakers.The Hausa speaking can be said to form the majority of the people inhabiting Nigerias most northern states with concentration in Kano, Kaduna and Sokoto States. It must, however, be noted that in common with other people of the Sudan, it is difficult to trace the true origin of the Hausa people, even though many attempts by historians were made to explain through traditions, their origin. Whatever the case, it is certain that at the present location of Kano city, the capital of an Hausa city-state bearing the same name, there existed a flourishing sedentary community by about 635 A.D. This is further confirmed by the presence of an iron working furnace from that communitys civilization. Be that as it may, most traditions have ascribed the origin of the Hausa states to the marriage of an old legendary hero, a certain Bayajidda Prince of Baghdad, to certain pre-historic Queen of Daura and their offsprings are said to have founded the authentic seven Hausa states (Hausa Bakwai).Going by the various traditions especially of the above legend, the founders of the seven Hausa states were all direct desendants of Bayajidda. Biram, the son of Bayajidda by a certain princess of Borno is said to have founded a ruling dynasty; while Bawo, the son from the cohabitation of Bayajidda and the famous Queen of Daura, is said to have resulted into fathering the founders of the remaining dynasties. By all means, our source of information on the origin of the said city states is limited as history can only talk much on few of the city states namely:- Gobin, Daura, Zazzau or Zaria, Kastina and Kano.It is interesting to note that besides the legend pertaining to the original authentic Hausa Bakwai, there is another tradition that tries to explain the origin of the so called un-authentic seven Hausa states or popularly known as Banza Bakwai namely:- Zamfar