Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation || Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Vulnerable Coastal Communities of India

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Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Vulnerable CoastalCommunities of IndiaChinmai Hemani*Climate Change Consultant, Ahmedabad, IndiaAbstractIn the context of developing countries, climate change and variability poses a serious threat to thecoastal rural communities due to their poor adaptive capacities, weak implementation of develop-mental activities, and lack of technological solutions needed to address this challenge. In order toaddress the current vulnerabilities of these coastal communities where development initiatives areitself lacking, adaptation measures will play a crucial role in streamlining and collaborating withdevelopment initiatives. Literature review in Indian context suggests that there are no estimatesavailable of impact of climate change on coastal agriculture and fisheries and therefore on agricul-tural, pastoral, and fishing communities. This research addresses the aforementioned research gapwith a case study from Western India focusing on livelihood security and human well-being whileintegrating development plans to climate change adaptation. Based on vulnerabilities identified forthe study areas, adaptation plan consisting of goals with several measures were created which werelinked to existing national development schemes along with their co-benefits and barriers toimplementation. Development choices made today will influence the adaptive capacity of peoplein the future. Thus, there is an urgent need to undertake development activities and decision makingwith climate lens, and this research will be the first step in the process.KeywordsMainstreaming climate change adaptation; Adaptation plan and options; National and state devel-opment plans; Millennium development goalsIntroductionFirst time in the human history, a record was set when global concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2)measured at Mauna Lao lab crossed 400 parts per million (ppm) in May 2013 (National Geographic2013). The rise in CO2 levels is a result of an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions(GHG) leading to increase in the global mean temperature. Climate change projections for 2100suggest a best estimate of global average surface temperature to rise by 4 C (IPCC 2007). A 4 C risecould be potentially devastating leading to inundation of coastal areas, increased intensity of tropicalcyclones; unprecedented heat waves, exacerbated water scarcity; increasing risks for food produc-tion potentially leading to higher malnutrition rates; and irreversible loss of biodiversity (The WorldBank 2012). Even if efforts are made to cap and mitigate the GHGs today, air and sea temperatures*Email: chinmayhemani@gmail.comHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 1 of 33will continue to rise as a result of past emissions. Thus, mitigation efforts alone will not work;adaptation is also needed in order to tackle increasing impact of climate change.Surrounded by Himalayas, with a coastline of 7,500 km and 70 million hectares of forest, India isone among 17 mega biodiverse countries in the world which is exposed to climate change onmultiple grounds. No country in the world is as vulnerable on so many dimensions to climate changeas India (INCCA 2010). Disasters caused due to increasing extreme events like the recentUttarakhand floods in June 2013 left thousands dead while severely damaging the infrastructureillustrate super imposing effect of an extreme weather event accompanied by poor mitigation,adaptation, and disaster management practices. Depending on the level of preparation by localand national institutions to manage the hazard, an extreme event can turn into a disaster; thus,socioeconomic systems play a vital role in regulating climate change impacts.India has nine densely populated coastal states comprising of 20 % of the entire population(INCCA 2010) with livelihood dependence on agriculture, fisheries, mining, petrochemical andother industries, ports, and various tourism centers. Increasing population and subsequent land usechanges have led to environment degradation, biodiversity, and freshwater stresses which wouldincrease many folds due to climate change.Literature review in Indian context suggests that there are no estimates available of impact ofclimate change on coastal agriculture and fisheries and therefore on agricultural, pastoral, and fishingcommunities which are expected to be significant (Revi 2008).This study attempts to address research gap mentioned above by studying vulnerabilities ofcoastal rural communities while addressing following research question:Table 1 Research area and support tools usedType oftool usedCurrentclimateanalysisInformation onfuture climatechange scenariosused for futurevulnerabilityClimatechange sectorimpactsAnalysisofadaptationoptionsLinkingadaptation optionsto existingdevelopmentplans and policiesStakeholderanalysis ofoptionsEconomicanalysis ofoptionsPrimarysurveys Partially ashere focus ison livelihoodand well-being x xFocusedGroupDiscussion(FGD)KeyinformantinterviewsClimatedataanalysisSecondarystudiesMulti-criteriaanalysis(MCA)Note: indicates task considered, x indicates task not considered for this researchHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 2 of 33 What national and state development plans and policies are appropriate for more adaptationfriendly path in order to overcome the current vulnerabilities and whether they need to beleveraged to address future climate change?In spite of planned development path, the development challenges in India are quite high with29.8 % of population still living below poverty line (BPL) (Planning Commission of India 2012).With weak implementation of planned development, India is yet to curb the inequitable share ofresources. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these inequalities in turn increasing their vulner-ability, but if development goals are systematically considered and implemented by linking themwith adaptation options, enormous cost reductions can be achieved while trying to address devel-opment and climate change challenges.The complete research comprised of three stages: (1) identifying the problem (vulnerabilities),(2) exploring applicability of existing development policies and evolve inclusive adaptation options,and (3) reducing vulnerability by choosing adaptation options.Support tools used for methodology to derive climate change adaptation options for this researchare depicted in Table 1.The Need to Rethink Our Current ApproachHumans over their evolution have been coping and adapting ex post to climatic variations. A newapproach suggests adaptation measures ex ante by incorporating future climate risk into policymaking. Integrating adaptation into development projects is an iterative process of incorporatingconsiderations of climate change into policy making, budgeting, implementation, and monitoringprocesses at national, sectoral, and subnational levels which entails working with a range ofgovernment and nongovernmental actors (UNDP-UNEP 2011). Figure 1 depicts comparison ofbusiness as usual development approach to an integrated approach which addresses developmentand climate change adaptation issues.- Projected developmentDevelopmentBusinessas usualIntegrated approachClimate information Climate ChangeAdaptation (CCA)- Use of Scientific information on climate variability and past disasters- Mainly climate impact /Sectoral focus- Mainly Technological solution implemented- CCA mainstreamed with development- Future climate risks considered- All stakeholders involved- Soft measures as well as technological solutions- Local/community knowledge climate information considered- Empowerment of vulnerable house holds- Bottom up approach and community driven majorly- Flexible planning- Strong institutional mechanism in place- Long term focus- Use of Scientific information on climate variability, past disasters and future regional climate projections- Precedence of climate information over Local information- Top down approach- Inflexible planning- Short term focus- Poor people participationFig. 1 Integrated approach for climate change adaptation (Source: Adapted from Faulkner ( 2012))Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 3 of 33For developing countries, where there is lack of basic infrastructure especially in the rural areas,increasing evidences of climate change impacts will increase the adaptation deficit unless adaptationprogram is incorporated into development initiatives. Such development projects would help buildreadiness in times of crises in context of proper shelter; food, water, and agriculture security; andlivestock protection to the target population so as to ensure increased adaptive capacity and reducedimpacts of climate hazards. Without focus on adaptation, climate change impacts would erodedevelopment gains and deepen the development divide between geographical regions (developedand developing) and sections of society which are marginalized, poor.In order to reduce vulnerability, efforts need to be made in the direction of good policies atnational and state level to be relayed into local-level action facilitated by the local actor (CAREInternational, July 2010). Figure 2 suggests a joint effort of public civic and private institutionsfor implementation and governance of adaptation measures needed to facilitate adaptation efforts.For India to achieve its National Development Goals and the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs), development with climate change lens incorporating adaptation measures is a must.Case StudiesJamnagar district1 lies between 21 470 and 22 570 north latitude and 68 570 and 70 370 westlongitude in the state of Gujarat. It has a coastline of 355 km which accounts to 20 % of Gujaratscoastline with 3 coastal talukas.2 Due to the presence of wetlands and bird sanctuary of Khijadiya,StateGoverningintegratedadaptation anddevelpomentprojectsLocal stakeholdersPrivate-Social Partnerships likepolluting industries asked forpayment for ecosystem services, orprojects like bio shields, treeplantation etc. involving funding andmanagement from private playerswhile local stakeholders are involvedin the implementationPrivate players(Companies,NGO etc)Co-management ofNatural Resources;conservation ofwetlands, ponds,maintenance of roadsetc.Public-Private Partnershipslike concessions to theprivate players to bring inlow carbon projects likebiogas, solar energyinitiatives etc.Fig. 2 Institutional arrangement for integrated adaptation action (Source: Adapted from Wreford et al. (2010))1District: administrative division within a state managed by local government2Taluka: a smaller administrative division within districtHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 4 of 33Table 2 Village demographicsParameter CriteriaVillagesRasulnagar Khijadiya Khara Beraja DhinchadaSocioDemographicdata : 2001Census*Population 1364# 2,560 537 2,790Area inhectareNotavailable1,076 846 1,235Un-irrigatedarea inhectareNotapplicable409 379 560Physical Distance fromcoast (km)1 5 3 3Distance fromthe city (km)20 12 9 6InfrastructurepresencePiped water No (only6 handpumps forwaterneeds)Yes (but salt pan workerscolony does not havewater access)Yes YesIrrigation andwater storageNo Yes (irrigation canal,water tank, check dams,farm ponds, ongoingconstruction of canal forsalinity ingress prevention)Bore well as wellas hand pumps,water tankWater tank and borePrimaryschoolYes Yes Yes YesPresence ofprimaryhealthcarecenterNo Yes No NoPrivate/publictransportationPrivate Majorly private (onlyone public bus comesthroughout the day)Private PrivateSocial DominantclassaMuslim Hindu Patel Hindu Harijanand BharwadHindu SatwaraMajoroccupationFishermen Agriculture, farm labor andcattle rearing, presence ofsalt pansMajority labor,some farmingAgriculture, cattlerearing, laborers andfarm laborer, brass partsworksEnvironment Presence ofwetlandsNo Yes No NoRemarks Declared bird sanctuary170 migratory birds15 globally rare andthreatened (CCF 2012).Existing salt pan workerscolony is in low-lying areaand lacks basicinfrastructureVillage is in proximity toJamnagar city; in futurethe village is likely to bemerged with theexpanding cityaDominant class: small group of people of particular caste, with most political power* Info. from data collected by Village head in 2011Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 5 of 33corals and Marine National Park (MNP) make Jamnagar taluka environmentally significant. Indus-trially, it has petrochemical special economic zones (SEZ) and many salt pan units; major brass partworks along with two ports and two fishing centers. Socially also due to the presence of highestmarginalized population with respect to other talukas in the district according to Census of India 2001,Jamnagar taluka was chosen for study. Four out of twelve coastal villages falling within 05 km fromcoast were chosen to understand the vulnerability of the coastal rural communities. They are unique inselection and are a representation of a class of such villages which have fishing/agriculture/mining orecosystem dominance. Village demographics is presented in Table 2 and Fig. 3.In order to understand the current vulnerabilities of these villages to climate change, various questionswere sought under vulnerability assessment, viz., what were the major impacts of past disasters, whichgroup of population is most vulnerable to these disasters andwhy?What is the adaptive capacity of thesevillages and what measures needs to be developed such that adaptive capacity helps in reducingvulnerability and thus adapt to the changing climate, what barriers are there to the implementation ofthese measures? Reducing vulnerability thus becomes basis of adapting against climate change.Next section briefly explains how vulnerability assessment was done for the study villages.Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Framework UsedThree factors, viz., extent of exposure to climate change, vulnerability of the region/community toclimate change, and adaptation measures carried out, will define how regions and sectors will beimpacted by future climate change (IPCC 2001).Vulnerability assessment involves analysis of current exposure to climate shocks and stresses andmodel-based analysis of future climate impacts on basis of which adaptation strategies can be made.There are many conceptual frameworks to conduct vulnerability assessment, but many focus on anyone stressor like drought, earthquakes, or tsunamis; multi-stressor vulnerability assessments whilemore difficult are slowly emerging (Adger et al. 2007). A thorough vulnerability assessment can becomplex and intensively dependent on data.Data and MethodsA vulnerability assessment framework as suggested by Hemani (2013) is a bottom-up approachwhich focuses on temporal reference as current, with vulnerable system as coastal villages, and thevalued attribute as livelihood security and human well-being. It suggests how regional downscaledclimate data can be integrated with the social vulnerability assessment and environment vulnerabil-ity to make overall vulnerability of the study region.India Gujarat State Jamnagar DistrictJamnagarCityJamnagar Talukaand study villagesRasulnagarKhara BerajaDhinchadaKhijadiyaJamnagar CityFig. 3 Maps showing location of case study villagesHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 6 of 33Climate information is one of the several factors that are needed to be taken into account indecision making. It also requires understanding of how regional scale climate variability leads tolocal manifestations and sectoral consequences.In this study physical vulnerability consisted of scientific analysis of climate data of temperatureand rainfall along with past trends of droughts, storms, and SLR based on secondary data.10-year moving average analysis of 40 years temperature data from 1960 to 2009 of Jamnagarweather station reveals an increase in mean surface temperature by 0.72 C. Numbers of heat waveshave increased and the winter has shortened. While future temperature projections for 30-yearperiod between 2070 and 2100 were analyzed by Taru (2010), using downscaled regional model(PRECIS) (developed by Hadley Research Center in collaboration with Indian Institute of TropicalMeteorology) for Emission scenarios A2 and B2 suggests that average annual minimum temperaturemay increase by 3.7 C and 2.7 C as per the A2 and B2 scenario, respectively. Increasing trend oftemperature and future projections indicate a high level of vulnerability.For rainfall, 30-year moving average analysis for Jamnagar weather station from 1901 to 2011 formonsoon months (June to August) suggests that there is a steady increase of 0.66 cm per year in therainfall over the 11 decades on an average. While future climate change projections for rainfall studydone by Taru (2010) suggest that there would bemoderate increase in rainfall, increase in number of dryspells with increase in extreme precipitation single-day events exceeding 100 mm reaching 14 each inA2 and B2 scenario between 2070 and 2100 for Jamnagar district. Decreasing number of wet days andTable 3 Social vulnerability indicatorsMajor component IndicatorsSociodemographic Dependency ratio, sex ratio (inverse), % of household (HH) where head of theHH has not attended the schoolEconomic well-being % of HH that borrow money, % of HH that live in semipermanent house, % ofHH without vehicle, % of HH below poverty line, % of HH having at least onevehicle (inverse), access to information services (telephone connections wireless,wireline, TV, radio) (inverse)Livelihood % of HH with family member working in different community, % of HH intoagriculture/fishing, average agriculture/fishing livelihood diversification indexHealth Average time to health facility, % of HH with family member with chronicillness, % of HH with no sanitation facilityFood % of HH dependent on family farm for food, average months the HH storefood, % of HH that do not save seeds from each harvest, average crop diversityindexWater % of HH reporting water conflict, % of HH that utilize natural water source,average time to water source, % of HH that do not have consistent water supply,average number of liters of water storageNatural resource dependence for fuelwood needs% of HH dependent on natural resources for fuel woodInstitutional stability and strength ofpublic infrastructurePresence of unmetaled road, % of HH that travel out for medical treatmentBiophysical Distance from coast/river/reclamation bund, distance from the major city,un-irrigated area, salinity intrusion, presence of wetlandNatural disasters and climaticvariabilityAverage no. of floods/droughts/cyclones events faced in the past, % of HH thatdid not receive warning about pending natural disaster, % of HH that reporteddeath or injury of family member of past natural disasters, mean maximum andminimum monthly average deviation temperature by year, and averagedeviation of monthly rainfall of rainy seasonSource: Hemani (2013)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 7 of 33increasing rainfall trends and future projections indicate high level of vulnerability. A detailed analysiscovered by Hemani (2013) categorizes level of physical vulnerability into high, medium, and low forvarious climate variables like temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, cyclones, and storm surges based onthe past trends and the future climate projections by Taru (2010).Environment vulnerability of villages was made based on the presence of biodiversity, the charac-teristics of geology of that area, and availability and quality of water sources. A detailed analysiscovered by Hemani (2013) categorizes environment vulnerability into high, medium, and low leveldepending on the deviation of the indicator value from the designated standards which were obtainedfrom secondary data sources available at Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC), MNP, etc.Social vulnerability assessment used primary data obtained through different tools like FGD,transect walks, personal interviews, and key informant interviews. LVI-IPCC (Livelihood Vulner-ability index) Indexing method as suggested by (Hahn et al. 2009) was found most appropriate andwas applied for the assessment. Indicators chosen were based on extensive literature review andwere categorized according to IPCC definition of vulnerability into those that define exposure,sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. While some indicators were based on Hahn et al. (2009), Mohanand Sinha (2011), and Vincent (2004), others were created due to necessity based on the fieldobservations. Most of the indicator values were derived from the field surveys while values for somewere derived from secondary sources. Table 3 suggests the list of indicators and major componentsused for the social vulnerability assessment.The outcome of the assessment is depicted in Figs. 4 and 5. Figure 4 suggests villages performanceon each of the major components mentioned in Table 3. Vulnerability of each village ranged from1to +1 where 1 indicated least vulnerable and +1 indicated most vulnerable. Figure 5 suggestsRasulnagar being the most vulnerable and Dhinchada being least vulnerable of the four study villages.Social vulnerability assessment helped ascertain the dimensions of current vulnerability and theunderlying causes for the same. It also led to understanding as to how does community cope andadapt to it currently, who are the stakeholders.An overall vulnerability profile for each village was made by combining physical, environment,and social vulnerability as depicted in Figs. 5 and 6 through, e.g., of Rasulnagar village (Fig. 7).A full analysis and the corresponding charts of vulnerability are covered by Hemani (2013).natural disasters andclimate variabilitynatural resourcedependenceBio-physicalwaterfoodhealthlivelihoodinstitutional stabilityeconomic well beingSocio demographic1.201.000.600.400.200.000.80Rasulnagar SVIKharaBeraja SVIKhijadiya SVIDhinchada SVIFig. 4 Highlighting major component issues of study villages (Source: Hemani (2013)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 8 of 33Main Findings from Vulnerability AssessmentBased on the overall vulnerability of all the study villages, the concerns of the fishing and nonfishingvillages are consolidated and summarized in Table 4 below:While the findings of the assessment suggests, it is the poor who are disproportionately affected,few crosscutting issues which add to the vulnerability across all strata and across all the studyvillages were categorized into following on basis of which adaptation goals were created:Institutional barriers consisting of lack of: Institution setup like primary healthcare centers, banking facilities/credit societies Infrastructure like metaled roads, piped and dependable water supply, drainage network, con-veyance facilities, and sanitation facilities Solid waste management Communication facilities like that of weather forecast systemsFinancial barriers: Lack of fundingTechnical barriers consisting of lack of: Education level and hence lack of alternative livelihoods Awareness on climate change and its impactsSocial and cultural barriers consisting of lack of: Women empowerment People ownership Villagers willingness to learn, change bad fishing and agricultural practices Alternate to dependence on biomass for fuel wood needsTotal Adaptive capacity(Inverse)KhijadiyaDhinchadaKhara BerajaRasulnagarTotal SensitivityTotal Exposure1.000.800.600.400.200.00Fig. 5 Vulnerability of study villages (Source: Hemani (2013))Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 9 of 33Destruction ofhouse/publicworksPhysicalLoss of land(Agricultureor for otheranthropogenicuse)Village: RasulnagarTemperature Variability/Rainfall variability(increase in heat waveswet spells, dry spells etc)DroughtFloodsCycloneStorm surgeSea Level RiseSaline water intrusionLack of institutional setup(PHC, Banking/Creditsocities, education set up)Lack of infrastructure(metaled road, lack ofpublic transport etcNon-ClimatechangeissueHighMediumLowNo ImpactNotApplicableClimatechangePhenomenaLoss offishinggroundBiodiversityloss(Mangrove,Coral, otherspecialspecies,)WaterqualityGroundwaterbalanceGeologySocialissuesDeterioriation oflivelihoodsLoss ofhumanlife andhealthTourismSocialEnvironmentalLevel of Current VulnerabilityFig.6Currentvulnerability(Source:Hemani(2013))Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 10 of 33Destruction ofhouse/publicworksPhysicalLoss of landVillage: RasulnagarTemperature Variability/Rainfall variability(increase in heat waveswet spells, dry spells etc)DroughtFloodsCycloneStorm surgeSea Level RiseSaline water intrusionLack of institutional setup(PHC, bamking/Creditsocities, education set up)Lack of infrastructure(metaled road, lack ofpublic transport etcNon-ClimatechangeissueHighMediumLowNo ImpactNotApplicableClimatechangephenomenaLoss offishinggroundBiodiversityloss(Mangrove,Coral, otherspecialspecies,)WaterqualityGroundwaterbalanceGeologySocialissuesDeterioriation oflivelihoodsLoss ofhumanlife andhealthTourismSocialEnvironmentalLevel of Future VulnerabilityDestruction ofhouse/publicworksPhysicalLoss of landVillage: RasulnagarTemperature Variability/Rainfall variability(increase in heat waveswet spells, dry spells etc)DroughtFloodsCycloneStorm surgeSea Level RiseSaline water intrusionLack of institutional setup(PHC, Banking/Creditsocities, education set up)Lack of infrastructure(metaled road, lack ofpublic transport etcNon-ClimatechangeissueHighMediumLowNo ImpactClimatechangephenomenaLoss offishinggroundBiodiversityloss(Mangrove,Coral, otherspecialspecies,)WaterqualityGroundwaterbalanceGeologySocialissuesDeterioriation oflivelihoodsLoss ofhumanlife andhealthTourismSocialEnvironmentalLevel of Future VulnerabilityFig.7Futurevulnerability(Source:Hemani(2013))Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 11 of 33Such vulnerability assessment provides a base for identifying areas of concern and points ofintervention by estimating the likelihood of future climate change and its impacts along with thesocioeconomic and environment conditions in future. Current climate variability always becomesstarting point of adaptation at the local level.To address each area of concern, adaptation plan consisting of goals with various adaptationoptions for each goal with time frames, barriers in achieving these measures, co-benefits, and keystakeholders were created.Thus, six adaptation goals which would increase livelihood security and human well-being were:1. Creating public awareness about climate change, disaster prevention response: helps in capacitybuildingTable 4 Vulnerability assessment findingsAspect ofvulnerability Impacts Agricultural/mining village concerns Fishing village concernsPhysical Loss of land Future climate event concerns leading to loss of land due to floods, SLR, etc.Destruction ofhouse andpublic worksLack of proper infrastructure, lack of adaptive capacityLoss of fishinggroundClimatic concerns, wrong fishingpractices, chemical industrypresence, leading to loss oflivelihoodEnvironmental Loss ofbiodiversity/wetlandLack of awareness of the importance of biodiversity, climate change leading to loss ofbiodiversityChange inwater qualityOver extraction practices leading to salinityingress, future climate change concernLack of proper infrastructure forfreshwater resourcesChange inground waterbalanceOver extraction practices and minimal groundwater recharge, future climate change concernChange ingeologyFuture SLR, salinity intrusion in agriculturedriven villages, mining basalt trap rocks inmining villages will change the geology andmake them more vulnerableSLR will lead to inundationSocial Increase insocial issuesLack of education and women empowerment, inequalityDeteriorationof livelihoodsLoss of land due to salinity ingress leading todeterioration of livelihood, alternate source oflivelihood neededPresence of chemical industry, portactivities affecting fishing, andhence deterioration of livelihood.Future climatic changesLoss of humanlife and healthLack of medical facilities, lack emergency warning systemsLoss of tourism Lack of awareness of value of wetlands, birds,and other important species at KhijadiyasanctuaryLack of awareness of corals, seagrasses, dugongs, and otherimportant species at MNPSource: Hemani (2013)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 12 of 332. Provide safe and consistent drinking water and water for other (domestic, agriculture) needs:helps in adapting against decreased water availability3. Provide diversified livelihoods and aid in livelihood sustenance: helps in improvement oflivelihoods4. Improvement of built environment: helps in strengthening and building infrastructure5. Human safety and enhanced human safety: helps in adapting against health impediments6. Functioning of healthy coastal ecosystem: helps cater to enhancing and conserving of coastalecosystemSince current vulnerability is majorly due to lack of development, it would be implementation ofdevelopment plans which by default become the entry points for mainstreaming climate changeadaptation. Next section brings an understanding of the mechanisms of governmental, institutional,and political efforts which can be contextualized and leveraged to define pro-poor adaptationoutcomes while addressing developmental goals.Lowering Vulnerability Through Linking of Development Initiatives toClimate Change ApproachIn order to curb impacts of global climate change, effort needs to be made from global to local levelas shown in Fig. 8. It also shows link between global, national, and state development goals withglobal, National, and State Action Plans for Climate Change (NAPCC and SAPCC).Climate change Policies,plans, frameworks and Mana-gement Global - LocalClimate change AspectsGlobal-LocalGlobal climate change-Sea level rise (SLR)National level SLR,increasing extremeevents,NAPCC, various Developmentplans, water shedmanagement, disastermanagement plans etcSAPCC, various state leveldevelopment plansLocal level impacts of SLRand increasing extremeeventsUNFCCC, UNEP, otherinternational agenciesmeasures like Kyoto protocol,Montreal protocol, MDG etcFig. 8 Institutional arrangement for addressing climate change global to localHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 13 of 33To address the research question with the purpose of mainstreaming climate change, six adapta-tion goals identified for the study area were linked to four MDG and various development goals atnational and state level to address their current vulnerabilities (Table 5).To execute this step, against each adaptation goal, relevant national and state development schemewere judged for its applicability to cater to current vulnerability, its relevance to adaptation efforts,and whether there is a need to enhance that scheme to cater to future climate vulnerability. Table 6shows link between existing development plans to climate change adaptation.Table 5 Linking MDG to development goalsMillenniumdevelopment goalsVarious development plansnational levelVarious developmentplans state levelLinked to which adaptation goals ofthis studyMDG 1: Eradicateextreme poverty andhunger Mahatma Gandhi NationalRural EmploymentGuarantee Act(MGNREGA) National rural livelihoodmission Indira housing schemeSardar Patel housingschemeGoal 3. Provide diversified livelihoodsand aid in livelihood sustenanceMDG 2: Achievinguniversal education Universal ElementaryEducation (UEE) Mid-day meal schemeGoal 3: Provide diversified livelihoodsand aid in livelihood sustenanceMDG 3: Promotegender equality andempower women Targeted provision for girlsunder UEE Kasturba Gandhi BalikaVidyalaya (resident girlchild school) scheme Balika Samriddhi scheme(girl child developmentscheme)Women self-help group(SHG) schemeGoal 3: Provide diversified livelihoodsand aid in livelihood sustenanceMDG 7: Ensuringenvironmentsustainability National Rural DrinkingWater Program (NRDWP) Green India mission underNAPCC Total Sanitation Campaign(TSC) Nirmal Gram Puraskar toboost TSC (award forvillage leading TSC) IWMP (integrated watermanagement) program ICZMP (Integrated CoastalZone ManagementProgram) National Solar Missionunder NAPCC Social forestry Prime minister village roadscheme SIPC (salinity ingressprevention cell)MGNREGA Gokul gram scheme(village developmentscheme) Nirmal Gujaratscheme (clean andhealthy villagescheme) Panchavati scheme(Village Greeningscheme) Jamin Sampadanischeme (villagedevelopment scheme) Gram Mitra scheme(friends of villagescheme) Goal 2: Provide safe and consistentdrinking water and water for other(domestic, agriculture) needs Goal 4: Improvement of builtenvironment Goal 5: Human safety and enhancedhuman safetyGoal 6: Functioning of healthy coastalecosystemHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 14 of 33Adaptation StrategyOnce the current concerns were identified, the remaining part of the strategy involved creatingadaptation plan by leveraging development plans to cater to identified issues. The adaptation planwas based on identification and prioritizing of the adaptation options.This stage involves contribution of the stakeholders, keeping in mind the needs of the mostvulnerable groups. Implementation of the identified adaptation measure should be based on theprioritization of the adaptation options. Stakeholder review and prioritization of the options was notdone in this case as this was a part of academic research work, but it is a must for live projects.Identifying Adaptation OptionsIn this research emphasis was on identifying interventions from the existing development plans andpolicies. This step was author initiated, but in live projects, it involves finding feasibility ofimplementation of the measure, evaluation of estimated benefit, and cost from the measure alongwith stakeholder consultation involving government officials, local community groups, and expertsfrom the field. This would also create awareness about the views of different stakeholders, promotedialogue, and create collective interpretation and ownership of suggested modifications. It needs tobe documented.Table 7 consists of list of adaptation options. Under each adaptation goals, various adaptationmeasures are listed.Prioritizing and Selecting Adaptation OptionsFor prioritizing adaptation options, various tools like cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectivenessanalysis, expert judgment, multi-criteria analysis can be used. When quantification and valuationof adaptation options is not possible in monetary terms such as the benefits of preserving biodiver-sity, MCA is used for prioritizing options (OECD 2009).This research uses MCA for prioritizing options. Here weightage is given to each of the parameterfrom 0 to 1 depending on flexibility, potential cost, and ease of execution. An overall score of eachaction is obtained through summation of the weightage to each parameter, and the options with thehighest scores are prioritized accordingly where there are multiple competing criteria (UNFCCC2011).Some of the parameters used in this study helped determine the assessment of adaptation optionsfor prioritizing them including: Economy-wide impacts: Many impacts are influenced by global market events in response toclimate change. Hard as opposed to soft adaptation options: Hard including technical/engineering options and softoptions including those dealing with behavior change, policies, and instruments. Ancillary benefits: Along with the reduction of damages caused by current climate variability,they also bring in other ancillary benefits like job creation, net benefits to the economy throughenergy or water efficiency, etc. Public as opposed to private adaptation: It is important to recognize that individuals will respondto future climate variability, and their response will depend on the public actions that are taken. Adaptation-mitigation linkages: Adaptation actions that have consequences for mitigation. Forexample, improving green cover can bring in reduced CO2, reducing heat stress, improvinghealth, as well as improving ground water table.Refer Table 7 for the MCA.Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 15 of 33Table6LinkingnationalandstatedevelopmentgoalstoadaptationgoalsComponent:GoalPolicy/projectPolicybriefNational/statedrivenTargetgroupRelevanceandapplicabilityw.r.tclimatechangeadaptation(CCA)RationalePolicyupdationneededw.r.tCCA?Creatingpublicawarenessaboutclimatechange,disasterpreventionresponseFriendofvillageschemeItappointsindividualsinthevillagewhoeducatevillagersonvariousdevelopmentschemes.Eachappointeewoulddealintheareaofagriculture,education,health,development,andhumanwelfare,respectivelyStatedrivenRuralcommunityHighAwarenessisthefirststeptowardschangeYes,keepinginviewfutureclimatechanges,appointedstaffcanbetrainedtotrainthevillagerstoincreasetheawarenessandneedofcommunityandindividual-levelparticipationtoincreasetheiradaptivecapacityWater:providesafeandconsistentdrinkingwaterandwaterforother(domestic,agriculture)needsNationalruraldrinkingwaterprogramAimstoprovideeveryruralpersonwithadequatesafewaterfordrinking,cooking,andotherdomesticbasicneedsonasustainablebasisCenterdriven,partialfunding,stateintopartialfundingandimplementationRuralcommunityHighToensurethe40l/capita/daywaterforruralpopulationneedseveninthefaceofclimatevariabilityandmakeprovisionforalternatesourceofpotablewaterYes,toensurethefulfillmentofsustainedwaterneedsinfaceofclimatechangeandvariabilityIntegratedwatershedmanagementprogramAimstorestoreecologicalbalancebyharnessing,conserving,anddevelopingdegradednaturalresourcessuchassoil,vegetativecover,andwaterCenterdrivenandfunded,stateimplementationAllcommunityHighClimatevariabilityisaffectingthedrought-proneareaswithreducedforestcover,reducingwatertable,andashortageofdrinkingwater,fuel,andfodderIWMPcaterstotheseneedsYes,toensuresoilandwaterconservationincaseoffutureclimatechangeHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 16 of 33MGNREGAAimsatenhancingthelivelihoodsecurityofpeopleinruralareasbyguaranteeing100daysofwageemploymentinafinancialyeartoaruralhouseholdwhoseadultmembersvolunteertodounskilledmanualworkCenterdriven,partialfunding,state:partialfundingandimplementationRuralcommunityHighAlongwithlivelihoodsecurity,italsoprovidesenvironmentprotection,henceenhancingadaptivecapacityandreducingvulnerabilityYes,alreadyguidelinesaretheretoconvergeMGNREGAandIWMPprogramandagricultureprogramSalinityingresspreventionandcontrolschemeDuetosalinityingressintheundergroundwater,suggestedconstructionoftidalregulatorsandweirsneartheoceanbank,refillinglakes,refillingreservoirs,checkdams,andspreadingchannel,etc.,neartheinsidelandareacoastalGujaratstateCenterfundedCoastalcommunitiesHighEffortsaresuchthatitpreventssalinityfromspreadingfurtherYes,keepinginviewtheconsequencesoffutureclimatechangeof(SLRandcoastalinundation)Livelihood:providediversifiedlivelihoodsandaidinlivelihoodsustenanceUniversaleducationforallFreeprimaryeducationforchildrenCenterdriven,stateimplementationAllchildrenMediumIncreasingtheeducationlevelmaybringotheropportunitiesofemploymentratherthanjustnaturalresource-dependentemploymentsMGNREGAAsmentionedpreviously(continued)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 17 of 33Table6(continued)Component:GoalPolicy/projectPolicybriefNational/statedrivenTargetgroupRelevanceandapplicabilityw.r.tclimatechangeadaptation(CCA)RationalePolicyupdationneededw.r.tCCA?WomenSHGschemeToenablethepoorwomen,particularlyinruralareasofGujarattoimprovetheiraccesstoresourcesandstrengthenlivelihoodsandqualityoflifeStatedrivenRuralcommunityMediumWomenempowermentcanleadtobetterdecisionmakingandaltersourceofincomeandhenceincreasingadaptivecapacityofthehouseholdNationalrurallivelihoodmissionAimstoreducepovertyamongruralBPLbypromotingdiversifiedandgainfulself-employmentandwageemploymentopportunitieswhichwouldleadtoanappreciableincreaseinincomeonsustainablebasisCenterdriven,stateimplementationRuralBPLHighMaybringotheropportunitiesofemploymentratherthanjustnaturalresource-dependentemploymentsInfrastructureandinstitutionalsetup:improvementofbuiltenvironmentMGNREGAAsmentionedpreviouslyJaminSampadanischemeInordertoincreasestandardofrurallife,structuralfacilities,viz.,drinkingwater,sewerage,streetlightingelectricityinhouseinternalroads,andapproachroads,shouldbeincludedundertheschemeStatedrivenRuralcommunityMediumItprovidesbasicamenities,henceincreasingadaptivecapacityYes,canenhancekeepinginmindclimatelens.SeweragenetworkmustbedevelopedkeepinginmindtheextremerainfallandrunoffHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 18 of 33PrimeministervillageroadsschemeToprovideconnectivity,bywayofanall-weatherroad,totheeligibleunconnectedhabitationsintheruralareaswithapopulationof500personsandaboveinplainareasCenterdriven,partialfunding,stateintopartialfundingandimplementationRuralcommunityMediumInternalvillageroadsaretemporary,whilemainroadisstilltarroadandconnectedtohighwayTotalsanitationcampaignItisacomprehensiveprogramtoensuresanitationfacilitiesinruralareaswithbroadergoaltoeradicatethepracticeofopendefecationCenterdriven,partialfunding,stateintopartialfundingandimplementationRuralcommunityMediumIncreasingfrequencyoffloodsinthefuturewouldincreasewater-bornediseases,reachtopoorcommunitytoiletsorathouseholdremainsGokulGramSchemeForoveralldevelopmentandfulfillingbasicamenitiesofthevillagesStatedrivenRuralcommunityMediumHelpsbuildingtheinfrastructure,reducesvulnerabilityCleanvillage,healthyvillageschemeFinancialassistancegivenforcleanvillageStatedrivenRuralcommunityMediumFloodingofareas,unpickedanduntreatedsolidwasteincreasediseases,affectshealthIndiraGandhihousingscheme/(SardarPatelHousingScheme)ProvidesassistancetoBPLwhoareeitherhouselessorhaveinadequatehousingfacilitiesforconstructingasafeanddurableshelterforenvironmentallysoundhabitatwithadequateprovisionsCenterpolicymakingandpartialfunding,stateintopartialfundingandimplementation/(statefunded)RuralBPLHighPoorandmarginalizedhouseholdsaremorevulnerableastheirhousesaremajorlybuiltontemporarystructuresastheylackmonetarysupportYes,keepinginmindtheextremeevents,locationofthehouses,andconstructionofthehousesshouldberevisedwhichwilldependonthestate-andvillage-specificdevelopmentplansPanchavatischemeAimsatthewelfareofruralpeopletodevelopparksinthevillagewithnecessaryfacilities.TreescanbesuggestedbyvillagersandmayalsobegrowninwastelandnearthevillageStatedrivenRuralcommunityHighIncreaseingreencovercanleadtoco-benefitofmitigationalongwithadaptation.Horticulturetreescanreapmonetarybenefittothecommunityalongwithincreaseinwatertable(continued)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 19 of 33Table6(continued)Component:GoalPolicy/projectPolicybriefNational/statedrivenTargetgroupRelevanceandapplicabilityw.r.tclimatechangeadaptation(CCA)RationalePolicyupdationneededw.r.tCCA?Naturalresourcedependence:functioningofhealthycoastalecosystemSocialforestryAimstotakeoffpressurefromexistingforestsbyplantingtreesonallunusedandfallowland,thushelpinginsocial,ruraldevelopment,andenvironmentprotectionCentralMinistrydrivenAllpopulationHigh-do-NAPCC:SolarmissionPromotesecologicallysustainablegrowthwhileaddressingIndiasenergysecuritychallengebyintroducingsolarrenewableenergyCentralMinistrydrivenAllpopulationHighLeadstoenergy-efficienteconomicdevelopmenthavingco-benefitofadaptationandmitigationIntegratedCoastalZoneManagementProgramPromotes(1)coastalresourceconservationandmanagement,(2)monitoring,(3)socioeconomicdevelopment,(4)geo-spatialmappingforscientificdatabaseCentralMinistrydrivenInitiatedforstatesofGujarat,Orissa,andWestBengallaterforallremaining6coastalstatesHighContributetowardsincreasedunderstandingandacceptanceoftheneedtoprotect,conserve,andregeneratecoastalnaturalresourcesbylocalruralcommunitiesYes,revisionofthehazardmappingandshorelineprotectionmeasureskeepinginviewthefutureextremeeventsHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 20 of 33Table7AdaptationoptionsandMCAMajorcomponentAdaptationoptionsfornotedissuesHard(0.25)/softoption(1)Economywideimpact(changeswithglobal(0.25)/national(0.5)andlocaleconomy/none(1)Public(hard0.25,soft0.5)/private(0.5)/PublicPrivatePartnership(1)Adaptationmitigationlinkages1/0ifnone)Ancillarybenefits(1/0ifnone)Totalscore(outof5RankingoptionsSociodemographicTrainingandraisingpublicawarenessonwhatisclimatechangeandforactiveadaptationtodisastersandclimatechangeimpacts1111151Makingaclimatechangecommitteeandmaintainingaclimatechangeregisterandimpactsonvarioussectorslikehealth,agriculture,biodiversity,etc.,foreachvillage1111151WaterTrainingonclimatechangeandwatervariabilityandtheneedtoconservewaterespeciallytofarmers1111151Trainingforoptimumuseofwater,waterconservationtechniquesdemonstration,andimprovingagriculturalpracticesunderGramMitrascheme1111151Provisionoftapwaterin90:10partnershipwithvillages110.5013.55ExistingongoingSIPCworks0.2510.25113.55Buildingofcommunityrainwaterharvestingtankstostorerainwater0.2511114.253BuildingofconservationpondsandrechargewellsunderMGNREGAscheme0.2511114.253 (continued)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 21 of 33Table7(continued)MajorcomponentAdaptationoptionsfornotedissuesHard(0.25)/softoption(1)Economywideimpact(changeswithglobal(0.25)/national(0.5)andlocaleconomy/none(1)Public(hard0.25,soft0.5)/private(0.5)/PublicPrivatePartnership(1)Adaptationmitigationlinkages1/0ifnone)Ancillarybenefits(1/0ifnone)Totalscore(outof5RankingoptionsLivelihoodsCreationofmicrofinancebankingfacilities0.250.50.5012.259Awarenesscampsforbenefitsofeducation/teachingunderCSR(corporatesocialresponsibility)1111151Trainingforuseofoptimumfertilizers,switchingtoorganicfarming,andgrowingindigenousgrains1111151Shiftingtodroughtresistantvarietyofgrains0.250.50.5113.256Trainingandawarenessamongvillagersonusageofpropernetandaboutfishcatchseason1111151InfrastructureBuildpuccaroadsunderMGNREGA,JaminSampadanischeme,primeministervillageroadscheme0.2511013.256Provisionofbinsforwastesegregation110.5013.55Cleanvillagecompetitionamongvillages110.5013.55Provisionofstormwaterdrainnetwork0.250.50.251137Channelizingstormwatertopondsforrecharging0.250.50.251137BuildingSanitation0.2511013.256Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 22 of 33HealthandcommunicationHealthcamps1110144Privatevisitingdoctors1110144InfrastructuresetupforPHC(canturnouttobelongterm)0.2511013.256Trainingandawarenessamongvillagersoninterpretationandusageofweatherwarningsystems1111151Phase-wiseimplementationofweatherwarningsystems0.2510.25012.58Revisionofemergencyplanwithfloodmaps,emergencymeetpoints,evacuationplansandmaps110.5013.55BiophysicalOverwasteland:underPanchavatischeme,developgardens110.5114.52Communityforestundersocialforestry110.5114.52TreeplantationasapartofCSRdrivebyindustries1111151Harnessingsolarenergyforcookingpurposes110.5114.52Agriculturebasevillageshavepotentialtousebiogasplantforcookingneeds110.5114.52Trainingandawarenessamongvillagersofimportanceofbiodiversity1111151Vigilanceandrecordingofspecieslossifany110.5114.52PlantationactivitybythegreencommitteealreadyinthevillageformedunderICZMP1111151Paymentintermsofenvironmenttaxesforecosystemservicesbytheindustries1111151*Info.fromdatacollectedbyVillageheadin2011Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 23 of 33Table8AdaptationplanMajorcomponentIssuesShort-termmeasure(1to5years)actionplan(20132017)TimeframeStakeholderMedium-termmeasure(5to10years)longterm(10to20years)StakeholderExistingpolicy/programwhichis/canbeusedConstraintsAdditional/co-benefitsAdaptionmeasurecategory(noregret/lowregret/climatejustified)Adaptationgoal(1)creatingpublicawarenessaboutclimatechange,disasterpreventionresponseSociodemographicLackofawarenessonclimatechangeanditsimpacts1.Trainingandraisingpublicawarenessonwhatisclimatechangeandforactiveadaptationtoclimatechangeimpacts2013onwardsoncontinuousbasisNGO,stateclimatechangedepartment,GramPanchayata1.Upkeepoftrainingsharingscientificinformationwrtsectors,statusofissuesNGO,stateclimatechangedepartment,GramPanchayatCanbetargetedunderSAPCC1.Lackoffund1.PublicsupportduringtheexecutionofotheractionsmentionedbelowandhenceeaseofexecutionNoregret2.Makingaclimatechangecommitteeandmaintainingaclimatechangeregisterandimpactsonvarioussectorslikehealth,agriculture,biodiversity,etc.,foreachvillage20132.Discussionandrevisionofactionplana2.Lackofwillingnessandacceptancetolearnfromvillagersside2.Peopleownershipcreatedforworksdone3.LackofqualitystaffandmaterialtotraininvernacularlanguageAdaptationgoal(2)providesafeandconsistentdrinkingwaterandwaterforother(domestic,agriculture)needsWaterWaterqualityandavailability1.Trainingonclimatechangeandwatervariability,theneedtoconservewaterespeciallyforfarmers2013onwardsNGO,stateclimatechangedepartment,GramPanchayatUpkeepoftrainingsharingscientificinformationw.r.tsectors,statusofissuesGramPanchayat,villagersCanbetargetedunderSAPCC1.FundingNoregret2.Willingnesstotakeownershipamongvillagers1.TrainingforwaterconservationtechniquesdemonstrationandimprovingagriculturalpracticesunderGramMitrascheme2013onwardsoncontinuousbasisStategovt.GramPanchayat,NGOlocalpeople1.Maintenanceandupkeepofponds,regulardesilting,repairing,etc.WillingnessbyfarmerstochangepracticesNoregret2.Waterpricingschemes3.CompulsoryuseofdripirrigationincaseofirrigatedlandHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 24 of 33Provisionoftapwaterin90:10partnershipwithvillages20132017WASMO(WaterandSanitationMonitoringOrganization),NGO,villagers,privatecompanyowningland(incaseofKhijadiyasaltpanworkerscolony)UpkeepandmaintenanceofpipedwaterGramPanchayat,villagersoperationsandmaintenancecommitteeNRDWPNoregretExistingongoingSIPworksOngoing2017Narmadawaterresources,watersupply,andKalpsardepartmentIncorporatingclimateresiliencyfeaturesintheSIPCfutureandpendingactivitiesHigh-levelcommitteeforsalinityingressstudySIPCCost,otherlogisticalarrangementforSIPworksBenefittofarmersforirrigationClimatejustified1.Buildingofcommunityrainwaterharvestingtankstostorerainwater20132015NGO,stateclimatechangedepartment,GramPanchayatUpkeepofpondsandrechargewellsGramPanchayat,villagersoperationsandmaintenance(O&M)committeeMGNREGA1.FundingIncreasesthewaterrechargeandavailabilityofwatersourcesNoregret2.BuildingofconservationpondsandrechargewellsunderMGNREGAscheme2.willingnesstotakeownershipamongvillagers3.GramPanchayatswillingnesstotakeactivitiesunderMGNREGAAdaptationgoal(3)providediversifiedlivelihoodsandaidinlivelihoodsustenanceLivelihoodsLackofcreditsocieties(highlevelofinterestratetomiddlemenesp.forRasulnagarvillage)Creationofmicrofinancebankingfacilities20132015BanksWillingnessbybankstosetupsmallunitsLowregretLackofeducationlevelandlackoflivelihood1.Awarenesscampsforbenefitsofeducation2013onwardsStategovernment,NGOIntroductionofvocationalclassesNGOUEE1.WillingnesstolearnamongvillagersImprovedadaptivecapacitywithincreasedlivelihoodoptionsonbeingeducatedNoregret2.TeachingunderCSRactivity2014onwards2.Willingnessamongcompaniestocomeandteach(continued)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 25 of 33Table8(continued)MajorcomponentIssuesShort-termmeasure(1to5years)actionplan(20132017)TimeframeStakeholderMedium-termmeasure(5to10years)longterm(10to20years)StakeholderExistingpolicy/programwhichis/canbeusedConstraintsAdditional/co-benefitsAdaptionmeasurecategory(noregret/lowregret/climatejustified)Lackofgoodagriculturalpractices1.Trainingforuseofoptimumfertilizers,switchingtoorganicfarming,andgrowingindigenousgrainsVariouscampsthroughout20132017Stategovernment,NationalBankforAgricultureandRuralDevelopment(NABARD),agriculturedepartmentNGORemovingsubsidiesonwater,electricity,andfertilizersStategovernmentWillingnessbyfarmerstochangepracticesNoregret/lowregret2.ShiftingtodroughtresistantvarietyofgrainsLackofgoodfishingpracticesTrainingandawarenessamongvillagersontheusageofpropernetandnottocatchfishinthespawningseasonFishersdepartment,NGOWillingnessbyfishermentochangepracticesNoregretAdaptationgoal(4)improvementofbuiltenvironmentInfrastructureandinstitutionalsetupPoorinfrastructureandlackofconveyancetoconnectinghighwayormajorcityBuildmetaledroads20132015GramPanchayat,villagersUpkeepandmaintenanceofroadsunderMGNREGAGramPanchayat,villagersMGNREGA,JaminSampadanischeme,PrimeministervillageroadschemeLackofresources(time,money,manpower)andrurallookoutmaybelowonpriorityReducedhealthhazardsLowregretLackofsolidwastecollectionmanagement1.Provisionofbinsforwastesegregation20132014Stategovt.forfund,GramPanchayat,NGO,localpeopleNirmalGujaratscheme,SwatchchaGramschemeFunding,willingnesstotakeownershipamongvillagersReducedhealthissuesNoregret2.Cleanvillagecompetitionamongruralvillages2014onwardsLackofdrainageandnosewerage1.Provisionofstormwaterdrainnetwork20132017GWSSB(GroundWaterSupplyandSewerageBoard),GramPanchayatlocalvillagers1.ProvisionofseweragenetworkGWSSB,GramPanchayatlocalvillagersO&McommitteeFundinglackonpriorityforrurallookoutLowregret /climatejustified2.Channelizingstormwatertopondsforrecharging2.Treatingtheseweragewastebeforereleasingtoriverorsea3.UpkeepofthestormwaterdrainsLackofsanitationfacilitiesBuildingsanitationfacilitiesOngoing2017GramPanchayat,NGO,CSRfunding,MNPTSC,NirmalGujaratschemeLowregretHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 26 of 33Adaptationgoal(5)humansafetyandenhancedhumansafetyHealthandcommunicationLackofPHC1.Healthcamps2013onwardsStategovernmentFunding,lackonpriorityforrurallookoutLowregret2.Privatevisitingdoctors3.InfrastructuresetupforPHC(canturnouttobelongterm)20132017LackofweatherwarningsystemTrainingandawarenessamongvillagersoninterpretationandusageofweatherwarningsystems2017IndianMeteorologyDepartment(IMD),NGOUpgradethewarningsystem,upkeepofsystemIMD,localcontractFundinglackonpriorityforrurallookoutDuetoincreasedpreparednessreducedlosstolifeandmonetarylossClimatejustifiedPhase-wiseimplementationofweatherwarningsystemsLackofemergencyplanningRevisionofemergencyplanwithfloodmaps,emergencymeetpoints,evacuationplansandmaps20132017GujaratStateDisasterManagementAgency(GSDMA)EvacuationmapsandplansalternateroutetoconnectthisvillagewithhighwayasofnowthereisonlyonewaytoreachthevillageClimatechangedepartment,GSDMALackofresources(time,money,manpower)andrurallookoutmaybelowonpriorityClimatejustifiedAdaptationgoal(6)functioningofhealthycoastalecosystemNaturalresourcesdependenceLackofgreencoverOverwasteland201320161.GramPanchayat,statedept.MaintenanceandupkeepofplantedtreesGramPanchayatPanchavatischemesocialforestry,MNREGAUpkeepofparks(managingCPR)Reducestormwaterrunoff,increaseinwatertable,increaseincohesionamongcommunity,improvequalityoflifeNoregret1.UnderPanchavatischeme,developgardens2.GramPanchayatandForestdepartment2.Communityforestundersocialforestry(localspeciesoftreestobechosen,horticulturetreesforsocialforestrycanprovidemonetarybenefitsalso)3.PrivatecompaniesfallingundercompaniesbillforCSRmandate3.TreeplantationasapartofCSRdrivebyindustriesDependenceonbiomassforfuelneed1.Harnessingsolarenergyforcookingpurposes20132017GujaratEnergyDevelopmentAgency(GEDA),GramPanchayat,localvillagersHarnessingwindandtidalenergytogenerateelectricity,earncarboncredits,incomefromitcanbeusedtoenhancefacilitiesofthevillageNationalSolarMissionunderNAPCCFunding,acceptanceofnewtechnologyIncreasedalternatesourceofincomeforthevillage,reducedGHGemissionsLowregret2.Villageswithagriculture(exceptRasulnagar/fishermenvillages)haspotentialtousebiogasplantforcookingneeds(carboncreditsearnedcanbeusedto(continued)Handbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 27 of 33Table8(continued)MajorcomponentIssuesShort-termmeasure(1to5years)actionplan(20132017)TimeframeStakeholderMedium-termmeasure(5to10years)longterm(10to20years)StakeholderExistingpolicy/programwhichis/canbeusedConstraintsAdditional/co-benefitsAdaptionmeasurecategory(noregret/lowregret/climatejustified)enhancethefacilitiesofthevillages)BiophysicalLossofbiodiversitymangroves,corals,seagrass,dugong,etc.1.Trainingandawarenessamongvillagersofimportanceofbiodiversity2013onwardsGECMNP,pollutingindustriesalongthecoast,localgreencommitteeUpkeepandmaintenanceofbiodiversity,strongvigilanceofpollutingindustriesVillagerscommittee,GPCB(GujaratPollutionControlBoard)ICZMPVigilanceonpollutingindustries,noncorruptofficialsNoregret2.Vigilanceandrecordingofspecieslossifany3.PlantationactivitybythegreencommitteealreadyinthevillageformedunderICZMP4.Paymentintermsofenvironmenttaxesforecosystemservicesbytheindustries2014onwardsVillagespecificRasulnagarLivelihoodNofishlandingcenterProvidingfishinglandingcenter20132016GramPanchayat,villagers,fisheriesdepartmentUpkeepandmaintenanceofthefishlandingcenterGramPanchayat,villagersFunding,lowpriorityLowregretSociodemographicLackofwomenempowermentandinvolvementinalternatelivelihoodsAwarenesscampsforwomenempowerment,womenSHGformationskillstrainingprogram20132014NGO,GramPanchayatWillingnesstoacceptideaofwomenempowermentAlternatesourcesoflivelihoodNoregretNaturaldisasterandclimatevariabilityImpactduetostormsurgesCreatingsandbunds,creatinglivingshorelines20132015GramPanchayat,villagers,GSDMACreatingsurgeprotectionwallsGSDMANoregretclimatejustifiedHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 28 of 33VillagespecificKhijadiyaBiophysicalImpactoncoastalwetland1.Involvementofvillagersintheupkeepofthewetlands20132017MNP,villagersMaintenanceofwetlandandmaintenanceoftheleveloffreshwatersuitableforthemigratorybirdsMNP,localvillagersICZMP,MGNREGALackofvillagersknowledgeleadingtomalpracticesAlternatesourceoflivelihoodNoregret2.CoastalwetlandprotectionandrestorationDevelopmentofcommonpastorallandInvolvementofvillagersinthedevelopingofpastorallandforcattlefodder20132017GramPanchayat,villagersMaintenanceofpastorallandGramPanchayat,villagersWillingnesstotakeownershipamongvillagersInfrastructurePoorhousinginfrastructureforsaltpanworkerswhichalsoalow-lyingareafloodedeveryyearSaltpanworkerscompanytoprovidecyclone,flood-resistanthousing20132017SaltpancompanyIndirahousingscheme,SardarPatelhousingscheme,CompanyunwillingtospendextramoneyontherequiredchangesClimatejustifiedVillagespecificKharaBerajaInfrastructurePoorhousinginfrastructureToprovidecyclone,floodresistanthousing20132017GramPanchayat,statedepartment,villagersIndirahousingscheme,SardarPatelhousingscheme,Funding,lowpriorityClimatejustified GramPanchayat:localself-governmentatvillagelevelHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 29 of 33Adaptation PlanFinally an adaptation plan was created for the study region as enlisted in Table 8. For each adaptationmeasure suggested enlists a time frame by when they should be implemented, who would be thestakeholders, what are the constraints, which existing developmental plan or policy that targetssimilar concern, and what are the co-benefit if it exists (whether the adaptation measure can be alsolinked to mitigation action) and the category of the measure (whether the adaptation measurecategory is of no regret, low regret, or climate justified).Literature review suggests no regret adaptation measures as those which provide net benefitsregardless of climate change. Low regrets measures as the ones where moderate levels ofinvestment increase capacity to cope with future climate risks (UNDP-UNEP 2011) while climatejustified measures as the ones which depend on projections of changes in climate to justify theirbenefits (OECD 2009). It is important to know the level of regret as it suggests different implicationswith respect to climate information, timing of investment, planning horizon, and economic evalu-ation (UNDP-UNEP 2011) and also suggests which measure can be taken up easily and first.Adaptation measures suggested here either deal with asset upkeep, protection needed duringa natural disaster like bio shields, etc., and asset building like salinity ingress prevention canalsneeded to withstand projected long-term gradual climate changes along with some measures liketraining leading to awareness and behavioral changes and investment into early warning systemwhich are important for enhancing livelihood resilience. Financial resources like credit or insuranceare vital for recovery and long-term adaptation (CARE International, July 2010).Some Practical ChallengesSuch studies are always bound with some practical challenges which would need local intervention,some of which would be common for developing countries in general are enlisted here.While social vulnerability assessment is indicator based, complex social interactions may bedifficult to be factored in the form of indicators and hence may get left out in the overall vulnerabilityassessment.Political and social will for adoption of development initiatives which also enhance climatechange adaptation is a challenge. Appropriate intervention by stakeholders is needed.Moreover, climate change and variability will bring various issues which have cross-sectoralimpacts; hence, a need for alliance between various sectoral departments while comprehensivelydesigning the adaptation options with multi-stakeholders needs to be taken up which is generallyfound lacking.Also future adaptation measures are sought by projecting future vulnerability that is based onfuture scenarios of climate change, socioeconomic, and environment conditions. It can only bevalidated once the future climate event occurs and the other socioeconomic and environmentconditions then.ConclusionThis research is a preliminary attempt to address the current vulnerability issues through integrationof development and adaptation measures for coastal rural communities. The main objective of thisstudy was to leverage national and state development goals in creating adaptation plan catering tocurrent vulnerability for the study region.With respect to Indian coastal villages vulnerability study, developmental issues like lack ofinfrastructure, literacy levels, etc., along with malpractices in agriculture and fishing, several socialHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 30 of 33setup issues, and effect of pollution due to the presence of chemical industries in the vicinity can beconsidered as the major causes for increasing vulnerability. Developing specific indicators anda comprehensive field survey along with involvement of stakeholders from the beginning will helpto find the current baseline and underlying issues which could be addressed in the adaptationmeasures.This case study illustrates many and varied opportunities of intervention and highlights howdevelopment and adaptation can be interlinked. However, these interlinkages are yet to be recog-nized by the government. For example, existing development plans like the ongoing ICZMP projectcan be leveraged by integrating climate lens into it in order to reduce the current and futurevulnerability.Adaptation plan along with short-term and long-term measures with realistic time frame wasmade where stakeholder consultation was not done, but it can be taken up as way forward to makethe suggested plan functional.Although local stakeholders and civic institutions have a role to play in addressing the currentclimatic challenges, it is the government institution to take lead with strong policy, political will, andgood governance mechanism. Moreover, cross sectoral linkages to address climate change impactscould be handled by existing climate change department of the state. It can act as a steering body toalias with all the necessary departments and leverage their work to incorporate climate variabilityand change.Further such studies can be supported by policy researches so that national- and local-levelpolicies and programs can be leveraged keeping in view the global perspectives, researches, andadvancements in the field of climate science.AcknowledgmentsThis paper is partly based on myMasters Dissertation work at Centre for Environment Planning andTechnology (CEPT) University, Ahmedabad. Vulnerability assessment section of this paper is underthe process of getting published as working paper for CEPT University publication along withMr. Ashwani Kumar (Assistant Professor, Faculty of Planning, CEPT University). I would like tothank him for his comments, discussions, and support provided during the dissertation and whilewriting working paper.ReferencesAdger WN et al (2007) Assessment of adaptation practices, options,constraints and capacity.Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. IPCC report. Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge, UK, pp 717743CARE International (2010) Toolkit for integrating climate change adaptation intodevelopment projects. Care climate change. http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/toolkit/CARE_Integration_Toolkit.pdf. Accessed July 2013CCF, Chief Conservator of Forest (2012) Marine National Park information booklet. MNP,JamnagarFaulkner L (2012) ARCABM&E and baseline strategy for CBA final report. 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Tyndall Center for Climate Research, NorwichWreford A, Moran D, Adger N (2010) Climate change and agriculture Impacts adaptation andmitigation. OECD, FranceFurther ReadingACCCRN (2011) Da Nang climate change resilience strategy. ACCCRN, VietnamBrooks N (2003) Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: a conceptual framework. Working paper 38.Tyndall Center, NorwichCommissionerate of Rural Development, Gujarat state (2013) Commissionerate of Rural Develop-ment Gujarat state: Schemes. http://www.ruraldev.gujarat.gov.in/. Accessed July 2013Cutter SL, Bryan B, Lynn Shirley W (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. 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Environ Manag 43(5):743752Oliver-Smith A (2009) Sea level rise and the vulnerability of coastal peoples Responding to globalclimate change in the 21st century. UNU_EHS, GermanyPringle P (2011) AdaptME toolkit, adaptation monitoring and evaluatuion. UKCIP, Oxford, UKSatapathy S, Porsche I, Kunkel N, Manasfi N, Kalisch A (2011) Adaptation to climate change withfocus on rural areas in India. GIZ, New DelhiSchipper E, Lisa F (2007) Climate change adaptation and development: exploring the linkages.PreventionWeb. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7782_twp107.pdfSIPC (2012) Salinity ingress studies. SIPC Okha to Malia reach. SIPC, RajkotTaru (2010) Climate variability and climate change a disaster risk scoping study for the state ofGujarat. Taru for GSDMA, GandhinagarUnnikrishnan AS, Shankar D (2007) Are sea-level-rise trends along the coasts of the north IndianOcean consistent with global estimates? Global Planet Change NIO 57(34):301307, ISSN0921-8181USAID (2009) Adapting to coastal climate change. A guidebook for development planners. USAID,Washington, DCVarious authors, Compiled by Kathrine Vincent (2010) Mapping climate change vulnerability forsub national planners. UNDP, New YorkHandbook of Climate Change AdaptationDOI 10.1007/978-3-642-40455-9_100-1# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014Page 33 of 33http://www.gsdma.org/http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7782_twp107.pdfApproaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Vulnerable Coastal Communities of IndiaAbstractKeywordsIntroductionThe Need to Rethink Our Current ApproachCase StudiesClimate Change Vulnerability Assessment Framework UsedData and MethodsMain Findings from Vulnerability AssessmentLowering Vulnerability Through Linking of Development Initiatives to Climate Change ApproachAdaptation StrategyIdentifying Adaptation OptionsPrioritizing and Selecting Adaptation OptionsAdaptation PlanSome Practical ChallengesConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesFurther Reading

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