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Grammar Worksheets This is a compilation of grammar notes and worksheets adapted from http://www.grammar- worksheets.com. Each set of worksheets comes with notes and exercises. Comma Splices (Also called Run-on Sentences) To understand comma splices you must understand grammatical terms like "clause" and "independent clause.” Some people use the term “run-on sentence” to refer both to fused sentences and comma splices. These two terms refer to two different errors. Definition: A comma splice is a comma that joins (splices) two independent clauses. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. A fused sentence, on the other hand, occurs when two independent clauses (complete ideas) are joined without any punctuation. It is better to avoid the term run-on sentence altogether and use only the terms comma splice and fused sentence. They are more specific and more descriptive. In standard written American English, comma splices are not allowed. In other English-speaking communities, they are more accepted. If you are writing for a North American audience, it is important to avoid comma slices. Example of an Independent Clause: Robert ate worms. This is a clause. Robert is the subject, and ate is the verb. This clause is "independent" because it can stand alone as a sentence. Now let's take another independent clause: Mary dislikes Robert. If you take two independent clauses and join them with a comma, you have a comma splice: Robert ate worms, Mary dislikes Robert. To "splice" means to join, so a comma splice could easily have been called a comma JOIN, but that would have been too simple. Some people get confused and think that the word "splice" means to "separate," as in "split" + "slice" = "splice." But it is not that way. To splice means to join, and in standard American English, you're not supposed to use comma splices in writing. It is a formal rule. Comma splices are easy errors for teachers and editors to notice. How Do You Fix a Comma Splice? Make two sentences instead of one: Robert ate worms. Mary dislikes Robert. Use a semicolon (;). Robert ate worms; Mary dislikes Robert. Use a subordinating conjunction (because, when, since, although,...). Because Robert ate worms, Mary dislikes Robert. Use a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb (therefore, then, however,...). Robert ate worms; therefore, Mary dislikes Robert. Use a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) – fanboys – after the comma. Robert ate worms, so Mary dislikes Robert.

Grammar Worksheets

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Grammar Worksheets This is a compilation of grammar notes and worksheets adapted from http://www.grammar-worksheets.com. Each set of worksheets comes with notes and exercises. Comma Splices (Also called Run-on Sentences)To understand comma splices you must understand grammatical terms like "clause" and "independent clause. Some people use the term run-on sentence to refer both to fused sentences and comma splices. These two terms refer to two different errors. Definition: A comma splice is a comma that joins (splices) two independent clauses. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. A fused sentence, on the other hand, occurs when two independent clauses (complete ideas) are joined without any punctuation. It is better to avoid the term run-on sentence altogether and use only the terms comma splice and fused sentence. They are more specific and more descriptive. In standard written American English, comma splices are not allowed. In other Englishspeaking communities, they are more accepted. If you are writing for a North American audience, it is important to avoid comma slices. Example of an Independent Clause: Robert ate worms. This is a clause. Robert is the subject, and ate is the verb. This clause is "independent" because it can stand alone as a sentence. Now let's take another independent clause: Mary dislikes Robert. If you take two independent clauses and join them with a comma, you have a comma splice: Robert ate worms, Mary dislikes Robert. To "splice" means to join, so a comma splice could easily have been called a comma JOIN, but that would have been too simple. Some people get confused and think that the word "splice" means to "separate," as in "split" + "slice" = "splice." But it is not that way. To splice means to join, and in standard American English, you're not supposed to use comma splices in writing. It is a formal rule. Comma splices are easy errors for teachers and editors to notice.

How Do You Fix a Comma Splice? Make two sentences instead of one: Robert ate worms. Mary dislikes Robert. Use a semicolon (;). Robert ate worms; Mary dislikes Robert.

Use a subordinating conjunction (because, when, since, although,...). BecauseRobert ate worms, Mary dislikes Robert. worms; therefore, Mary dislikes Robert.

Use a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb (therefore, then, however,...). Robert ate Use a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) fanboys afterthe comma. Robert ate worms, so Mary dislikes Robert. Remember, you cant use words like however and so just because they make grammatical sense. These words mean something. The words although, however, but, and yet indicate a contrast: I was on a diet; however, I still gained weight. The words because, therefore, and so indicate a cause and effect relationship. The words and and then indicate that you are simply adding information. Use words cautiously.

Grammar Worksheets: Comma Splices (Also called Run-on Sentences)Exercises: Each sentence below is wrong; it has a comma splice. Please correct it. 1. Each sentence below is wrong, it has a comma splice. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Eliza ran to the store, then she bought some candy. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. The stock market has moved in one direction lately, it has gone down. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Elvis Presley was a great singer, he was never really accepted by the country music's mainstream. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Computer programs help us live saner lives, obviously the people who write them should make lots of money. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Dubai has built magnificent office towers with luxuries and conveniences, it is considered a great location in which to conduct international business. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Brazil has won several world championships in soccer, they are always considered a good team. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. The Quaid-i-Azam campus of Punjab University is considered excellent, it attracts many students. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes.

Grammar Worksheets: Comma Splices, Supplemental Exercises 1 http://www.grammar-worksheets.com1. The legislature had enacted laws enabling debtors to discharge their obligations more easily, the courts put an end to such practices by stipulating that no state could enact such laws. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Every wall was smashed to rubble, the only thing left of those houses was the land and the rocks from the rubble. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. My heart broke, the owners had no insurance. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. The town looked deserted, the streets were so dark and empty that the only thing we could hear was the wind blowing. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. We worked from dusk to dawn, never had so many contracts been written in such a short time. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Money continued to flow in, we started to live the life of the rich, on weekends we ate at expensive restaurants. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. The river extended beyond the mountains, we saw the clouds merge with the water in the horizon. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. Men and women drink coffee because it adds to their sense of well-being, it smells good and tastes good to all mankind, all respond to its wonderful stimulating properties. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes.

9. Caffeine supplies the principal stimulant, it increases the capacity for muscular and mental work without harmful reaction. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Like all good things in life, the drinking of coffee may be abused, those having an idiosyncratic susceptibility to alkaloids should be temperate in the use of tea, coffee, or cocoa. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 11. In every high-tensioned country there is likely to be a small number of people who, because of certain individual characteristics, cannot drink coffee at all, these people belong to the abnormal minority of the human family. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 12. Some people cannot eat strawberries, that would not be a valid reason for a general condemnation of strawberries. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 13. Some writers claim for Persia the discovery of the coffee drink, there is no evidence to support the claim. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 14. The Persians appear to have used considerable intelligence in handling the political phase of the coffee-house question, it never became necessary to order them suppressed in Persia. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 15. Residue from a super-saturated solution make ideal seed crystals for growth in a lab, these crystals may contain impurities. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 16. The need for occupational therapists has grown substantially, therefore more colleges are offering programs in this high-demand field. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes.

Grammar Worksheets: Sentence FragmentsDefinition: A sentence fragment is a piece of a sentence. A piece is not whole or complete. In a formal sense, a sentence fragment is a group of words that is punctuated as a sentence but that cannot stand alone as a sentence. Here's an example: The paper on the desk. This is an easy one. The paper on the desk. What about the paper on the desk? This group of words starts with a capital letter and ends in a period. It is punctuated as a sentence, but it is not a sentence. This group of words is missing a verb or a verb phrase. Complete Sentence: The paper on the desk fell to the floor.

How Do You Fix a Sentence Fragment? Add a verb or a verb phrase. FRAGMENT: For example, the cows grazing on the hillside. COMPLETE SENTENCE: The countryside seemed at peace. Take, for example, the cows grazing on the hillside. Attach the sentence fragment to the sentence before it or after it. FRAGMENT: Rivers cut deep canyons in the landscape. Weaving their way hundreds of miles through forests and mountains until they reach the ocean. COMPLETE SENTENCE: Rivers cut deep canyons in the landscape, weaving their way hundreds of miles through forests and mountains until they reach the ocean. Use a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore) instead of a subordinating conjunction (although, because, since). FRAGMENT: Jason never thought he could play baseball. Although, he eventually worked hard and started for his high school team. COMPLETE SENTENCE: Jason never thought he could play baseball. However, he eventually worked hard and started for his high school team. Attach a clause with a relative pronoun (who, whom, that, which, whose) to the sentence it belongs to. FRAGMENT: Mom always asked me to walk the dog. Who never had to go out anyway. COMPLETE SENTENCE: Mom always asked me to walk the dog, who never had to go out anyway. Attach a verb phrase that is punctuated as a sentence (the fragment) to the sentence it belongs to. FRAGMENT: The psychologist met with his clients in a relaxing environment. And encouraged them to meditate after the session. COMPLETE SENTENCE: James counselled his clients in a relaxing environment and encouraged them to meditate after the session.

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Grammar Worksheets: Sentence FragmentsExercises: Each item below contains a sentence fragment. Fix it in the space provided. 1. Salt-water fish can be very colorful. For example, Parrot Fish. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Merwin passed the exam. Although, he got the last five questions wrong. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Robert has met his long-lost daughter. Who had been searching for him over twenty years. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Because the cities on the west coast of Florida receive cool breezes and warm water from the Gulf of Mexico. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Jenny never finished high school. Despite the fact that her parents were supportive and allowed her to stay at home after her arrest. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The conductor finished with a flourish. Waving his baton and gesticulating wildly with his free hand. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. The house survived the tornado. Which clearly demonstrated that the building and zoning codes were sufficiently strict. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes

Supplemental Worksheet 1, Sentence Fragments http://www.grammar-worksheets.comEach item below contains a sentence fragment. Fix it in the space provided. 1. Jason Smith, who was the first man from Georgia to serve on the ADFR Commission. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. When I was given the opportunity to write a research paper on any topic of my choice. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Not just this wonderful appetizer, but the entire meal. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Making Florida the fourth largest state in the country. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Roddy Burdine set up his trading post along Brickell Avenue. And traded with settlers along the banks of the Miami River. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. No idea about the relationship between the parents divorce and the childs behavior. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. For example, attending ski camp over the winter holidays. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9. In the midst of the storm, when thunder roars and lightning strikes. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Elvis Presly reacted to the situation. Running quickly to avoid the rapidly approaching mob. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

11. Like the time my cousin threw me to the ground and yelled at me. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 12. Beneath the expressway ramp outside the city limits. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 13. Suffering from acute personality disorders for most of his adult life. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 14. In order to become a cosmetologist and open her own beauty salon. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 15. Beatrice was suspended. Despite the teachers having given her permission to publish a class web page. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 16. With Dwayne Wade, Lebron James, and Chris Bosch all playing for the same team. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 17. I got involved in extracurricular activities. Auditioning for the dance company during my first year of college. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 18. Disgruntled by the reduction in health benefits because of the significant drop in tax revenue. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 19. When Mr. Jenkins stumbled into the restaurant, reeking of alcohol and cigarettes. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes

Grammar Worksheets: Excessive NominalizationsIn this sheet we discuss, albeit briefly, a problem addressed beautifully by the late Professor Joseph M. Williams, of the University of Chicago. He spent a great portion of his life examining the principles of clear writing. He distilled his teachings into a book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, 9th ed., Pearson, 2007. This worksheet owes much to Williamss work.

Nominalizations: A sentence may seem unclear to a reader because verbs andadjectives (words that describe nouns) are turned into nouns. In Williamss words, A noun derived from a verb or adjective has a technical name: nominalization (Williams, 38).

Avoid Making Nouns from VerbsTake a look at the sentences below. (a) A re-examination of the evidence led prosecutors to a reconsideration of the defendants guilt. (b) Prosecutors re-examined the evidence and reconsidered the defendants guilt. Most readers would say that sentence (b) is clearer than (a). The words re-examination and reconsideration are nouns. Generally, words that end in tion are nouns. In Williamss terminology, these words are nominalizations. The verb forms, re-examined and reconsidered, seem clearer to most readers. The following table lists just a very few nominalizations and their corresponding verb forms. Nominalization Verb Form Analysis Analyze Belief Believe Comparison Compare Conclusion Conclude Determination Determine Failure Fail Reaction React Suggestion Suggest In general, choose the verb form over the nominalization. But be careful. Some nominalizations are useful and necessary. Use them prudently.

Avoid Making Nouns from AdjectivesThe same principle applies with adjectives. Avoid turning an adjective, such as careless, into its corresponding nominalization, carelessness. Avoid: His carelessness in driving caused a multi-car accident. Prefer: His careless driving caused a multi-car accident. Nominalization Adjective Form Carelessness Careless Difficulty Difficult Intensity Intense Ken Bresler treats the topic of nominalizations quite well, including useful nominalizations, in his article, Just Say Know. Take a look. http://www.clearwriting.com/know.htm

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Grammar Worksheets: Excessive NominalizationsExercises: Rewrite each sentence. Turn any unnecessary nominalization into its corresponding verb or adjective.1. The steering committee raised an objection to the proposed parking garage north of the stadium. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. When the faculty senate has made a determination about the desirability of a lecture series, a proposal will be presented to the chancellor. (Hint. Perhaps we have ONE useful nominalization.) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Negligence on the part of hospital workers was the reason for the failure of the kidney machine. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Mercy Hospital made a decision to expand its geriatric facilities. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. It was the intention of the screening committee to interview all candidates face to face. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The investor made an incorrect assumption about the volatility of Brazils emerging economy. (Some information might be missing in the original sentence. Did the investor think that the volatility of Brazils emerging economy was high or low? How can the meaning be made clearer?) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. The parole board did not give an explanation for the early release of such a dangerous inmate. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. It is my hope that you apply this material. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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Grammar Worksheets: Parallelism, Including Correlative Conjunctions and Comparisons

A sentence exhibits parallelism if similar ideas are expressed using the same syntactic and grammatical structure. Writers use parallel structures to communicate ideas that have the same importance using the same grammatical structure. Parallelism is most common using gerund phrases (verb + ing) or infinitives (to + verb). Faulty parallelism occurs when writers do not use a parallel structure to communicate a series of ideas. Faulty Parallelism: Without good pitching, the Marlins can be expected to lose more than eighty games, to draft early in next years draft, and attendance will suffer greatly. What are the ideas that seem to have the same importance? 1. The Marlins will lose more than eighty games 2. The Marlins will draft early in next years draft. 3. The Marlins attendance will suffer greatly. Note that we have two infinitive phrases and one independent clause. A revision using parallel structure can be worded as follows: Correct Parallelism: Without good pitching, the Marlins can be expected to lose more than eighty games, to draft early in next years draft, and to suffer greatly in attendance. The term parallelism also applies to using correlative conjunctions and comparisons properly. Correlative Conjunctions: both, and; not, but; not only, but also; either, or; whether, or; neither, nor. These conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses that have the same level of meaning in the same sentence. Use the same grammatical structure with both elements of the correlative. Faulty Parallelism: Andrew was both an industrious student, and he was also an excellent athlete. Correct Parallelism: Andrew was both an industrious student and an excellent athlete. Notice that since an (adjective + noun) pair is used with both elements, no comma is needed. If you use not only but also with independent clauses, you must separate the clauses with a comma, and you sometimes place the subject pronoun between the word but and the word also. Example: Jessica not only excelled in mathematics, but she also astounded audiences with her musical talent. Comparisons: Use a parallel structure when you connect two words, phrases, or clauses with a comparison word, including than or as. Faulty Parallelism: Sharons grade point average is much higher than her brother.

Correct Parallelism: Sharons grade point average is much higher than her brothers (grade point average). Correct Parallelism: Sharon has a higher grade point average than her brother (does).

Grammar Worksheets: Parallelism, Including Correlative Conjunctions and Comparisons Please rewrite each sentence below, correcting each error in parallelism. 1. We debated between two options immigration had given us: going back to Nicaragua or to stay in the US with no hope of ever going back. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. My uncle Julius likes bagels, lox, and eating chicken salad. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Bill not only runs five miles every day, he consumes eight thousand calories. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Joses daughter will either attend Harvard, or she plans to go to the Standford. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The principal is excited about both the swim team earning national honors, and that the debate team won its first tournament. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Fatimas knowledge of accounting is greater than Farah. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Mirandas flowers are neither red, nor are they orange. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. Stephen Kings book reviews were as positive as Asimov. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9. The house sitter lost the keys, neglected the dogs, and she also trashed the kitchen. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Grammar Worksheets: Active and Passive VoiceThe term voice, when used in English grammar, refers to the structure of a sentence. There are two voices in English grammar, active voice and passive voice. Active Voice: In an active voice sentence, the agent (the one who does the action in the sentence) is stated explicitly as the grammatical subject. The thing that the agent does something to (the direct object) comes after the verb. Heres an example. Active Voice Sentence: Julio cooked fried rice. Julio is the agent. Hes the one who does the action. In this case, hes the one who cooked the rice. In this active voice sentence, Julio is the grammatical subject. What did Julio cook? He cooked fried rice. The words fried rice make up the direct object. The fried rice is the thing that the agent (Julio) does something to. In this case he cooked it. Passive Voice: In a passive voice sentence, the thing that the agent does something to, is placed as the grammatical subject of the sentence. The agent (the one who does the action) is placed after the subject, usually in a prepositional phrase. In fact, sometimes the agent is hidden, not even mentioned. Passive Voice Sentence: The fried rice was cooked by Julio. (The agent is mentioned.) Passive Voice Sentence: The fried rice was cooked. (The agent is not mentioned.) In Academic Writing, Use the Active Voice. Use the active voice in most of the writing you do in school and at work. Studies in readability indicate that active voice sentences, where the agent is stated first, are easier to understand than passive voice sentences. So When Should You Use the Passive Voice? 1. When the receiver of the action is more important than the agent. Active Voice: The Nobel Foundation awarded President Obama the Nobel Peace Prize. Passive Voice: President Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The passive voice construction places the emphasis on the receiver of the Nobel Peace Prize, not on the organization that awarded the prize. 2. When you consciously try to minimize the role of the agent or the agent is not known. Active Voice: Marie Jenkins could not complete the status report because James McDonald misplaced the manufacturing data. Passive Voice: The status report was not completed because manufacturing data were misplaced. 3. When you write about scientific, technical, or natural processes. Active Voice: The conveyor belt delivers the shrink-wrapped product to the packing station. Passive Voice: The shrink-wrapped product is delivered to the packing station. Using active voice or passive voice is a stylistic and rhetorical choice about sentence structure. Its important to understand the structure so that you control the structure instead of letting the structure control you. But remember; use the active voice in most of your academic and work-related writing.

Grammar Worksheets: Active and Passive Voice Exercises: Convert each sentence from active to passive or from passive to active. Justify your decision.1. When the Phillies's Shane Victorino overran him, third base was stolen by Johnny Damon. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. A happy Thanksgiving is wished by me for everyone. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. The attorney general indicted the notorious gangster, Al Capone, for federal income tax evasion. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. The student services committee forwarded revised disciplinary procedures to the campus president. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Six Thousand shares of Disney stock were bought by Jenny Allen when she was only nineteen. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. People can view the dazzling meteor shower from the observation tower at the planetarium. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. The acceptance letter from Harvard was received by Jenny Arteaga last Tuesday. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. An invitation to Francis Suarezs victory party was received by Mr. Packer, the state party chairman. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9. The Baseball Writers Association of America named Joe Mauer, the Minnesota Twins catcher who led the American League with a .365 batting average, MVP for 2009. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2010, grammar-worksheets.com. Freely reproducible for non-profit educational purposes.