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  - 1 - Sadržaj  Strana 0.1.Alfabet - Alphabet 3 1. Brojevi - Numbers 3 1.1. Glavni (cardinals) 3 1.2. Redni (ordinals) 4 1.3. Deobni (fractional numerals) 5 1.4. Brojevi za ponavljan je (repeating numerals) 5 1.5. Brojevi za umnoţavan je (multiplicatives)  5 1.6. Broj nula (zero) 5 2. Član - The Article 5 2.1. OdreĎeni član 6 2.2. NeodreĎeni član 7 3. Glagoli - Verbs 9 3.1. Pomoćni glagoli - Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs) 10 3.1.1. Pomoćni glagol "to be" - Auxiliary Verb "to be" 10 3.1.2. Pomoćni glagol "to have" - Auxiliary Verb "to have" 11 3.1.3. Pomoćni glagol "to do" - Auxiliary Verb "to do" 14 3.2. Bezlični glagoli - Impersonal Verbs 15 3.3. Nepotpuni glagoli - Defective Verbs 15 3.4. Pravilni i nepravilni glagoli - Regular and Irregular Verbs 16 3.5. Prelazni i neprelazni glagoli - Transitive and Intransit ive Verbs 19 3.6. Povratni glagoli 19 3.7. Višerečni glagoli - Multi-word verbs 20 3.7.1. Frazalni glagoli 20 3.7.2. Pr edloţni glagoli  20 3.7.3. Frazalni pr edloţni  glagoli 21 3.8. "-ing" oblici - The "-ing" forms 21 3.9. Gerund - The Gerund 22 3.10. Particip prezenta - The Present Participle 23 3.11. Direktan i indirektan govor - Direct and Indirect Speech 24 3.12. Klauze - Clauses 25 3.12.1. Nezavisne i zavisne klauze 26 3.12.2. Relativne klauze 27 3.12.3. Eliptične klauze 28 3.13. Kondicionali - The conditionals 28 3.13.1. Prvi kondicional - realna mogućnost (First conditional: real possibil ity) 29 3.13.2. Drugi kondicional - nevjerovatna mogućnost (Second conditional - unreal possibility or dream) 29 3.13.3. Treći  kondicional - bez mogućnosti (Third conditional - no possibili ty) 30 3.13.4. Nulti kondicional - sigurno ispunjenje uslova (Zero conditional - certainty) 30 3.13.5. Kondiciona li - ukratko 31 3.14. Trpno stanje (pasiv) - Passive Voice 31 3.15. Slaganje vremena - Sequence of Tenses 33 3.15.1. Slaganje glagolskih vremena 33 3.15.2. Slaganje vremena sa infinitiv ima i participima 34 3.16. Sadašnja vremena 35 3.16.1. Sadašnje prosto vr eme - Simple Present Tense 35 3.16.2. Sadašnje trajno vr eme - Present Continuous Tense 36 3.16.3. Sloţeno sadašnje vr eme - Present Perfect Simple Tense 38 3.16.4. Nesvršeni perfekt - Present Perfect Continuo us Tense 39

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  • - 1 -

    Sadraj Strana

    0.1.Alfabet - Alphabet 3 1. Brojevi - Numbers 3

    1.1. Glavni (cardinals) 3 1.2. Redni (ordinals) 4 1.3. Deobni (fractional numerals) 5 1.4. Brojevi za ponavljanje (repeating numerals) 5 1.5. Brojevi za umnoavanje (multiplicatives) 5 1.6. Broj nula (zero) 5

    2. lan - The Article 5 2.1. Odreeni lan 6 2.2. Neodreeni lan 7

    3. Glagoli - Verbs 9 3.1. Pomoni glagoli - Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs) 10

    3.1.1. Pomoni glagol "to be" - Auxiliary Verb "to be" 10 3.1.2. Pomoni glagol "to have" - Auxiliary Verb "to have" 11 3.1.3. Pomoni glagol "to do" - Auxiliary Verb "to do" 14

    3.2. Bezlini glagoli - Impersonal Verbs 15 3.3. Nepotpuni glagoli - Defective Verbs 15 3.4. Pravilni i nepravilni glagoli - Regular and Irregular Verbs 16 3.5. Prelazni i neprelazni glagoli - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 19 3.6. Povratni glagoli 19 3.7. Viereni glagoli - Multi-word verbs 20

    3.7.1. Frazalni glagoli 20 3.7.2. Predloni glagoli 20 3.7.3. Frazalni predloni glagoli 21

    3.8. "-ing" oblici - The "-ing" forms 21 3.9. Gerund - The Gerund 22 3.10. Particip prezenta - The Present Participle 23 3.11. Direktan i indirektan govor - Direct and Indirect Speech 24 3.12. Klauze - Clauses 25

    3.12.1. Nezavisne i zavisne klauze 26 3.12.2. Relativne klauze 27 3.12.3. Eliptine klauze 28

    3.13. Kondicionali - The conditionals 28 3.13.1. Prvi kondicional - realna mogunost

    (First conditional: real possibility) 29 3.13.2. Drugi kondicional - nevjerovatna mogunost

    (Second conditional - unreal possibility or dream) 29 3.13.3. Trei kondicional - bez mogunosti

    (Third conditional - no possibility) 30 3.13.4. Nulti kondicional - sigurno ispunjenje uslova

    (Zero conditional - certainty) 30 3.13.5. Kondicionali - ukratko 31

    3.14. Trpno stanje (pasiv) - Passive Voice 31 3.15. Slaganje vremena - Sequence of Tenses 33

    3.15.1. Slaganje glagolskih vremena 33 3.15.2. Slaganje vremena sa infinitivima i participima 34

    3.16. Sadanja vremena 35 3.16.1. Sadanje prosto vreme - Simple Present Tense 35 3.16.2. Sadanje trajno vreme - Present Continuous Tense 36 3.16.3. Sloeno sadanje vreme - Present Perfect Simple Tense 38 3.16.4. Nesvreni perfekt - Present Perfect Continuous Tense 39

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    Sadraj Strana

    3.17. Prola vremena 41 3.17.1. Prolo svreno vreme - Past Simple Tense 41 3.17.2. Prolo trajno vreme - The Past Continuous Tense 43 3.17.3. Pluskvamperfekat (davno prolo vreme) - The Past

    Perfect Tense 44 3.17.4. Nesvreni pluskvamperfekt - The Past Perfect

    Continuous Tense 45 3.18. Budua vremena 45

    3.18.1. Prosto budue vreme - Futur Simple Tense 45 3.18.2. Budue trajno vreme - Futur Continuous Tense 46 3.18.3. Sloeno budue vreme - Futur Perfect Tense 46 3.18.4. Futur Perfect Continuous 47

    4. Imenice - Nouns 48 4.1. Rod imenica - Gender of Nouns 48 4.2. Mnoina imenica - Plural of Nouns 50 4.3. Padei imenica - Cases of Nouns 53

    5. Pridevi - Adjectives 54 5.1. Poreenje prideva - Comparasion 54 5.2. Pravopisna pravila pri poreenju 55 5.3. Nepravilna komparacija prideva - Irregular comparasion 56

    6. Predlozi - Prepositions 56 7. Prilozi - Adverbs 58

    7.1. Poreenje priloga 59 8. Uzvici - Interjections 60 9. Veznici - Conjunctions 61 10. Zamenice - Pronouns 61

    10.1. Line zamenice - Personal Pronouns 62 10.2. Prisvojne zamenice - Possessive Pronouns 63 10.3. Povratne zamenice - Reflexive Pronouns 63 10.4. Pokazne zamenice - Demonstrative pronouns 64 10.5. Upitne zamenice - Interrogative Pronouns 64 10.6. Relativne zamenice - Relative pronouns 65 10.7. Deobne zamenice - Distributive Pronouns 66 10.8. Neodreene zamenice - Indefinite Pronouns 67

    11. Red rei - Word order 69 12. Skraenice na internetu 69 13. Britansko i ameriko pisanje - British and American writing 70 14. Pisanje velikih slova - Writing of capital letters 70 15. Znaci interpunkcije - Punctuation 71

    15.1. Taka - The full stop or period 72 15.2. Zarez - The comma 72 15.3. Dvotaka - The colon 73 15.4. Taka-zarez - The semicolon 74 15.5. Upitnik - The question mark 74

    16. Lista najeih imenica koji imaju nepravilne oblike u mnoini 75 17. Izgovor (kopirano iz pdf e-knjige) 77

    17.1. Naglasak 77 17.2. Samoglasnici - Vowels 77 17.3. Dvoglasnici - Diphtrhongs 78 17.4. Suglasnici - Consonants 78 17.5. Vie Suglasnika - More consonants 79 17.6. Transkripcija izgovora 79

    18. Glasovi engleskog jezika (Fonetika) 79 18.1. Samoglasnici - Vowels - i primeri 80 18.2. Dvoglasnici - Diphthongs - i primeri 81 18.3. Suglasnici - Consonants - i primeri (Primeri - 83 str.) 82

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    (0.1.) Alfabet - Alphabet

    A, a (ei:) N, n (en) B, b (bi:) O, o (o:) C, c (si:) P, p (pi:) D, d (di:) Q, q (kju:) E, e (i:) R, r (a:) F, f (ef) S, s (es:) G, g (di:) T, t (ti:) H, h (eie) U, u (ju:) I, i (ai) V, v (vi:) J, j (dei) W, w (dabl ju) K, k (kei) X, x (eks) L, l (el) Y, y (uai) M, m (em) Z, z (zi, zed)

    (1.) Brojevi - Numbers Brojevi mogu biti:

    1. glavni (cardinals) 2. redni (ordinals) 3. diobni (fractional numerals) 4. brojevi za ponavljanje (repeating numerals) 5. brojevi za umnoavanje (multiplicatives) 6. broj nula (zero)

    (1.1.) Glavni brojevi - cardinals

    1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen

    19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty one 22 twenty two etc. 30 thirty 40 fourty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a hundred 101 a hundred and one 200 two hundred 1000 a thousand 2000 two thousand 1.000.000 a million 2.000.000 two million

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    Kao to se vidi, brojevi izmeu 13 i 20 obrazuju se kada se broju prve desetine doda sufiks "teen", izuzev nekih manjih izuzetaka (thirteen umjesto threeteen i fifteen umjesto fiveteen). Brojevi desetica obrazuju se na slian nain, dodavanjem sufiksa "ty". Brojevi koji imaju desetice i jedinice prave se kao i u naem jeziku: 25 - twenty five, 71 - seventy one. Mogu se i jedinice, ali samo za brojeve ispod 40, staviti na prvo mjesto i vezati pomou "and" sa deseticama: 24 - four and twenty. Rei hundred i thousand posle kojih dolazi manji broj od stotinu, vezuju se veznikom "and": 328 - three hundred and twenty eight 3.020 - three thousand and twenty. Hundred i thousand dobijaju "s" u mnoini kada se javljaju kao imenice: hundreds of men, thousands of insects. (stotine ljudi, hiljade insekata) "One" ima mnoinu koja glasi "ones" i upotrebljava se kao imenica, najee da bi se izbeglo ponavljanje imenice u reenici: Black gloves are stronger than white ones. (crne rukavice su jae od belih) (1.2.) Redni brojevi - ordinals Prva tri redna broja se tvore nepravilno:first (prvi), second (drugi) i third (trei). Svi ostali redni brojevi prave se dodavanjem nastavka "th" na glavne brojeve: seventh (sedmi), tenth (deseti), sixteenth (esnaesti), ninetieth (devedeseti), thousandth (hiljaditi) etc. Slova "ve" kod five postaju slovo "f" kod fifth (peti), fifteenth (petnaesti) i fiftieth (pedeseti). Isto tako kod twelve se menja u twelfth. Nine u rednom broju gubi krajnje "-e": nine - ninth. Kod desetica krajnje "y" mijenja se u "ie" pred nastavkom "th": thirtieth (trideseti). Kod sastavljenih rei nastavak dobijaju samo jedinice: twenty-fourth (dvadeset etvrti). Redni brojevi se upotrebljavaju umesto glavnih za oznaavanje: datuma meseca: the nineteenth of May (devetnaesti Maj); rodoslovlje vladara: Henry the Sixth (Henry VI) poglavlja u knjizi: chapter the tenth (glava deseta); posle rei every, kao to su izrazi: every third day (svakog treeg dana). Razlomci u nazivniku imaju redni broj: 4/5 - four fifths 3/10 - three tenths Razlika je jedino kod 1/2 - one half i 1/4 - one quarter ili a quarter, 3/4 - three quarters. Redni brojevi dobijaju odreeni lan the. the first class (prvi razred).

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    (1.3.) Deobni brojevi - fractional numerals Izuzev broja half (pola) svi deobni brojevi jednaki su sa rednim brojevima. U mnoini dobijaju nastavak "s": four sevenths (etiri sedmice). Iza half dolazi "a" ispred imenice: half a loaf (polovina hleba). Posle broja, izraza i po (i polovina) prevodi se sa "and a half": two leagues and a half (dve i po milje). (1.4.) Brojevi za ponavljanje - repeating numerals Brojevi za ponavljanje prave se pomou rei "times": four times (etiri puta),

    twenty times (dvadeset puta). Izuzetak: once (jedan put), twice (dva puta), thrice (tri puta) zadrali su se jo u poeziji, inae su zastareli.

    (1.5.) Brojevi za umnoavanje - multiplicatives Brojevi za umnoavanje prave se dodavanjem nastavka "fold" na glavne brojeve: fourfold (etverostruk). Izuzetak je broj "twofold" koji se moe izraziti jo reju double (dvostruk). (1.6.) Broj nula - zero Nula se u engleskom jeziku kae naught ili zero: seven degrees below zero (sedam stepeni ispod nule) 206 - two naught six U telefonskim brojevima nula se izgovara kao glas "o" (ou): 32-049 - three two o four nine. (2.) lan - The Article U engleskom jeziku postoje odreeni i neodreeni lan. Odreeni lan je the. On je nepromenljiv: the man, the woman, the house. Neodreeni lan je a ili an, a koristimo ispred suglasnika: a chair, a university, a year; an koristimo ispred samoglasnika: an hour, an apple, an elephant itd. Da bi ste odredili koji, i da li upotrebiti lan postavite sebi nekoliko pitanja: 1. Da li va italac zna o kome ili o emu govorite? da ne koristite the preite na sledee pitanje 2. Da li je imenica u jednini ili mnoini? jednini mnoini preite na sledee pitanje izostavite lan 3. Moe li imenica biti u mnoini, tj. da li je brojiva? (ta su brojive imenice?) Da Ne preite na sledee pitanje izostavite lan

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    4. Da li govorite o pojedinanoj stvari ili uoptenoj ideji? pojedinano uopteno preite na sledee pitanje izostavite lan 5. Da li imenica poinje vokalima (a, e, i, o, u)? Da Ne koristite an koristite a (2.1.) Odreeni lan Odreeni lan se upotrebljava: - kada se govori o odreenom licu, stvari ili pojmu: send me the book (poalji mi knjigu) - kada je re o imenici koja je blie odreena ili poznata licu koje slua ili ita: I saw the teacher (video sam uitelja), she gave the letter to her mother (dala je pismo svojoj majci); - ispred imenica koje po naem shvatanju postoje u samo jednom primerku: the Earth moves round the sun (Zemlja se okree oko Sunca); - ako imenica u jednini odreuje celu vrstu, a ne samo pojedinu stvar koja pripada toj vrsti: the Earth-satellite is faster then the aeroplane (Zemljin satelit je bri od aviona); - pred superlativima: this is the best thing you can do (to je najbolja stvar koju moe uiniti); - ispred rednih brojeva: it is the second day of my arrival here (drugi je dan otkako sam stigao ovamo); - ispred "same": the same to you (isto i vama); - ispred imena zgrada, ustanova, brodova i sl: The Houses of Parliament (parlament), The Ministry of Defence (ministarstvo odbrane), The Majestic (hotel) itd; - ispred imena listova, asopisa, magazina: the Times; - ispred linih imena koja se sastoje od prideva i imenice: The Black Sea (Crno more), The Pacific Ocean (Tihi okean); - ispred imena naroda u mnoini: the English (Englezi); - ispred imena posle kojih dolazi "of": we signed the treaty of Locarno (potpisali smo sporazum u Lokarnu); - ispred imena reka, plananskih lanaca, jezera i mora: we climbed the Alps (popeli smo se na Alpe); - ispred prideva koji su upotrebljeni kao imenice: the poor of London (sirotinja Londona); - u nekim stalnim izrazima i frazama: he made a joke at the expense of this old woman (naalio se na raun ove starice) I don't want to run the risk (ne elim da rizikujem).

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    Odreeni lan se ne upotrebljava: - ispred osobnih imenica: Jack gave me an apple (Jack mi je dao jabuku); - bez lana su imenice koje oznaavaju porodine odnose, a lanovi su porodice: mother called me back (majka me je pozvala da se vratim); - imena dana, meseci i godinjih doba: I shall come by Monday (doi u do ponedeljka); - imena vrhova planina: Magli is the highest mountain in Bosnia (Magli je najvea planina u Bosni); - man i woman se upotrebljavaju bez lana kada oznaavaju celu vrstu, tj. ljudski rod: man is mortal (ovek je smrtan); - gradivne imenice su bez lana: the table is made of wood (sto je napravljen od drveta); - misaone imenice su bez lana: I prefer music to poetry (vie volim muziku nego poeziju); - imena obroka su bez lana: children, come, dinner is ready (deco, doite, ruak je spreman); - imenice kao to su: school, college, market, court, prison itd, idu bez lana ako oznaavaju rad koji se tamo obavlja: after school children go home (posle kole deca se vraaju kui), he was put in prison (stavljen je u zatvor); - uz superlativ priloga lan se ne upotrebljava: he runs best (on najbolje tri), she writes quickest (ona pie najbre); - lan se nikad ne upotrebljava u nekim izrazima:

    to be at work (biti u poslu) to catch fire (zapaliti se) to take breath (odahnuti) to set sail (isploviti) to shake hands (rukovati se) to lose courage (izgubiti hrabrost) by land (kopnom) hand in hand (ruku pod ruku) by heart (napamet) on board (na brodu).

    (2.2.) Neodreeni lan Neodreeni lan "a" upotrebljava se ispred rei koje poinju suglasnikom, a oblik "an" se upotrebljava ispred rei koje poinju samoglasnikom ili tihim "h": a man (ovjek), an open window (otvoren prozor), an hour (as). Neodreeni lan upotrebljava se samo sa imenicama koje imaju mnoinu. Misaone i gradivne imenice koje nemaju mnoine i koje se ne mogu brojati, nemaju neodreeni lan: I have a book (imam knjigu), ali I have time (imam vremena).

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    Neodreeni lan nema mnoinu i ne moe se upotrebiti ispred imenice u mnoini: a house (kua), houses (kue). Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava uz imenicu koja je izdvojena iz celine ili mnotva ali koja nije posebno odreena: the boy saw a bird in the tree (deak je video pticu na drvetu). Neodreeni lan moe odrediti itavu vrstu: a cat is an animal (maka je ivotinja); Neodreeni lan se stavlja uz razlomke: a half (polovina), a third (treina). Neodreeni lan se stavlja ispred rei koje oznaavaju vreme, broj, teinu i meru: I see him two times a week (viam ga dvaput sedmino). Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava sa reima: many, such, quite, rather, what, no less, so, too, as - ako je imenica u jednini: we have seen him many a time (videli smo ga mnogo puta), he is quite a good doctor (on je poprilino dobar doktor). Neodreeni lan se stavlja ispred rei: dozen (tuce), gross (dvanaest tuceta), score (dvadeset), hundred, thousand, million: a hundred balls (stotinu lopti). Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava s imenskim predikatom: he is a school-teacher (on je uitelj u koli). Neodreeni lan se moe upotrebiti uz apoziciju koja se dodaje nazivima knjievnih dela: "Rivals", a comedy by Sheridan ("Suparnici", eridanova komedija). Neodreeni lan upotrebljen iza "not" pojaava negaciju: I have not a single penny (nemam niti jedan jedini peni). Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava u mnogim idiomatskim izrazima, dok se u nekim isputa:

    to have a pain (imati bolove) to be in hurry (uriti se) to be at loss (biti u neprilici) as a rule (po pravilu) on an average (proseno).

    Neodreeni lan se izostavlja: - kad se neto nabraja: my brother is a runner, swimmer and jumper (moj brat je trka, pliva i skaka); - uz misaone i gradivne imenice koje se ne mogu brojati: he put wood on fire (stavio je drva na vatru), we have confidence in you (imamo poverenja u vas); - u sluaju kada neku titulu moe imati samo jedno lice u isto vreme: he is President of the Republic (on je predsednik republike); - posle izraza kao to su: the title of, the post of, the office of, the rank of: he holds the post of secretary (on zauzima poloaj sekretara); - posle glagola to turn (kada znai stati): he was unable to obtain a civil post he turned soldier (poto nije mogao da dobije mesto u civilu, postao je vojnik); - kada je predikat deo objekta u aktivnoj konstrukciji, i deo subjekta u pasivnoj konstrukciji: the called him fool, madman (nazvali su ga ludim, ludakom), he was made prisoner (zarobili su ga);

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    - kada je re "part" upotrebljena u smislu "partly": part of the ceiling came down on people (deo tavanice je pao na ljude); - kada posle rei "what" koja je upotrebljena kao uzvik, dolazi imenica koja se obino ne upotrebljava u mnoini: what wisdom in so young boy (kakva mudrost u tako mladog deaka) (3.) Glagoli - Verbs Pomoni glagoli - Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs)

    glagol "to be" - biti glagol "to have" - imati glagol "to do" - raditi

    Bezlini glagoli - Impersonal Verbs Nepotpuni glagoli - Defective Verbs Pravilni i nepravilni glagoli - Regular and Irregular Verbs Prelazni i neprelazni glagoli - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Povratni glagoli - Reflexive Verbs Viereni glagoli - Multi-Word Verbs

    Frazalni glagoli - Phrasal Verbs Prijedloni glagoli - Prepositional Verbs Frazalni prijedloni glagoli - Phrasal-prepositional Verbs

    "-ing" oblici (gerund,particip prezenta) - The "-ing" Forms Direktan i indirektan govor - Direct and Indirect Speech Klauze - Clauses Kondicionali - The Conditionals Pasiv - Passive Voice Slaganje vremena - Sequence of Tenses Sadanja vremena Sadanje prosto vreme / Simple present tense Sadanje trajno vreme / Present continuous tense Sadanje sloeno vreme / Present perfect simple tense Sadanje trajno sloeno vreme / Present perfect continuous tense Prola vremena Prosto prolo vreme / Simple past tense Prolo trajno vreme / Past continuous tense Sloeno prolo vreme / Past perfect simple tense Sloeno trajno prolo vreme / Past perfect continuous tense Budua vremena Prosto budue vreme / Simple future tense Trajno budue vreme / Future continuous tense Sloeno budue vreme / Future perfect simple tense Sloeno trajno budue vreme / Future perfect continuous tense

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    (3.1.) Pomoni glagoli - Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs) (3.1.1.) Pomoni glagol "to be" - Auxiliary Verb "to be" Pomoni glagoli slue za sloenih glagolskih vremena (perfekta, futura itd.) Pomoni glagoli su: be, have, do, shall, will Glagol "to be" - biti Glagoli be, have i do mogu biti pomoni glagoli i glagoli punog znaenja. Glavni delovi glagola be su: be was been Be kao pomoni glagol se upotrebljava: - za graenje trajnih vremena: I am surfing. (ja surfujem); - za graenje pasivnih vremena: The bridge was built. (most je izgraen). Be kao glagol punog znaenja znai postojati, iveti, stii itd. To be, or not to be. (biti ili ne biti) I was in Spain last year. (bio sam u paniji prole godine) Be se vrlo esto upotrebljava kao dio imenskog predikata. He is ill. (on je bolestan) His brother was a sailor. (njegov brat je bio mornar). Be se upotrebljava za starost, udaljenost i cenu. It is ten miles. (ima deset milja) She is twenty. (njoj je dvadeset) This building is twenty years old. (ova zgrada je stara dvadeset godina) Kada govorimo o osobi kaemo samo broj (She is twenty.) ali kada govorimo o stvari years i old se ne mogu izostaviti. Present Simple - Prezent I am - I'm (ja sam) I'm not (ja nisam) am I? (jesam li) you are - you're you're not are you? he is - he's, she's, it's he's, she's, it's not is he, she, it? we are - we're we're not are we? you are - you're you're not are you? they are - they're they're not are they? Past Simple - Preterit (Prosto prolo vreme) I was (ja sam bio) I wasn't (ja nisam bio) was I? you were you weren't were you? he was he wasn't was he?

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    Present Perfect - Perfekt I have been (ja sam bio) I haven't been have I been? you have been you haven't been have you been? he has been he hasn't been has he been? Past Perfect - Pluskvamperfekt (Pluperfekt) I had been (ja bijah bio) I had not been had I been? you had been you had not been had you been? he had been he had not been had he been? Futur Simple - Futur I shall be (ja u biti) I shall not be shall I be? you will be you will not be will you be? he will be he will not be will he be? Futur Perfect - Svreni futur I shall have been (ja u biti) I shall not have been shall I have been? you will have been you will not have been will you have been? he will have been he will not have been will he have been? Present Conditional - Pogodbeni nain sadanji I should be (ja bih bio) I should not be should I be? you would be you would not be would you be? he would be he would not be would he be) Past Conditional - Pogodbeni nain proli I should have been (bio bih bio) I should not have been should I have been? you would have been you would not have been would you have been? he would have been he would not have been would he have been? Imperativ be Infinitiv prezenta to be Infinitiv perfekta to have been Particip prezenta being Particip perfekta been - having been Gerund prezenta being Gerund perfekta having been (3.1.2.) Pomoni glagol "to have" - Auxiliary Verb "to have" Pomoni glagoli slue za graenje sloenih glagolskih vremena (perfekta, futura itd.) Pomoni glagoli su: be, have, do, shall, will Glagol "to have" - imati

  • - 12 -

    Have kao pomoni glagol: S pomonim glagolom have grade se sledei glagolski oblici: perfekt (I have spoken) pluskvamperfekt (I had spoken) infinitiv perfekta (to have spoken) particip perfekta (to have spoken) particip perfekta i gerund proli (having spoken). Have kao glagol punog znaenja: - Have iza kojeg sledi infinitiv izraava obavezu. Npr: They had to leave. (morali su otii) I have to buy some chocolate for her girl. (moram kupiti okoladu za njenu devojicu) - U toj se konstrukciji moe upitni oblik graditi s pomou do ili inverzijom, a odrini pomou do ili dodavanjem not, npr: Did they have to leave? Had they have to leave? They did not have to leave. They had not to leave.

    - Osnovno znaenje glagola have kao glagola punog znaenja jeste posedovati, imati. Npr: Her brother has a motor-boat. (njen brat ima motorni amac) The baby has a blue eyes. (detece ima plave oi) - U govornom se jeziku uz have koje znai posedovati esto stavlja got. I have got znai isto kao i have. He has got a TV set. (on ima televizor) Kada have znai posedovati, ne upotrebljava se u nesvrenim vremenima. - Have se upotrebljava u nekim stalnim izrazima: to have breakfast (dorukovati) to have tea (popiti aj) to have a good time (dobro se zabavljati)

    Causative have Have iza kojeg slijedi objekt i particip perfekta oznaava da neko drugi vri radnju reenice po elji ili zapovijedi subjekta. Takvo have se u gramatikama obino zove causative have.

    Last week I had a new suit made. (prole sedmice dao sam napraviti novo odijelo) You must have your invitation cards printed. (morate dati tampati pozivnice). Iz tih prijevoda vidimo da se takvo have prevodi na na jezik glagolom 'dati'. U ovim reenicama osobito je vaan poredak rei: HAVE + OBJEKT + PARTICIP PERFEKTA Ako izmijenimo poredak rei, izmeniemo i znaenje reenice: I have weeded my garden. (oplevio sam svoj vrt) I have my garden weeded. (dajem pleviti vrt)

    { Jesu li morali otii?

    { Nisu morali otii.

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    Simple Present Tense - Prezent I have - I've (ja imam) I haven't have I? you have - you've you haven't have you? he has - he's he hasn't has he? Past Simple Tense - Preterit I had (ja sam imao) I hadn't had I? you had you hadn't had you? he had he hadn't had he? Present Perfect Tense - Perfekt I have had (ja sam imao) I have not had have I had? you have had you have not had have you had? he has had he has not had has he had? The Past Perfect Tense - Pluskavamperfekt I had had (ja bejah imao) I had not had had I had? you had had you had not had had you had? he had had he had not had had he had? Futur Simple - Futur I shall have (ja u imati) I shall not have shall I have? you will have you will not have will you have? he will have he will not have will he have? Futur Perfect - Svreni futur I shall have had (ja u imati) I shall not have had shall I have had? you will have had you will not have had will you have had? he will have had he will not have had will he have had? Present Conditional - Pogodbeni nain sadanji I should have (ja bih imao) I should not have should I have? you would have you would not have would you have? he would have he would not have would he have? Past Conditional - Pogodbeni nain proli I should have had (bio bih imao) I should not have had should I have had? you would have had you would not have had would you have had? he would have had he wuold not have had would he have had? Imperativ have Infinitiv prezenta to have Infinitiv perfekta to have had Particip prezenta having Particip perfekta had - having had Gerund prezenta having Gerund perfekta having had

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    (3.1.3) Pomoni glagol "to do" - Auxiliary Verb "to do" Pomoni glagoli slue za graenje sloenih glagolskih vremena (perfekta, futura itd.) Pomoni glagoli su: be, have, do, shall, will Glavni oblici glagola do jesu: do did done Do kao pomoni glagol - S pomonim glagolom do gradi se upitni i odrini oblik prezenta i preterita glagola punog znaenja.

    Does he drive a car? (vozi li on auto) You do not understand me. (vi me ne razumete) They did not arrive in time. (nisu stigli na vreme)

    - U imperativu, prezentu i preteritu upotrebljava se pomoni glagol do i u potvrdnim reenicama ako elimo istaknuti glagol. Takvo do se zove emfatino do (Emphatic do).

    Do sit down! (ta sedi!) I do like this cakes. (zaista volim ove kolae)

    Do se esto upotrebljava da bi se izbeglo ponavljanje glavnog glagola, i to:

    -u kratkim odgovorima: Do you read? -Yes, I do. (itate li, itam) -uz so, iza kojeg slijedi pomoni glagol, a onda subjekt. He swims well, and so does his sister. (on dobro pliva, a isto tako i njegova sestra) -u dodatnom pitanju: You know what I mean, don't you? (znate na ta mislim, zar ne)

    Do kao glagol punog znaenja -Do se upotrebljava u znaenju initi, raditi. Npr:

    They did their job very well. (oni su vrlo dobro obavili svoj posao) He did not do what he had promised. (nije uinio to je obeao) When does she do the room? (kada ona sprema sobu)

    Simple Present Tense - Prezent I do (ja inim) I do not - I don't do I? you do you do not - you don't do you? he, she, it does he do not - he don't does he? we do we do not - we don't do we? you do you do not - you don't do you? they do they do not - they don't do they? Past Simple Tense - Preterit I did (ja uinih) I did not - I didn't did I? you did you did not - you didn't did you? he did he did not - he didn't did he? we did we did not - we didn't did we? you did you didnot - you didn't did you? they did they did not - they didn't did they? Imperativ do

  • - 15 -

    (3.2.) Bezlini glagoli - Impersonal Verbs Bezlini glagoli su glagoli koji se upotrebljavaju samo u 3. licu jednine sa it. Oni obino oznaavaju vremenske uslove. Npr.:

    Infinitiv Present Simple to rain (pada kia) it rains to hail (pada grad) it hails to freeze (mrznuti se) it freezes to snow (pada snijeg) it snows to thunder (grmeti) it thunders

    Neki glagoli u treem licu jednine mogu imati bezlino znaenje. To su sledei glagoli:

    to seem (izgledati): it seems to be true (izgleda da je istina) to appear (izgledati): it appears as if it would be a change in weather (izgleda kao da e se vreme promeniti) to look (izgledati): it looks like rain (izgleda kao da e kia) to feel (oseati): it feels cold (osea se hladnoa) to make (initi): it makes me afraid (to me plai).

    (3.3.) Nepotpuni glagoli - Defective Verbs Nepotpuni glagoli su: can (moi), may (moi, smeti), ought (trebati) i must (morati). Zajedniko za nepotpune glagole je da:

    - da nemaju sve oblike i vremena, - u sadanjem vremenu u treem licu nemaju nastavak "s"; - upitni im se oblik pravi inverzijom, odrini oblik obrazuju sa reicom "not"; - trae infinitiv bez "to" (izuzev glagola "ought").

    Nepotpuni glagol "can" (moi, umjeti, znati) oznaava fiziku ili umnu sposobnost. Ima oblik "could" za prolo vreme (Past Tense) i za pogodbeni nain sadanji (Present Conditional):

    I can swim (umem, znam da plivam), I could swim (umeo sam da plivam), Could you show me the way, please? (da li biste mogli da mi pokaete put, molim?)

    Glagol "can" se ne moe upotrebiti s etvrtim padeom bez nekog drugog glagola, tako ne moemo rei:

    I can that - ve I can do that (ja to umem). Odrini oblik glasi "can not" ili skraeno (saeto, contracted) "can't" i "could not" ili "couldn't". Umesto glagola "can" u vremenima koje on nema upotrebljava se izraz "to be able" (moi, biti u stanju):

    I shall be able to this for you. (moi u to da uinim za vas). Nepotpuni glagol "may" (moi, smeti) oznaava odobravanje, doputanje, verovatnou, mogunost i elju:

    he may come tomorrow (moda e on sutra doi) may I go in? (smem li ui?) may he join us? (sme li da nam se pridrui?) may he rest in peace! (neka poiva u miru!).

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    U prolom vremenu "may" ima svoj drugi oblik "might":

    He might have arrived earlier. (mogao je ranije da stigne) He might be present. (mogao bi biti prisutan).

    Might izraava takoe i pogodbu. Odrini oblik glasi "may not" ili "mayn't" i "might not" ili "mightn't". Nepotpuni glagol must (morati) ima samo taj jedan oblik. Izraava primoravanje, dunost, nunost.

    I must take leave now. (sada se moram pozdraviti, moram otii), The soldiers knew that they must die. (vojnici su znali da moraju umreti)

    U vremenima koje glagol must nema upotrebljava se glagol to have sa infinitivom bilo kog glagola sa obaveznim "to":

    I had to go at once. (morao sam smesta otii) We shall have to work hard. (moraemo mnogo raditi)

    U odreenom obliku "must not" ne prevodimo sa "ne morati" ve "ne smeti":

    You must not to do this. (ne smete to uiniti) "Ne morati" kaemo pomou glagola "need not". Skraeni oblik od "must not" je "mustn't". Nepotpuni glagol "ought" (trebati) je jedini koji se upotrebljava u infinitivu sa "to":

    You ought to learn more seriously. (treba da ui ozbiljnije), You ought to know this. (treba to da zna)

    Glagol "ought" izraava obavezu, dunost (prevodi se sa "treba", "mora" i sl.). Odrini oblik glasi "ought not", skraeno "oughtn't". Kako ovaj glagol nema prolog vremena, misao o onome to je trebalo da se dogodi izraavamo sa "ought" i infinitivom prolim (infinitiv proli glasi: "to have said", "to have left" itd.):

    You ought to have gone. (trebalo je da ode) (3.4.) Pravilni i nepravilni glagoli - Regular and Irregular Verbs Pravilni glagoli tvore preterit i particip perfekta tako da se infinitivu doda nastavak "-ed". Npr:

    play - played, open - opened itd. Ako se glagol u infinitivu zavrava na "-e" dodaje se samo "-d". Npr:

    smile - smiled, hope - hoped itd. Nepravilni glagoli tvore preterit i particip perfekta na razne naine.

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    Preterit i particip perfekta imaju isti oblik:

    stand - stood - stood think - thought - thought

    Sva tri oblika su razliita: sing - sang - sung drive - drove - driven. Lista najeih nepravilnih glagola:

    Sva tri oblika jednaka: put - put - put hit - hit - hit

    Base Form awake be beat become begin bend bet bid bite blow break bring broadcast build burn buy catch choose come cost cut dig do draw dream drive drink eat fall feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have

    Past Simple awoke was, were beat became began bent bet bid bit blew broke brought broadcast built burned/burnt bought caught chose came cost cut dug did drew dreamed/dreamt drove drunk ate fell felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had

    Past Participle awoken been beaten become begun bent bet bid bitten blown broken brought broadcast built burned/burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt driven drunk eaten fallen felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown hung had

  • - 18 -

    Base Form hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send show shut sing sit sleep speak spend stand swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write

    Past Simple heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learned/learnt left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent showed shut sang sat slept spoke spent stood swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote

    Past Participle heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learned/learnt left lent let lain lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent showed/shown shut sung sat slept spoken spent stood swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

  • - 19 -

    (3.5.) Prelazni i neprelazni glagoli - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Prelazni glagoli su oni uz koje moe stajati objekt u akuzativu tj. direktni objekt (subject + verb + object):

    He speaks English. (on govori engleski) We are watching TV. (mi gledamo TV) I saw an elephant. (vidio sam slona)

    Neprelazni glagoli su oni uz koje ne moe stajati direktni objekt (subject + verb [+indirect object]).

    He has arrived. (on je stigao) She speaks fast. (ona govori brzo) John goes to school. (John ide u kolu)

    (3.6.) Povratni glagoli - Reflexive Verbs Povratni glagoli su oni kod kojih se radnja vraa na subjekt. Uz takve glagole stoje povratne zamjenice. Povratnih glagola u engleskom jeziku nema mnogo. Najei su:

    to dress oneself (obui se) to help oneself (pomoi se) to hurt oneself (povrediti se) to improve oneself (popraviti se) to tire oneself (umoriti se) to excuse oneself (izviniti se) to flatter oneself (hvaliti se) to amuse oneself (zabaviti se) to warm oneself (utopliti se) to take care of oneself (obui se)

    Povratni glagoli se mijenjaju ovako:

    infinitiv glasi: "to dress oneself"

    Present Simple Tense glasi: I dress myself (ja oblaim sebe) you dress yourself (ti oblai sebe) he, she, it dresses himself, herself, itself we dress ourselves you dress yourselves thes dress themselves

    Upitni oblik: Do I dress myself?

    Odrini oblik: I do not dress myself

    Upitno-odrini oblik: Do I not dress myself?

  • - 20 -

    (3.7) Vierijeni glagoli - Multi-word verbs (3.7.1.) Frazalni glagoli Frazalni glagoli spadaju u grupu vierijenih glagola, tj. glagola koji se prave od glagola i jo neke rei ili vie njih. Frazalni glagoli se grade od:

    glagol + prilog Oni mogu biti:

    neprelazni (bez direktnog objekta)

    prelazni (sa direktnim objektom) Primeri nekih frazalnih glagola: Kada su frazalni glagoli prelazni (tj. kada imaju direktni objekat), obino ih moemo rastaviti na dva dijela. Npr:

    They turned down my offer. They turned my offer down. (obe reenice su tane)

    Meutim, ako je direktni objekat zamenica, nemamo izbora, moramo razdvojiti frazalni glagol i ubaciti zamenicu. Dat je primer sa frazalnim glagolom "switch on":

    Tano: John switched on the radio. Tano: John switched the radio on Tano: John switched it on Netano: John switched on it.

    (3.7.2.) Predloni glagoli se grade na sljedei nain: glagol + priedlog Iz razloga to predlozi uvek imaju direktni objekat, svi predloni glagoli imaju direktne objekte.

    Znaenje Frazalni glagol

    neprelazni frazalni glagol

    I don't like to get up. He was late because his car broke down.

    ustati iz kreveta prestati sa radom

    get up break down

    Direktni objekat

    Primeri

    We will have to put off They turned down

    odgoditi odbiti

    put off turn down

    prelazni frazalni glagol

    the meeting. my offer.

  • - 21 -

    Primeri: Predloni glagoli Znaenje (Primjeri) Direktni objekat believe in verovati u postojanje I believe in God. look after brinuti se o He is looking after the dog talk about razgovarati o Did you talk about me? wait for ekati John is waiting for Mary. Predloni glagoli se ne mogu razdvajati, to znai da ne moemo umetnuti direktni objekat izmeu. Na primer, moramo rei: "look after the baby" a ne smemo rei: "look the baby after". (3.7.3.) Frazalni predloni glagoli se grade na sledei nain: glagol + prilog + predlog Primeri frazalnih predlonih glagola: Frazalni predloni glagoli Znaenje (Primeri ) Direktni objekat get on with imati prijateljski odnos sa He doesn't get on with his wife. put up with tolerisati I won't put up with your attitude. look forward to oekivati sa zadovoljstvom I look forward to seeing you. run out of iscrpiti We have run out of eggs. Poto se frazalni predloni glagoli tvore sa predlozima, uvijek imamo direktni objekat, i poput predlonih glagola ne smeju se razdvajati.

    We run out of fuel. We run out of it.

    (3.8.) "-ing" oblici - The "-ing" forms "-ing" oblici se grade od infinitiva i nastavka -ing, i mogu biti:

    gerund: Hunting lions is dangerous. (lov na lavove je opasan)

    particip prezenta: I am surfing. (ja surfujem)

    imenica: This building is our school. (ova zgrada je naa kola)

  • - 22 -

    (3.9.) Gerund - The Gerund Gerund je glagolski oblik koji ima osobine glagola i imenice. Glagolske osobine gerunda su:

    iza njega moe stajati prilog: He is fond of walking quickly. (on voli brzo hodati);

    iza njega moe stajati objekt: I don't like reading books. (ne volim itati knjige);

    moe stajati u raznim vremenima, imamo: gerund sadanji (surfing), gerund proli (having read), a kod prijelaznih glagola postoje i pasivni oblici gerunda: sadanji (being taught) i proli (having been taught). Imenike osobine gerunda su:

    pred njim moe stajati predlog: She's good at painting. (ona dobro slika);

    pred njim moe stajati atribut: His being nervous is due to his illness. (njegova nervoza je posledica njegove bolesti);

    pred njim moe stajati genitiv: John's being lazy makes me nervous. (Johnova lenost me ini nervoznim). Iako izgleda kao glagol, gerund ima istu funkciju kao imenica, i koristi se:

    kao subjekat reenice: Eating people is wrong. (jedenje ljudi je pogreno); Flying is dangerous. (letenje je opasno);

    kao atribut glagola "to be": One of his duties is attending meetings. (jedna od njegovih dunosti je prisustvovanje sastancima); One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed. (jedna od ivotnih ugodnosti je dorukovanje u krevetu);

    posle prijedloga. Ako posle predloga treba doi glagol moramo koristiti gerund: She is good at painting. (ona dobro slika); Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? (moe li kinuti a da ne otvori usta);

    iza frazalnih glagola koji su stvoreni po principu "glagol + predlog/prilog": (to look forward, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on): She always puts off going to dentist. (ona uvek odlae odlazak zubaru); When you are going to give up smoking? (kada e prestati puiti);

    u sloenim imenicama: a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting;

    posle izraza: can't help, can't stand, it's no use/good, do you mind, would you mind i pridjeva "worth" i "busy". It's no use trying to escape. (nema koristi pokuavati pobei) I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams. (ne mogu podneti kad se zaglavim u saobraaju) This site is worth visiting. (ovu stranicu vredi posetiti)

  • - 23 -

    (3.10.) Particip prezenta - The Present Participle Prezent particip veine glagola ima oblik osnova+ing, i koristi se u sledeim sluajevima:

    kao deo trajnog oblika glagola: I am working (ja radim) he was singing (on je pevao) they have been walking (oni su etali);

    nakon glagola pokreta/pozicije po principu: glagol+particip prezenta: She was shopping. (ona je bila u kupovini) He came running towards me. (doao je trei prema meni) She lay looking up at the clouds. (leala je gledajui u oblake)

    Ova tvorba je naroito korisna sa glagolom "to go", kao u sledeim primerima: to go shopping to go walking to go ski-ing to go swimming to go fishing to go running to go surfing to go dancing

    nakon glagola percepcije (ula) po principu glagol + objekat + particip prezenta: I heard someone singing. (uo sam nekoga kako peva) I can smell something burning! (osetim da neto gori);

    kao pridev: It was an amazing film. (bio je to neverovatan film) He was trapped inside the burning house. (bio je zatoen unutar kue u plamenu);

    sa glagolima catch (uhvatiti) i find (nai) po principu: glagol+izraz za vrijeme+prezent particip.

    Glagol "catch" sa participom prezenta izraava neku ljutnju ili pretnju: Don't let him catch you reading his letters. (ne dozvoli da te uhvati kako ita njegova pisma) If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble! (uhvatim li te jo jednom kako krade moje jabuke, bie problema) Ovo nije sluaj sa glagolom find koji ne izraava emocije: We found some money lying on the ground. (nali smo novca na zemlji) They found their mother sitting in the garden. (nali su majku kako sedi u bati);

    da zameni reenicu ili dio reenice. Kada se dve radnje deavaju u isto vreme, od strane iste osobe ili stvari, koristimo particip prezenta da ih opiemo:

    They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. They went laughing into the snow. He whistled to himself. He walked down on the road. Whistling to himself, he walked down on the road. Kada jedna radnja sledi odmah iza druge, od strane iste osobe, moemo prvu radnju izraziti participom prezenta: He put on his coat and left the house. Putting on his coat, he left the house.

  • - 24 -

    She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air.

    Particip prezenta se moe koristiti umesto poetnih as, since, because, i izraava razlog radnje: Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge. (= because he felt hungry...) Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes. Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.

    (3.11.) Direktni i indirektni govor - Direct and Indirect Speech Ako ponavljamo neije rei tano onako kako ih je neko rekao to je direktni govor (upravni govor, Direct speech), npr: on mi je rekao: "poalji mi knjigu". Ako izvetavamo ono to je neko rekao onda koristimo indirektni govor (neupravni govor, Indirect Speech or Reported Speech), npr: on mi je rekao da mu donesem knjigu. Indirektan govor se uvodi reima kao to su:

    he said (on ree) he asked (un upita) we enquired (zapitali smo) she ordered (ona zapovedi) we believed (verovasmo) I replied (odgovorih) I answered (odgovorih) i sl.

    Pri pretvaranju direktnog u indirektan govor treba potivati pravila o slaganju vremena:

    sva vremena u indirektnom obliku se moraju zameniti odgovarajuim prolim oblicima - prema pravilima o slaganju vremena:

    Direktni govor Indirektni govor Prosto sadanje Prosto prolo Prosto prolo Prezent perfekt Davno prolo Davno prolo Prosto budue Sloeno budue Imperativ Infinitiv

    sve rei koje oznaavaju blizinu moraju se zamijeniti reima koje oznaavaju udaljenost;

  • - 25 -

    Prema ovim pravilima:

    am postaje was do " did shall " should will " would have, has " had can " could may " might must " had to this " that these " those here " there now " then today " that day tomorrow " the next day yesterday " the day before last night " the night before

    D: He said: "I do not understand this letter." (On ree: "Ja ne razumem ovo pismo") I: He said that he didn't understand this letter. (on ree da ne razume to pismo) D: She said: "I am going to come soon again." (Ona ree: "Doi u uskoro ponovo".) I: She said that she was going to come soon again. (ona ree da e uskoro ponovo doi)

    ako se u indirektnom govoru saopava tue pitanje, onda je potrebno pored pomenutih pravila obratiti panju jo i na sledee: -umesto glagola "say" upotrebiemo glagol "ask"; -ako pitanje ne sadri nikakvu upitnu re (kao to su what, how, when itd.), onda pitanje u indirektnom govoru mora poeti sa "if" ili "whether".

    Primjeri: D: She said to her brother: "What are you doing?" (ona ree svom bratu: "ta radi?") I: She asked her brother what he was doing. (ona upita svog brata ta radi) D: They asked me: "Do you speak Spanish." (upitali su me: "Da li govorite panski?") I: They asked me whether I speak Spanish. (upitali su me da li govorim panski)

    da bi se u indirektnom govoru izrazila zapoved, upotrebljava se infinitiv i uvodi glagol "tell": D: Father said to his son: "Be careful of yourself." (otac ree sinu: "Pazi se"). I: Father told his son to be careful of himself. (otac ree svom sinu da se pazi).

    (3.12.) Klauze - Clauses Klauza je grupa rei koja sadri vezu subjekat-glagol (za razliku od fraza koje ne sadre vezu subjekat-glagol). Klauze se dele na:

    nezavisne (independent clauses)

    zavisne (dependent or subordinate clauses). Takoe, dele se i na:

    neophodne (restrictive or essential clauses)

    nebitne (nonrestrictive or nonessential clauses).

  • - 26 -

    Neophodne klauze su kljune za znaenje reenice i ne mogu se izbaciti, jer bi u tom sluaju znaenje reenice bilo promenjeno.

    All students who do their work should pass easily. Nebitne klauze nisu neophodne za znaenje reenice i mogu se izbaciti iz nje. Obino se odvajaju zarezima (ako se nalaze u sredini):

    Professor Villa, who used to be a secretary for the President, can type 132 words a minute. Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering him for years, had to be removed. (neophodna i nebitna klauza)

    (3.12.1.) Nezavisne i zavisne klauze Nezavisne klauze mogu stajati samostalno, kao reenica, dok zavisne moraju biti udruene sa nezavisnom klauzom. Dve nezavisne klauze mogu biti povezane sa:

    dopunskim veznikom (coordinating conjunction): Today is Tuesday and our papers are due Wednesday.

    veznim prilogom (conjunctive adverb): I need to study for my test; in fact I am going to the library now. (u ovom sluaju, koritena je i oznaka taka-zarez (;) da se razdvoje dve klauze)

    odnosnim veznikom (correlative conjunction): George not only finished his paper on time, but he also got an A+.

    oznakom taka-zarez (;): This is one of English classes; Shakespeare is my other.

    dvotakom (ponekad): She received the assignment: it is to be turned in next Friday.

    Zavisne klauze mogu biti:

    pridevske (adjective clauses)

    priloke (adverb clauses) imenike (noun clauses)

    -Pridevske klauze opisuju imenice ili zamenice, i skoro uvijek dolaze poslije imenica ili zamenica. Veina pridevskih klauza poinje sa: who, whom, which ili that. Ponekad se ove rei ne moraju nalaziti u reenici ali se podrazumevaju. The book that is on the floor should be returned to the library. (knjiga koja je na podu bi se trebala vratiti u biblioteku) The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace. (most koji se sruio u zimskoj oluji e kotati milione za popravku) My brother, who is an engineer, figured it out for me. (moj brat, koji je inenjer, je shvatio to za mene)

  • - 27 -

    -Priloke klauze obino dopunjuju glagole i mogu se pojaviti bilo gde u reenici. Oni kau zato, gde ili pod kojim uslovima se radnja odvijala. Za razliku od pridevskih klauza, priloke klauze se esto mogu pomerati u reenici. Npr: When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. We know the cake is done when the timer rings. Priloke klauze uvek poinju sa zavisnim veznikom, koji uvodi klauzu i izraava njenu vezu sa ostatkom reenice. When the movie is over, we'll go downtown. John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject. -Imenike klauze nisu rei koje dopunjuju druge rei za razliku od prideva i priloga. U reenici funkcioniraju kao subjekat, direktni objekat ili predloki objekat. Imenika klauza obino poinje sa: that, which, who, whoever, whomever, whose, what i whatsoever. Takoe, mogu poinjati i sa zavisnim veznicima: how, when, where, whether, why. What he knows [subjekat] is no concern of mine. Do you know what he knows [objekat]? In fact, he wrote a book about what he had done over the years [objekat predloga]. Whoever wins the game will play in the tournament. (3.12.2.) Relativne klauze Relativne klauze (relative clauses) se zavisne klauze koje dopunjuju (menjaju) imenice ili zamenice. Uvode se relativnim zamjenicama: who, whom, which, that, whose. Mogu biti neophodne (restrictive or essential) ili nebitne (nonrestrictive or nonessential) klauze. U relativnoj klauzi, relativna zamenica je subjekat glagola i odnosi se na neto s im je klauza u vezi. Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering him for years, had to be removed. (U ovoj reenici podvuene rei ine neophodnu klauzu, s toga nee biti odvojene zarezima. Nakoena (italic) slova ine relativnu nebitnu klauzu, zbog ega su odvojene zarezima od ostatka reenice, a u ovom sluaju dopunjuje re "wart") Ponekad relativne klauze mogu da se donose na vie od jedne rei u tekstu, tj. mogu da dopunjuju, opisuju celu klauzu ili ak vie njih. Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends. Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends. Relativna klauza koja dopunjuje celu klauzu ili vie njih se naziva reenina klauza (sentential clause).

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    (3.12.3.) Eliptine klauze Eliptine klauze (elliptical clauses) su gramatiki nepotpune, u smislu da im nedostaje relativna zamenica (zavisna re) koja inae uvodi takvu klauzu. Rei eliptine klauze koje nedostaju se mogu naslutiti iz konteksta i veina italaca ne osea da neto nedostaje. U stvari, eliptine klauze su tane ali i korisne, jer su esto elegantne i efikasne u izrazu.

    Coach Espinoza knew [that] this team would be the best [that] she had coached in recent years.

    Though [they were] sometimes nervous on the court, her recruits proved to be hard workers.

    Sometimes the veterans knew the recruits could play better than they [could play]. (3.13.) Kondicionali - The conditionals Kondicional se gradi od pomonog glagola "should" i "would", i infinitiva bez "to" glagola kojeg menjamo. Sadanji kondicional se gradi sa should i would i infinitivom prezenta, a proli kondicional se gradi sa should i would i infinitivom perfekta glagola kojeg menjamo. Sadanji kondicional { Proli kondicional { Odrini oblik se gradi tako to se iza should i would stavi "not":

    I should not take. (ne bih uzeo) I should not have taken. (ne bih bio uzeo).

    Upitni oblik se gradi inverzijom:

    should I take? (da li bih uzeo?) should I have taken? (da li bih bio uzeo?)

    Sadanji i proli kondicional se koriste pri gradnji pogodbenih reenica. Struktura veine pogodbenih reenica je veoma jednostavna, i izgleda ovako:

    if uslov posledica If y=10 2y=20

    ili

    posledica if uslov 2y=20 if y=10

    To znai ako (if) je odreeni uslov zadovoljen, onda (then) e doi do neke posledice. Pogodbene reenice se takoe zovu i kondicionalima, a ponekad ih nazivamo "if reenicama", jer esto (ali ne i uvek) u njima se upotrebljava re "if". Ovdje e biti obraene tri osnovna tipa kondicionala i tzv. nulti-kondicional.

    Prvi kondicional (First Conditional) Drugi kondicional (Second Conditional) Trei kondicional (Third Conditional) Nulti-kondicional (Zero Conditional)

    I should take - uzeo bih you should take - ti bi uzeo itd.

    I should have taken - bio bih uzeo you should have taken - ti bio uzeo itd

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    (3.13.1.) Prvi kondicional - realna mogunost (First conditional: real possibility) Govorimo o budunosti. Razmiljamo o nekom uslovu ili situaciji u budunosti, i njenoj posledici. Postoji stvarna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti. Na primer, jutro je, kod kue ste i planirate igrati tenis popodne. Meutim na nebu se javljaju oblaci, zamislite da pone padati kia. ta ete uraditi? If it rains, I will stay at home. (ako bude padala kia, ostau kod kue)

    If uslov posledica If it rains I will stay at home.

    - prosto sadanje vreme budue vreme

    Treba primetiti da kia jo nije pala, meutim nebo je oblano i postoji realna mogunost (real possibility) da e kia pasti. Kao to vidite da bi izrazili mogui uslov koristili smo sadanje prosto vreme (Present Simple Tense). Za izraavanje mogue posledice koristili smo futur. Najvanije je zapamtiti da kod prvog kondicionala postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti.

    posledica if uslov budue vreme if prosto sadanje vreme I will tell Mary if I see her.

    What will you do if it rains tomorrow.

    Their teacher will be sad if they do not pass the exam.

    Ponekad moemo koristiti: shall, can ili may umesto will, na primer: If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight. (ako bude danas dobar, moe gledati TV veeras) (3.13.2.) Drugi kondicional - nevjerovatna mogunost (Second conditional - unreal possibility or dream) Kod drugog kondicionala, kao i kod prvog, razmiljamo o nekom uslovu u budunosti, i rezultatu tog uslova, meutim, za raziliku od prvog kondicionala, ovde ne postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti. Na primer: veeras je izvlaenje brojeva lota, niste kupili loto listi, i ne postoji nikakva ansa da ete dobiti novac. Ali moda ete kupiti listi do veeras, i onda postoji ansa, ali je to neverovatna mogunost, jer su izgledi opet jako mali da izvuku va listi.

    If uslov posledica If prosto prolo vreme kondicional sadanji If I married Mary I would be happy.

    If it snowed next July would you be suprised?

    If Ram became rich she would marry him.

    If I won the lottery I would by a car.

    Primjetite, da kod drugog kondicionala koristimo prosto prolo vrijeme za izraavanje uslova, a sadanji kondicional za izraavanje eventualne posledice. Bitna stvar kod drugog kondicionala je da ne postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti, tj. anse su jako male da e se uslov ispuniti. Ponekad, umesto glagola would koristimo should, could or might: If I won a million dollars, I could stop working. (da dobijem milion dolara, mogao bih prestati raditi)

  • - 30 -

    (3.13.3.) Trei kondicional - bez mogunosti (Third conditional - no possibility) Kod prvog i drugog kondicionala govorimo o budunosti, meutim kod treeg govorimo o prolosti, govorimo o uslovu u prolosti koji se nije dogodio. Zbog toga ne postoji mogunost da se uslov ispuni. Prole sedmice ste kupili loto listi ali niste dobili .

    If uslov posledica If sloeno prolo vreme (past perfect) kondicional proli

    If I had won the lottery I would have bought a car.

    If I had seen Mary I would have told her.

    If it had rained yesterday what would you have done?

    If Tara had been free yesterday I would have invited her.

    If they had not passed their exam, their teacher would have been sad. (da nisu poloili ispit, njihov uitelj bi bio tuan) Da bi smo izrazili uslov u prolosti koji se nije ostvario koristili smo sloeno prolo vreme (past perfect), dok za izraavanje posledice koja se nee dogoditi smo koristili kondicional proli. Bitna stvar kod treeg kondicionala je da ne postoji sada nikakva ansa da se uslov i posledica dogode. Ponekad umesto would have koristimo should have, could have, might have: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won. (da si kupio listi lota, mogao si dobiti) (3.13.4.) Nulti kondicional - sigurno ispunjenje uslova (Zero conditional - certainty) Tzv. nulti kondicional koristimo kada je uslov uvek taan, poput neke opte poznate injenice. Na primer, ako zagrevamo led iznad 0 stepeni on e se poeti topiti.

    If uslov posledica If prosto sadanje vreme prosto sadanje vreme If you heat ice it melts.

    Vano je napomenuti da kod nultog kondicionala ne govorimo ni o prolosti, ni o sadanjosti ni o budunosti, ve jednostavno priamo o nekoj opepoznatoj injenici. Da bi izrazili uslov i posljedicu koristimo prosto sadanje veme. Najvanije kod nultog kondicionala je zapamtiti da uslov ima uvek istu posledicu.

    If uslov posledica if prosto sadaenje vreme prosto sadanje vreme If I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work. If I am late for work my boss gets angry. If people don't eat they get hungry.

    Takoe, umesto if moemo koristiti when: When I get up late I miss by bus. (kada ustanem kasno, zakasnim na autobus)

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    (3.13.5.) Kondicionali - ukratko Tip kondicionala glavna reenica "if" reenica Prvi kondicional budue vrijeme sadanje vrijeme Drugi kondicional kondicional sadanji prosto budue vrijeme Trei kondicional kondicional proli sloeno prolo vrijeme Nulti kondicional prosto sadanje vrijeme prosto sadanje vrijeme Sledea tabela daje prikaz kondicionala po verovatnosti ispunjenja uslova. Naravno, procenti za prvi i drugi kondicional su dati samo orijentaciono za poreenje. verovatnoa kondicional primer vreme 100% nulti If you heat ice, it melts. - 50% prvi If it rains, I will stay at home. budunost 5% drugi If I won the lottery, I would buy a car. budunost 0% trei If I had won a lottery, I would have bought a car. prolost (3.14.) Trpno stanje (pasiv) - Passive Voice

    subjekat + pomoni glagol "to be" + particip proli glavnog glagola Trpno stanje (pasiv) mogu imati samo prelazni glagoli, tj. takvi koji uz sebe mogu imati objekat. Pasiv pokazuje da subjekat ne vri radnju, ve da se radnja vri na subjektu:

    The road has been repaired. (put je popravljen) Pasivni oblici se grade tako to se uzme ono vrijeme glagola "to be" koje nam je potrebno i doda se particip proli glagola kojeg menjamo. To znai, da se pasivni prezent gradi od prezenta glagola "to be" i participa prolog glagola koji menjamo. Aktivnu reenicu moemo pretvoriti u pasivnu ako se glagol stavi u trpno stanje, subjekat aktivne reenice postaje objekat pasivne, i ispred njega se stavlja predlog "by":

    A: Everybody drinks water. (svi piju vodu) P: Water is drunk by everybody. (voda se pije od svih) - subjekat glagol objekat aktiv Everybody drinks water

    pasiv Water is drunk by everybody.

    A: I wrote this letter. (ja sam napisao ovo pismo) P: This letter was written by me. (pismo je napisano od mene)

    Neprelazni glagoli mogu postati prelazni ako im se doda predlog. Trpno stanje se upotrebljava mnogo ee u engleskom jeziku nego u naem, koristi se:

    kada subjekat koji vri radnju nije poznat:

    My car has been stollen. (ukraden mi je auto) She was given a nice birthday present. (dobila je lep poklon za roendan)

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    ako se ne eli pomenuti vrilac radnje:

    I have been told that you are engaged. (reeno mi je da ste se verili) She was said to have left her husband. (pria se da je ostavila svog mua)

    ako nije potrebno pomenuti vrioca radnje jer to proizilazi iz konteksta (smisla) reenice ili nije bitno za smisao da mora biti pomenut:

    Mistakes are always made. (greke se uvek prave)

    ako je subjekat pasivne reenice vaniji od vrioca radnje:

    The "Tower" was written by Mea Selimovi. (Roman "Tvrava" je napisana od strane Mee Selimovia) The boy was punished by his father. (deko je kanjen od svog oca) Aleksa was attended by his sister during his illness. (Aleksu je njegova sestra negovala za vreme bolesti)

    Bezlini oblici u naem jeziku kao to su "kae se", "razume se", "podrazumeva se" u engleskom jeziku se iskazuju u treem licu jednine srednjeg roda:

    it is understood (razume se, podrazumeva se) that is known (to se zna) it is said (pria se)

    Konjugacija pasiva u veini moguih vremena: infinitiv to be called simple present it is called past it was called future it will be called conditional it would be called continous present it is being called past it was being called future it will be being called conditional it would be being called perfect simple present it has been called past it has been called future it will have been called conditional it would have been called perfect continous present it has been being called past it had been being called future it will have been being called conditional it would have been being called

  • - 33 -

    (3.15.) Slaganje vremena - Sequence of Tenses (3.15.1.) Slaganje glagolskih vremena Tabele ispod pokazuju ispravno slaganje vremena u reenicama kod kojih je vreme od vitalnog znaaja. Vreme u glavnoj reenici Vreme u zavisnoj reenici Primer

    Sadanje prosto (Simple Present) Prosto prolo vreme (Simple Past) Prezent perfekt ili past perfekt (Present Perfect or Past Perfect) Budue vreme (Futur) Predbudue vreme, svreni futur (Future Perfect Tense)

    Da se izrazi istovremena radnja, koristite sadanje prosto vreme. Da se izrazi prola radnja, koristite prosto prolo vreme. Da se izrazi radnja koja je poela u trenu u prolosti i traje do danas, koristite present perfect. Da izrazite radnju koja e se desiti, koristite prosto budue vreme. Da izrazite drugu zavrenu radnju, koristite prosto prolo vreme. Da izrazite radnju koja se desila prije druge radnje koristite past perfect. Da izrazite ope poznatu injenicu koristite sadanje vreme. U svakom sluaju koristite prolo vreme. Da izrazite istovremenu radnju koristite sadanje vreme. Da izrazite radnju koja se desila ranije, koristite prolo vreme. Da se izrazi radnja u budunosti koja e se desiti prije radnje u nezavisnoj reenici, koristite prezent perfekt. U svakom sluaju koristite sadanje vreme ili prezent perfekt.

    I am eager to go to the concert because I love the Wallflowers. I know that I made the right choice. They believe that they have elected the right candidate. The President says that he will veto the bill. I wanted to go home because I missed my parents. She knew she had made the right choice. The Deists believed that the universe is like a giant clock. She has grown a foot since she turned nine. The crowd had turned nasty before the sheriff returned. I will be so happy if they fix my car today. You will surely pass this exam if you studied hard. The college will probably close its doors next summer if enrollments have not increased Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they graduate. Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they have graduated.

  • - 34 -

    (3.15.2.) Slaganje vremena sa infinitivima i participima

    Infinitiv

    Participi Vreme participa Uloga participa Primeri

    Vreme infinitiva Infinitiv sadanji (Present Infinitive, to see) Infnitiv perfekta (Perfect Infinitive, to have seen)

    Uloga infinitiva Da se izrazi istovremena radnja ili radnja posle glagola. Da se izrazi radnja koja se desila pre glagola.

    Primer Coach Espinoza is eager to try out her new drills. ["eagerness" je sada; "to try out" e se desiti posle.] She would have liked to see more veterans returning. [Infinitiv prezenta "to see" je u istom trenutku kao i prolo vreme "would have liked".] The fans would like to have seen some improvement this year. ["Would like" opisuje stanje u sadanjosti; "to have seen" opisuje neto pre tog vremena.] They consider the team to have been coached very well. [Infinitiv perfekta to have been coached ukazuje na radnju prije glagola consider.]

    Prezent participa (Present of Participle, seeing)

    Da se izrazi radnja koja se deava u isto vreme kada i glagol.

    Working on the fundamentals, the team slowly began to improve. [Unapreujui osnove, tim je poeo polahko napredovati, radnja se deava u paralelno, u isto vreme]

  • - 35 -

    (3.16.) Sadanje vreme (3.16.1.) Sadanje prosto vreme - Simple Present Tense Sadanje vreme svih glagola obrazuje se tako da se uz glagolska vremena uvek stavljaju line zamenice. Jedino se tree lice jednine prezenta razlikuje od ostalih lica, jer dobija nastavak "-s" ili "-es", osim glagola: to be - biti, to have - imati, can, may - moi, must - morati, ought - trebati. Nastavak "-s" za sadanje vreme izgovara se kao "s" ako dolazi iza bezvunog suglasnika, ili "z" ako dolazi iza zvunog suglasnika ili samoglasnika: he speaks (hi spi:ks), he reads (hi ri:dz). Glagoli koji se zavravaju na s, x, z, sh i ch obrazuju tree lice nastavkom jednine nastavkom "-es": he dresses, he teaches. Glagoli koji se u infinitivu zavravaju na "-y", kad pred tim "y" stoji suglasnik, menjaju "y" u "i", u treem licu jednine: to cry (he cries), to try (to tries). Odrini oblik sadanjeg vremena pravi se tako to se uzme sadanje vreme pomonog glagola "to do", pa se zatim doda negacija "not" i infinitiv glagola koji se menja, bez predloga "to": I write (ja piem) - I do not write, I don't write Upitni oblik sadanjeg vremena pravi se tako pravi se tako to se uzme sadanje vreme pomonog glagola "to do" u inverziji i infinitiv glagola koji se mijenja, bez prijedloga "to". You write (ti pie) - Do you write? (pie li?)

    Particip proli ili particip prezent perfekta (Past Participle or Present Perfect Participle

    Da se izrazi radnja koja se deava pre glagola.

    Having experimented with several game plans, the coaching staff devised a master strategy. [Particip prezent perfekta "having experimented", ukazuje na vreme pre glagola u prolom vremenu "devised".] Prepared by last year's experience, the coach knows not to expect too much. [Radnja izraena pomou glagola u prezentu "knows", je posledica glagola u prolom vremenu "prepared".]

  • - 36 -

    Sadanje prosto vreme se upotrebljava:

    da oznai radnju ije trajanje nije odreeno: I write (ja piem), I work (ja radim); da potvrdi jednu poznatu istinu: fish live in water (ribe ive u vodi); da oznai radnju koja se vri po navici: I always rise early (uvek ustajem rano); da oznai radnju koja se ponavlja: I have an English lesson three times a week

    (imam as engleskog tri puta sedmino). The sun rises. past present future Sunce izlazi svaki dan, pre, sada i posle.

    Jenny is not here. past present future Jenny trenutno nije prisutna.

    to call - zvati I call ja zovem I do not call do I call? you call ti zove you do not call do you call? he, she, it calls on, ona , ono zove he, she, it does not call does, he ,she, it call? we call mi zovemo we do not call do we call? you call vi zovete you do not call do you call? they call oni, one, ona zovu they do not call do they call? (3.16.2.) Sadanje trajno vreme - Present Continuous Tense prezent glagola "to be" + prezent particip glavnog glagola

    I am speaking (ja govorim) you are speaking he, she, it is speaking we are speaking you are speaking they are speaking

    Present participle se pravi dodavanjem glagolu nastavka "-ing". Meutim, ponekad moramo malo promeniti re, verovatno udvostruiti ili izostaviti jedno slovo.

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    Present Continuous Tense (sadanje trajno vreme) se upotrebljava:

    da oznai radnju koja se vri u vremenu kada o njoj govorimo:

    I am learning English now. (sada uim engleski)

    You are reading this now. (sada ovo itate) past present future

    Radnja se dogaa sada. Knjiga Svea Devojka ...the pages are turning. ...the candle is burning. ...the girl is dancing. Meutim, radnja se ne mora odvijati tano sada, ali se deavala neto ranije i moda e se deavati poslije trenutka kada o njoj govorimo:

    She is reading a book. past present future

    Ona moda ne ita knjigu tano sada.

    da oznai radnju ije je trajanje neprekidno, i tada se obino upotrebljavaju prilozi always, constantly, forever itd: The Sun is rising constantly. (Sunce izlazi svaki dan) You are always complaining about your mother-in-law. (uvek se alite na svoju tatu)

    Izuzetak 1 Izuzetak 2 Izuzetak 3

    run > running stop > stopping begin > beginning Ovo pravilo ne vai kada naglasak nije na zadnjem slogu glagola: open > opening Ako glagol zavrava na ie, menjamo ie u y: lie > lying die > dying Ako glagol zavrava na vokal + suglasnik + e, izostavljamo e: come > coming mistake > mistaking

    Ako se glagol zavrava na: suglasnik - naglaeni vokal-suglasnik zadnje slovo se udvostruava: s t o p suglasnik naglaeni vokal suglasnik

  • - 38 -

    da se izrazi radnja koja je ve isplanirana i desie se u budunosti: I'm meeting my girlfriend tonight. (veeras u se nai sa devojkom)

    Glagoli koji oznaavaju neko stanje, a ne radnju, obino se ne koriste u trajnom obliku. Lista glagola koji se veinom koriste u "simple" formi: ula (percepcija) feel*, hear, see*, smell, taste miljenje assume, feel, consider, doubt, feel (misliti), find (misliti), suppose, think* mentalna stanja forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understand emocije/elje envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish merenja contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh ostali look (biti slian), seem, be (u veini sluajeva), have (kada znai posedovati) - glagoli ula (feel, see, hear, taste,smell) se esto koriste sa glagolom 'can': I can see... (mogu videti) itd. - * Ovi glagoli mogu se koristiti u trajnoj formi ali sa drugim znaenjem, npr:

    This coat feels nice and warm. (ovaj brod je lep i udoban, to je naa percepcija, oseaj kvaliteta broda) John's feeling much better now. (Don se osea mnogo bolje sada, njegovo zdravlje se poboljava);

    She has three dogs and a cat. (ona ima tri psa i maku, posedovanje) She's having supper. (ona veera, ona jede);

    I can see Anthony in the garden. (vidim Anthony-a u bati, percepcija) I'm seeing Anthony later. (susreu Anthony-a kasnije, planiramo se susresti)

    to call - zvati I'm calling I'm not calling am I calling? you're calling you aren't calling are you calling? he, she, it's calling he, she, it isn't calling is he, she, it calling? we're calling we aren't calling are we calling? you're calling you aren't calling are you calling? they're calling you aren't calling are they calling?

    (3.16.3.) Sloeno sadanje vreme - Present Perfect Simple Tense

    pomoni glagol "to have" + past particip glavnog glagola Sloenim sadanjim vremenom se izraava povezanost izmeu prolosti i sadanjosti, tano vreme deavanja radnje nije naznaeno, to znai da smo vie zainteresirani za rezultat radnje nego za samu radnju. Kada bi smo rekli kada se radnja odvija morali bismo upotrebiti prolo vreme (past simple tense).

  • - 39 -

    Sloeno sadanje vreme se koristi: da se opie radnja ili stanje koje je poelo u prolosti i nastavlja se u sadanjosti:

    This website has been in existence for 5 years, 10 months, and 20 days. (ova stranica postoji ve...); I have lived in Sarajevo since 1970. (ivim u Sarajevu od 1970-te, i jo uvek ivim);

    da se izrazi radnja koja je zavrena u vremenskom periodu koji jo traje:

    I have been to Novi Sad this week. (ove nedelje sam putovao u Novi Sad, sedmica jo nije zavrena);

    da se oznai radnja koja je zavrena nekad u prolosti, ali je rezultat radnje vaan:

    I have buoght a car. (kupio sam auto, vano je da je auto kupljen, nije bitno kada); uz priloge koji oznaavaju neprekidan razmak vremena: ever, never, yet, already, since, for: Have you ever been to Serbia? (jeste li ikada bili u Srbijii?);

    da se izrazi radnja koja se upravo dogodila (uz priloge "just'' ili ''just now''): The guests have just entered the hall. (gosti su upravo uli u dvoranu).

    Amerikanci ne koriste sloeno sadanje vreme toliko kao Britanci. Amerikanci ee upotrebljavaju prolo vreme umesto sloenog sadanjeg vremena. Amerikanac bi rekao: "Did you have lunch?", dok bi Britanac rekao: "Have you had lunch?". to call - zvati I have called (ja sam zvao) I haven't called have I called? you have called you haven't called have you called? he, she, it has called he, she, it hasn't called have he, she, it called? we have called we haven't called have we called? you have called you haven't called have you called? they have called they haven't called have they called? (3.16.4.) Nesvreni perfekt - Present Perfect Continuous Tense

    prezent perfekt glagola "to be" (have/has been) + prezent particip glavnog glagola I have been playing You have been working Upitni oblik se pravi konverzijom: Have I been playing? Odrini oblik se pravi dodavanjem rei "not": I have not been playing. Kada piemo present continous, esto se upotrebljavaju skraenice: I have been - I've been itd. Present Perfect Continous Tense koristimo:

    da izrazimo radnju koja je nedavno ili upravo zavrila. I obino imamo sada imamo neku posledicu:

    I'm tired because I've been running. past present future

    !!!!! - -

    radnja koja se desila nedavno

    sad imamo posledicu

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    I'm tired because I've running. (umoran sam (sada) jer sam trao) Why is the grass wet? Has it been raining? (zato je trava vlana (sada)? je li padala kia?) You don't understand because you haven't been listening. (ne razumete (sada), jer niste sluali).

    da izrazimo radnju radnju koja je poela u prolosti i nastavlja se u sadanjosti, u ovom sluaju esto se koriste for i since:

    I've been reading for two hours. past present future I've been reading for two hours. (itam ve dva sata, i jo uvijek itam) How long have you been learning English? (koliko dugo ui engleski? a jo ga ui) We have not been smoking. (nismo puili, a ni sada ne puimo).

    Kako je ranije napomenuto uz present perfect continuous esto koristimo "for" i "since". For koristimo kada priamo o razdoblju vremena: 5 minuta, 7 sedmica, 20 godina. Ako to razdoblje see do sadanjeg trenutka upotrebljavamo uz for perfekt, a ako je to razdoblje zavreno moramo upotrebiti past simple (preterit). Tara hasn't been feeling well for two weeks. (Tara se ne osea dobro ve dve sedmice) ali Tara didn't feel well for two weeks, and now she feels well. (Tara se nije dobro oseala ve dve sedmice, a sada se osea dobro). Since koristimo kada znamo od koje vremenske take se odvija radnja: u 9 sati, 7. januara, u petak.

    for since period vremena od vremenske take 20 minutes 6.15 am

    three days Monday

    six months January

    a long time I left school

    ever the beginning of time

    itd. itd.

    nastavlja se u sadanjosti

    radnja poela u prolosti

  • - 41 -

    I've been studying for three hours. (uim ve tri sata) I've been watching TV since 7pm. (gledam TV od 7 sati posle podne) Tara hasn't been visiting us since March. (Tara nas nije posetila od Marta)

    For se moe koristiti u svim vremenima, since se obino koristi samo sa perfect vremenima. to call - zvati I have been calling I have not been calling have I been calling? you have been calling you have not been calling have you been calling? he, she, it has been calling he, she, it has not been calling has he, she, it been calling? we have been calling we have not been calling have we been calling? you have been calling you have not been calling have you been calling? they have been calling they have not been calling have they been calling? (3.17.) Prola vremena (3.17.1) Prolo svreno vreme - Past Simple Tense Da bi napravili prolo svreno vreme koristimo infinitiv i proli oblik (preterit) glagola. Tvorba prolog svrenog vremena:

    a) potvrdna reenica:

    subjekat + glavni glagol u prolom obliku (preteritu) I lived in that house when I was young. (iveo sam u toj kui kada sam bio mlad) She played basketball last week. (ona je igrala koarku prole sedmice)

    b) odrina reenica:

    subjekat + preterit od "do" + not + infinitiv glavnog glagola He didn't like the movie. (nije mu se dopao film) Mary did not go to work last Monday. (Mary nije otila na posao prolog ponedeljka)

    -

    pravilni glagoli

    nepravilni

    glagoli

    infinitiv work explode like go see sing

    preterit worked exploded liked went saw sang

    past particip worked exploded liked gone seen sung Past particip nam nije potreban pri graenju prolog vremena.

    - Proli oblik svih glagola zavrava na -ed. Proli oblik nepravilnih glagola se ne gradi po nekom pravilu i ui se napamet.

  • - 42 -

    c) upitna reenica: preterit od "do"+ subjekat + infinitiv glavnog glagola Did you play tennis last week. (je si li igrao tenis prole sedmice) Did he watch TV last night. (je li gledao TV prole sedmice)

    Glagol did (preterit od "do") u svim licima ima isti oblik.

    I did not go to London. (nisam bio u Londonu) You did not go to London. He did not go to London. itd.

    Glagol be nema u svim licima isti oblik, upitnu reenicu pravimo zamenom subjekta i glagola.

    I, he, she, it was here. - Was I, he, she, it here? You were here. - were you here?

    Ako glagol zavrava na suglasnik ispred kojeg stoji kratak naglaen vokal, krajnji samoglasnik se udvostruava:

    plan - planned skip - skipped

    Krajnje "l" se uvek udvostruava:

    level - levelled call - called

    Ako glagol zavrava na "-y" ispred kojeg se nalazi suglasnik, taj se "y" mijenja u "i":

    worry - worried cry - cried

    Prosto prolo vreme koristimo:

    a) da se izrazi radnja koja se desila u prolosti i potpuno zavrila pa nema nikakve veze sa sadanjou: I was in Liverpool last year. (bio sam u Liverpulu prole godine);

    b) da se izrazi radnja koja je trajala neko vreme u prolosti bez ikakve veze sa sadanjou:

    We went to school when we were children. (ili smo u kolu kada smo bili deca);

    c) kada govorimo o stvarima koje elimo da se dogode ili bi trebalo da se dogode: It's time they were back. (vreme je da se vrate) I wish I had a new computer. (voleo bih da imam novi kompjuter)

    d) u zavisnoj reenici ako je u glavnoj prosto prolo vreme (slaganje vremena):

    The policeman told me I drove to much. (policajac mi je rekao da sam previe vozio) Kada kaemo kada ili gde se radnja dogodila, moramo koristiti prosto prolo vreme, a ne sloeno sadanje vreme (present perfect tense). to call - zvati I called (ja sam zvao) I didn't call did I call? you called you didn't call did you call? he, she, it called he, she, it didn't call did he, she, it call? we called we didn't call did we call? you called you didn't call did you call? they called they didn't call did they call?

  • - 43 -

    (3.17.2.) Prolo trajno vreme - The Past Continuous Tense

    prolo vrijeme glagola "to be" + particip prezenta glavnog glagola

    She was reading. (ona je itala) We were playing. (mi smo igrali)

    Odrini oblik se pravi dodavanjem reice not:

    She was not reading - She wasn't reading.

    Upitni oblik se pravi inverzijom: Was she playing? Were we playing?

    Nesvreni preterit se upotrebljava:

    da se opie pozadina, odnosno da se pred itaoce postavi scena prie pisana u prolom vremenu. Obino pria poinje nesvrenim preteritom, a zatim se nastavlja prolim vremenom, npr: "James Bond was driving through town. It was raining. The wind was blowing hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, Bond saw the killer in a telephone box...";

    da se opie radnja koja je trajala do trenutka kada ju je prekinula neka druga prola radnja: I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang. (divno sam sanjao kada se alarm oglasio); I was watching TV when you telephoned. (gledao sam TV kada si nazvao)

    da se izrazi promjena miljenja:

    I was going to spend the day at the beach but I've decided to go on an excursion instead. (mislio sam provesti dan na plai ali sam odluio otii na ekskurziju)

    za dve radnje koje se deavaju istovremeno:

    The children were playing while their mothers were chatting. (deca su se igrala dok njihove majke avrljale)

    u zavisnoj reenici umesto nesvrenog prezenta ako je u glavnoj reenici preterit:

    I knew that he was talking to her about her daughter. (znao sam da se sa njom razgovara o njenoj keri).

    Kod glagola koji se ne koriste u trajnom obliku upotrebljava se obini preterit. to call - zvati I was calling I was not calling was I calling? you were calling. you were not calling were you calling? he, she, it was calling he, she, it wasn't calling was he, she, it calling? we were calling we weren't calling were we calling? you were calling you weren't calling were you callingg? they were calling they weren't calling were they calling?

  • - 44 -

    (3.17.3.) Pluskvamperfekat (davno prolo vreme) - The Past Perfect Tense

    subjekat + simple past od "to have" + past particip glavnog glagola U odrinim reenicama ubacujemo reicu not izmeu pomonog i glavnog glagola, a upitnu reenicu pravimo zamenom subjekta i pomonog glagola. Past Perfect Tense (pluperfekt) se upotrebljava:

    1) da bi se izrazila radnja u prolosti koja se desila prije neke druge radnje u prolosti, takoer izraava radnju za koje se pretpostavljalo da je trebalo da se dogodi u prolosti - pre neke druge radnje: We had left home before he came. (bili smo otili pre nego to je on doao) The train left at 9am. We arrived at 9.15am. The train had left when we arrived. (voz je krenuo u 9 sati. Mi smo stigli u 9 i 15. Voz je bio otiao kada smo mi stigli.) The train had left when we arrived. past present future

    Voz odlazi u 9 sati. 9 9.15 Mi stiemo u 9 i 15.

    I was not hungry. I had just eaten. (nisam bio gladan, upravo sam bio jeo) I didn't know who he was. I had never seen him before. (nisam znao ko je on, nisam ga nikad bio video) He said that he had seen him at the theatre. (rekao je da ga je bio vidio kod pozorita). U ovom primeru past perfect je upotrebljen u indirektnom govoru umesto past simple u direktnom.

    2) u zavisnim reenicama uz after:

    He got a headache after he had washed his hair. (dobio je glavobolju nakon to je oprao kosu);

    3) iza izraza: as if (kao da), if only (kad bi barem), I wish (kamo sree da), past perfectom se

    izraava neto to nije ostvareno u prolosti: I wish I had met you before. (kamo sree da sam te ranije sreo) If only you had sent me the SMS. (da si mi barem poslala SMS) He played the basketball as if he had played in NBA. (igrao je koarku kao da je igrao u NBA)

    to call - zvati I had called I had not called had I called? you had called you had not called had you called? he, she, it had called he, she, it had called had he, she, it called? we had called we had called had we called? you had called you had called had you called? they had called they had called had they called?

  • - 45 -

    (3.17.4.) Nesvreni pluskvamperfekt - The Past Perfect Continuous Tense subjekat + simple past od "to have" + past particip od "to be" + present particip gl. glagola Odrini oblik se pravi ubacivanjem reice not, a upitni oblik inverzijom subjekta i glagola "to have". Past Perfect Continuous upotrebljava se da bi se oznaila radnja koja je trajala u prolosti prije neke druge prole radnje:

    Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours.

    Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived. past present future 9 11 Ja sam stigao u 11 sati.

    John was very tired. he had been running. (John je bio veoma umoran, trao je cele veeri) I could smell cigarettes. somebody had been smoking. (osetio sam cigarete, neko je puio).

    Past Perfect Continous se takoe upotrebljava u indirektnom govoru umesto trajnog oblika prolog vremena (past continous tense) u direktnom govoru.

    D: Peter said: "Some of my friends have playing cards all night." (Peter ree: "Neki moji prijatelji su igrali karte cele veeri".) I: Peter said that some of his friends had been playing cards all night.

    to call - zvati I had been calling I had not been calling had I been calling? you had been calling you had not been calling had you been calling? he, she, it had been calling he, she, it had not been calling had he, she, it had been calling? we had been calling we had not been calling had we been calling? you had been calling you had not been calling had you been calling? they had been calling they had not been calling had they been calling? (3.18.) Budua vremena (3.18.1.) Prosto budue vreme - Futur Simple Tense subjekat + pomoni glagol will + infinitiv glavnog glagola Odrine reenice se prave umetanjem reice not izmeu pomonog i glavnog glagola, a upitne reenice inverzijom subjekta i pomonog glagola. U prvom licu jednine i mnoine umesto glagola will, moe se koristiti glagol shall, meutim u modernom engleskom will se vie koristi od shall: I shall call - we shall call (ja u zvati - mi emo zvati).

    Ram je poeo sa ekanjem u 9 sati.

  • - 46 -

    Prosto budue vreme se upotrebljava da bi oznaila radnja koja e se desiti u budunosti. Prostobudue vreme se naroito esto upotrebljava posle glagola koji oznaavaju oekivanje, nadu itd.Takoe se koristi da bi se izrazila namera, odluka, pretnja ili obeanje.

    I hope we will have better luck next day. (nadam se da emo imati vie sree drugi put) I expect that he will come tomorrow. (oekujem da e on doi sutra) I will help her because she is beautiful. (pomoi u joj jer je lepa)

    to call - zvati I will call (ja u zvati) I will not call will I call? you will call you will not call will you call? he, she, it will call he, she, it will not call will he, she, it call? we will call we will not call will we call? you will call you will not call