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Genetic Engineering Engineering 2014... Genetic Engineering • Genetic Engineers can alter the DNA code of living organisms. • Selective Breeding • Recombinant DNA • Transgenic

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  • Genetic Engineering

    • Genetic Engineers can

    alter the DNA code of

    living organisms.

    • Selective Breeding

    • Recombinant DNA

    • Transgenic Organisms

    • PCR

    • Gel Electrophoresis

    • Cloning

  • 1. Selective Breeding

    • Breed only those plants or animals with desirable traits

    • People have been using selective breeding for 1000’s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.

  • 2. Recombinant DNA

    • The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism.

    • Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970’s with bacteria.

  • Recombinant Bacteria 1. Remove bacterial DNA

    (plasmid).

    2. Cut the Bacterial DNA with “restriction enzymes”.

    3. Cut the DNA from another organism with “restriction enzymes”.

    4. Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria.

    5. Reproduce the recombinant bacteria.

    6. The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.

  • Recombinant DNA animation

    http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwav

    e_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm

    http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-recombination.htm

  • Benefits of Recombinant

    Bacteria

    1. Bacteria can make human insulin or

    human growth hormone.

    2. Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil

    spills.

  • 3. Transgenic Organisms (GMOs) The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered.

    PLANTS

    1. Disease-resistant and

    insect-resistant crops

    2. Hardier fruit

    3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.

  • How to Create a Genetically

    Modified Plant

    1.Create recombinant

    bacteria with desired gene.

    2. Allow the bacteria to “infect" the plant cells.

    3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes.

  • What do you think about eating

    genetically modified foods?

  • Genetically modified organisms are

    called transgenic organisms.

    TRANSGENIC ANIMALS

    1. Mice – used to study human immune system

    2. Chickens – more resistant to infections

    3. Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat

    4. Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk

  • Human DNA in

    a Goat Cell

    This goat contains a human

    gene that codes for a blood

    clotting agent. The blood

    clotting agent can be harvested

    in the goat’s milk.

    .

    Transgenic Goat

  • Desired DNA

    is

    added to an

    egg cell.

    How to Create a

    Transgenic Animal

  • http://listverse.com/2013/07/26/t

    op-10-gm-animals-you-can-buy-

    or-eat/

  • Genetic Engineering and

    Crime Scenes……

  • 4. Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PCR • PCR allows scientists to

    make many copies of a piece of DNA.

    1. Heat the DNA so it “unzips”.

    2. Add the complementary nitrogenous bases.

    3. Allow DNA to cool so the complementary strands can “zip” together.

    http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/pcr.html

  • 5. Gel Electrophoresis

    • This technology

    allows scientists to

    identify someone’s

    DNA!

  • Steps Involved in Gel

    Electrophoresis 1. “Cut” DNA sample with

    restriction enzymes.

    2. Run the DNA fragments through a gel.

    3. Bands will form in the gel.

    4. Everyone’s DNA bands are unique and can be used to identify a person.

    5. DNA bands are like “genetic fingerprints”.

    http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/electrophoresis.html

  • Applications of DNA fingerprinting (gel

    electrophoresis and PCR) • Forensic analysis

    • Population genetics:

    • Providing pedigree status for certain animals:

    • Forensic analysis of wildlife crimes:

    • Detecting genetically modified organisms:

    • Testing for e. coli and other illnesses carried by food sources:

    • Paternity and Maternity testing:

    • Personal Identification:

  • 6. Cloning

    • Clones are organisms

    that are exact genetic

    copies. Every single

    bit of their DNA is

    identical.

  • Can we clone humans?

    Should we?

    https://www.youtube.

    com/watch?v=dzJx2d

    l8MA8

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzJx2dl8MA8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzJx2dl8MA8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzJx2dl8MA8

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