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How to load a ocean rack
22SpoolsColor Code:Brown Blocking/DunnageBlueHD NailsRedHalf Loop LashingsCenter spools on platform.
Note: Spools loaded to a platform may roll without chocks. Set temporary chocks prior to loading.Block with timbers across flat. Load spools such that the cross timbers are supporting a portion of the spool weight, Spike into deck of flat rack.Block side cheeks of spools with timbers.Install Transverse Lashings through each center point on each spool. 2 per spool.Click for next step
Youre done! 2223 Color Code:Brown Bearers/DunnageRedDirect LashingsLt. BlueCorner ProtectorsSet cement flat on the bearersNail 4x4 dunnage fore and aft to keep cement from slidingPlace protectors on edges of cement for protection from chafing. Install direct lashings from cement holes to flat rack. 2 per hole per side.
Cement Man HolesPosition transverse lumber bearers.233General Safety GuidelinesThe cargos weight (not necessarily the cargo itself) should be centered on the flat.
The cargos weight needs to be distributed over the length of the flat such that the load per linear foot does not exceed 2500 lb.
The number of lashings used to secure the load must be based on the weight of the load being secured. These securing devices must have a maximum securing load equal to or greater than the mass (weight) of the cargo on each transverse side. They should be distributed equally around the load.
Maximum Securing Load or MSL is normally expressed in kilonewtons and is the greatest permissible force which can be applied to a load securing element or device. MSL is determined based on the breaking strength of the material in question based on the following table. If the BS or MSL are not known then the working load limit (WLL) or Safe Working Load (SWL) may be utilized for MSL.
Material MSL Shackles, rings, deck eyes, 50% of breaking strength or turnbuckles of mild steel Fiber ropes 33% of breaking strength Web lashing 70% of breaking strength Wire rope (single use) 80% of breaking strength Wire rope (re-useable) 30% of breaking strength Steel band (single use) 70% of breaking strength Chains 50% of breaking strength Lumber 0.3 kN per cm normal to the grain
Cargo should be directly lashed from fixed lashing points on the cargo to the flat rack securing points. If the cargo does not have fixed lashing points (crates, pipes, etc) then half-loop lashings may be utilized to secure the cargo to the flat rack. Other methods may be utilized which prevent sliding.
4General Safety Guidelines (continued)Chains and BindersChains should be Binding Chain Grade 70 (minimum 3/8 link; 6,600 lb load limit) or stronger.Chains must be free of cracks, bent or twisted links, gouges or pits and knots.Chain must be secured back into chain and not to the flat rack.Chain must not be secured to the yellow rub rail on the flat rack.Binders should have a safe working load of at least 5,400 lb.Binders must have two grab hooks compatible with the size chain being used.Binders are not to be welded to the chain.Binders should be located up on the load in such a way that they are not to the outside of the flat rack metal.Binders should be secured in the locked position using tie wraps or wire.
Web/Nylon Straps/Cord LashStraps should be rated to a minimum of 22 kiloNewtons or 4500 lb maximum securing load (MSL).Web/Nylon Straps and Cord Lash shall utilize the proper tensioning equipment recommended by the manufacturer.Straps must be free of cuts and broken or loose stitching. Straps that are frayed should not be used.Straps should be attached to the approved lashing points on the flat rack.Chaffing material should be utilized around sharp edges.
WinchesWinches, ratchet eyes, connection chains, etc. must have a breaking strength the breaking strength of the straps.Winches must be free of sharp edges or defects that could damage the webbing.
5General Safety Guidelines (continued)Steel BandingSteel bands must be at least 1 inches wide, 0.031 gauge.Steel banding should be secured using double clips with double crimps.Chaffing material should be utilized around sharp edges
Blocking and BracingLumber Blocks should be made of hardwood and should be free of defects, knots & cracks.Blocking should be as wide as they are high.If the blocking is not of like dimensions, the wider dimension must be horizontal. If the blocking is 6X 8 the 8 should be laid flat against the deck.Blocking should not be nailed together to make 4 x 4, 6 x6, etc. Use the appropriate blocking for the load.
WireWire utilized in lashings shall have a minimum diameter of 1/2A minimum of four (4) wire clips shall be utilized to complete the eye at end of wire.The grip end of the clip shall be placed on the live side (tensioned side) of the wire.Chaffing material/Softeners shall be utilized around sharp edges and to protect cargo.
Turnbuckles/ShacklesUse only forged eye to eye TurnbucklesShackles and Turnbuckles shall have a minimum throat thickness of .Shackles and Turnbuckles shall have a minimum of 11,000 LB or 49 kN Maximum Securing Load (MSL)
General Safety Guidelines (continued)Chaffing material/SoftenersUsed rubber hose, cardboard, plastic and carpet can be used as chaffing material. When cardboard is used be mindful that it can become wet and decompose while on a ship at sea.Chaffing material should be used between steel banding, chain, wire rope and other similar types of securement and points of contact with the cargo and flat to protect the cargo and the straps.Chaffing material should be secured such that load shifts during transport will not cause displacement of the softener and loss of protection for the load.
Steel & PipeDo not load steel on steel (this includes steel cargo against steel deck areas of the flat).The widest dimension of the load should be at the bottom.Chains are required for use in securing all steel beams, steel plates, and metal igots.Chaffing material should be used under lashings to protect steel that is susceptible to damage and protect the lashings around sharp edges.Steel beams should be blocked in the web and wedged between flanges to prevent movement between the beams.Unsecured items inside of pipe or intermixed with steel beams or other structural steel are not allowed.Belly Banding should be used at least every 10 feet in length; at least 2 belly straps should be used on the shortest piece in the stack.Product being belly wrapped should be stacked tightly together to keep the load from shifting side to side and loosening the belly wrap.Rebar can be secured using web straps provided belly banding is done with chain.Transverse Bearers should be utilized to spread the load to the side rails of the flat rackThe ends of the steel and pipe should be blocked to the end walls/corner posts of the flat rack.
6General Safety Guidelines (continued)Dunnage/Transverse BearersIf Multiple pieces of dunnage are required they must be nailed together.Pallets should not be used as dunnage.Transverse Bearers should be utilized to spread the cargo weight to the side rails of the flat rack.WARNING: Cargo which sits directly on the lumber floor of the flat rack without cross beams to the side rails may damage the flat rack. The strength of the flat rack is concentrated in the side rails.
7General Safety Guidelines (continued)Half-Loop LashingsHalf Loop Lashings are used to secure cargo which has no fixed securing pointsHalf Loop Lashings should not be used on over-wide cargoHalf Loop Lashings may be used on lumber cases, steel beams, pipe, and steel sheetsA Half Loop Lashing must start and end on the same side of the flat rack.To install a half loop lashing, the lashing material is fed over the top of the cargo, down the opposite side and then under the cargo (between cargo and floor of flat rack) and then secured on the same side the lashing started on.Each Half Loop Lashing on one side must be paired with a second half loop lashing on the opposite side.
Half Loop Lashing Example
Light TrucksColor Code:Brown ChocksBlueNailsRedDirect Lashings
Note: When using chains be certain chains that are wrapped around axles do not contact brake lines Use manufactures tie down points wherever possible.Center load on flat.Install chocks and nail in placeSecure using at least 2 lashings on each side.Cross lash to front and rear of each axle.Click for next step
1819Heavy TrucksColor Code:Brown ChocksBlueNailsRedDirect Lashings
Note: When using chains be certain chains that are wrapped around axles do not contact brake lines Use manufactures tie down points wherever possible.Center load on flat.Install chocks and nail in placeSecure using at least 4 lashings on each side.Cross lash to front and rear of each axle.Click for next step
Youre done! 1920Heavy EquipmentColor Code:Brown ChocksBlueNailsRedDirect LashingsNote: Insert steering lock pin on articulating machines prior to chocking and chaining, if provided.Center weight of load on flat. Lower bucket. Secure steering. Use Heavy Lumber Bearers under wheels/tracks to distribute load to side rails if required
Remember to turn off battery terminals and cover exhaust stack.Block all tires on both sides and nail in place.Secure with a minimum of 4 lashings on each side around axles. Avoid brake and hydraulic lines and hydraulic rams.
Youre done! 2021Hiway TrailersColor Code:Brown ChocksBlueNailsRedDirect LashingsPosition trailer on center of flat rack.
Block under 5th Wheel Attachment. Lower landing gear so blocking is snug and secure. Block tires and nail in place.Secure to flat rack with a minimum of 4 lashings on each side to axles and hard points around landing gear. Avoid air lines to brakes.Click for next step
Youre done! 212Horizon Lines Guidelines for Loading Flat RacksThe following illustrated procedures and text provide standard guidelines for the most common types of cargo transported by ship on Flat Racks. The purpose of this program is to facilitate loading and securing while assuring that the cargo will arrive at destination in the condition in which it was received at origin. Each trade lane/tariff specifies what is over-dimensional cargo. Customers should check the tariffto see if their cargo falls under this classification.
For unusual loads or clarification of instructions set forth, contact the Operations Supervisor at the terminal nearest you.
OVERLENGTH LOADS Any load over 40 in length is considered over length. If the load does not exceed 44, then center the load. If the load exceeds 44, please contact the Operations Supervisor, prior to loading, for further instructions.
OVERWIDTH LOADS Any load over 8 in width is considered over width. For loading instructions, please contact the Operations Supervisor prior to loading.
NON-POST FLAT RACKS In order to allow access to the lifting points on the end of the flat rack, cargo should be loaded with 18 to 24 free space on each end of flat racks which dont have corner posts. Otherwise the load cannot be picked by the crane at the dock or unhooked once aboard, if stowed below deck.INTENDED USE OF THIS PROGRAM:
The steps and comments on each slide are presented in an order designed to ensure a properly secured load, which will meet the challenges of ocean transit, while saving time and expense in loading and securing typical cargo.
LOOK AT THE COMPLETED LOAD FOR THE COMMODITY TO BE SHIPPED. (All steps on slide together)
CLICK MOUSE, HIT SPACEBAR, OR PUSH PAGE DOWN BUTTON TO STEP THROUGH SLIDE. (Step number is located at top, left-hand corner.)
READ THROUGH EACH STEP CAREFULLY AND STUDY FOR RECOMMENDED SEQUENCING OF STEPS.
RETURN TO THE FIRST STEP BY SELECTING THE PAGE UP BUTTON AND BEGIN LOADING WHILE REFERENCING EACH STEP, IN SEQUENCE.
THIS PROGRAM IS A GUIDELINE TO BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH EXPERIENCE AND GOOD JUDGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS, CONTACT THE OPERATIONS MANAGER FOR ASSISTANCE AND CLARIFICATION.29MenuClick the type of loading scenario to view:Lumber/Plywood page 11Sheetrock page 12Palletized Drums & Crates page 13Steel Beams page 14Pipe/Drillstem page 15Plastic Pipe page 16Rolls of Chain Link Fencing page 17Light Trucks page 18Large Trucks page 19Heavy Equipment page 20Highway Trailers page 21924KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER:
All chain to be hooked back to chain.Chain to be hooked through chain tie down area on flat and run behind the yellow rub rail.Binders must be secured with wire or Zip-Ties.Belly Bands are secured around cargo for unitization. Belly Bands should not be attached to or wrapped around the flat rack.Belly Banded product should be tight side to side to keep it from shifting and loosening the chains.All loose tag ends must be secured.Do not cover picking points (holes at the top of each corner) of no post flats.Indicate if flat is over width, over length, or over height. Any portion of the load or lashing gear that extends beyond the flat to the left, right, front or back is over sized for ocean shipping purposes and needs to be declared. Any portion of the load that extends above the corner posts of the flat is over height and need to be declared. Any load on a no corner post flat is considered over height.Do not use pallets as dunnage.All Heavy Loads should be centered fore and aft on the flat rack based on the cargos center of gravity.
25Flat-Rack Loading Guidelines
Horizon Lines Contacts
Alaska Service: Eddie Walton / Rick Wade
SLIDE MASTER: LEE FISHERWhen it's too big for the box, we still deliver. Your big cargo deserves big service. We expanded flat-rack capacity on our vessels and added new flat rack equipment to provide reliable, safe transport for oversized shipments. We're investing in new equipment to meet your needs today and tomorrow. That's our promise. Always delivering.