Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus

  • View
    220

  • Download
    5

Embed Size (px)

Text of Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum...

  • Slide 1
  • Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Ch. 7 The Skeleton
  • Slide 2
  • Skeletal System Composed of bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments Accounts for 20% of body mass 30 lbs in a 160 lb person Bones most of skeleton Cartilage isolated areas nose, parts of ribs, joints Ligaments connect bones and reinforce joints Joints allow for motility
  • Slide 3
  • Axial Skeleton 80 bones segregated into 3 major regions Skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage Forms: 1.Longitudinal axis of body 2.Supports head, neck, and trunk 3.Protects brain, spinal cord, and organs of the thorax
  • Slide 4
  • Skull Bodys most complex bone structure Formed by cranial and facial bones 22 in all Cranium cranial bones Enclose and protect the brain Attachment sites for head and neck muscles
  • Slide 5
  • Skull Facial Bones 1.Form framework of the face 2.Contain cavities for special sense organs sight, taste, and smell 3.Provide openings for air and food passage 4.Secure the teeth 5.Anchor facial muscles of expression
  • Slide 6
  • Skull Bones Most are flat bones except for mandible firmly united by interlocking joints sutures Major sutures 1.Coronal 2.Sagittal 3.Squamous 4.lambdoid
  • Slide 7
  • Figure 7.2a Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture
  • Slide 8
  • Skull - Overview Lopsided, hallow, bony sphere Anterior facial bones Rest cranium Cranium divided into vault and base Cranial vault calvaria forms superior, lateral, and posterior aspects Cranial base or floor inferior aspect - internal bony ridges anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae Brian fits in snuggly
  • Slide 9
  • Figure 7.2b Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae
  • Slide 10
  • Skull - Overview Smaller cavities Middle and inferior ear Nasal cavities and orbits 85 names openings Formina Canals Fissures, Etc. Passageway for spinal cord, blood vessels, and cranial nerves (I-XII)
  • Slide 11
  • Cranium 8 bones 1. Frontal Bone anterior cranium Articulates posteriorly with paired parietal bones via coronal suture Anterior part vertical squamous part forehead Extends posteriorly forming superior walls of orbits and most of anterior cranial fossa supports frontal lobes of the brain Subraorbital margin pierced by supraorbital forman (notch) which allows artery and nerve to pass to forehead Smooth portion between orbits glabella Just inferior meets nasal bones at frontonasal suture Frontal sinuses
  • Slide 12
  • Figure 7.4a (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glablla Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (noch) Supraorbital margin
  • Slide 13
  • Cranium 2. Parietal Bones 2 large bones Curved, rectangular bones form most of the superior and lateral aspects Bulk of the cranial vault 4 largest sutures where parietal bones articulate 1.Coronal suture parietal meets frontal 2.Sagittal suture parietals meets superiorly 3.Lambboid suture parietal meets occipital posteriorly 4.Squamous suture parietal and temporal meet at lateral aspect
  • Slide 14
  • Figure 7.4a Parietal bone
  • Slide 15
  • Cranium 3. Occipital Bone Forms most of skulls posterior wall and base Articulates anteriorly with paired parietal and temporal lambdoid and occipitomastoid sutures Joins sphenoid bone in cranial floor Projection pharyngeal tubercle
  • Slide 16
  • Occipital bone (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Figure 7.5a
  • Slide 17
  • Cranium 3. Occipital Bone Internally forms walls of posterior cranial fossa supports cerebellum Base foramen magnum through which brain connects with spinal cord Flanked laterally by 2 occipital condyles aciculate with first vertebrae permits nodding Hypoglossal canal cranial nerve XII passes External occipital protuberance median protrusion Other ridges and crests mark bones
  • Slide 18
  • Occipital bone (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Figure 7.5a
  • Slide 19
  • Cranium 4. Temporal Bones Line inferior to parietal bones and meet them at squamous sutures Form inferolateral aspects of skull and part of the cranial floor Complicated shape 4 major areas (regions) Squamous, mastoid, tympanic, and petrous
  • Slide 20
  • (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Temporal bone Figure 7.5a
  • Slide 21
  • Cranium 4. Temporal Bones Squamous Region abuts squamous suture Bar like zygomatic process meets zygomatic bones of the face Form zygomatic arch projections of cheek Mandibular fossa receive lower jawbone forms temporomandibular joint
  • Slide 22
  • Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region
  • Slide 23
  • Cranium 4. Temporal Bones Tympanic region surrounds external acoustic meatus external ear canal Below- needle like styloid process attachment for tongue and neck muscles
  • Slide 24
  • Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region
  • Slide 25
  • Cranium 4. Temporal Bones Mastoid Region mastoid process anchoring site for neck muscles Stylomastoid foramen allow cranial nerve VII to leave skull Middle cranial fossa sphenoid and petrous Supports temporal bones of brain
  • Slide 26
  • Carinum 4. Temporal Bones Several foramen - jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, XI Carotid canal carotid artery Foramen lacerum closed by cartilage in living room Internal acoustic meatus cranial nerves VII & VIII
  • Slide 27
  • Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region
  • Slide 28
  • Cranium 5. Sphenoid Bone bat shaped Spans width of middle cranial fossa Central wedge articulates with all the other cranial bones Central body and 3 pairs of processes Greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes With in the body paired sphenoid sinuses
  • Slide 29
  • Figure 7.9a Greater wing Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Body of sphenoid Superior orbital fissure (a) Superior view Optic canal Lesser wing
  • Slide 30
  • Figure 7.9b Body of sphenoid Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Lesser wing Pterygoid process (b) Posterior view
  • Slide 31
  • Cranium 6. Ethmoid Bone complex shape Lies between sphenoid and nasal bones Superior surface cribriform plates Crista galli triangular processes Perpendicular plate part of nasal septum Lateral mass ethmoid sinuses
  • Slide 32
  • Figure 7.10 Orbital plate Ethmoidal air cells Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Crista galli Left lateral mass
  • Slide 33
  • Cranium 7. Sutural Bones Thin irregularly shaped bones with in sutures Vary in numbers Not in all skulls Unknown significance
  • Slide 34
  • Figure 7.4b Sutural bone 7. Sutural Bones Thin irregularly shaped bones with in sutures Vary in numbers Not in all skulls Unknown significance
  • Slide 35
  • Facial Bones 14 bones Only mandible and vomer unpaired Men more elongated than women Women rounder and less angular
  • Slide 36
  • Facial Bones - Mandible Lower jawbone Longest and strongest Forms chin 2 upright rami meet body posterior at mandibular angle Top groove notch Body anchors lower teeth Alveolar margin contains sockets where teeth are embedded
  • Slide 37
  • Figure 7.11a Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mental foramen Mandibular angle Ramus of mandible Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular fossa of temporal bone Body of mandible Alveolar margin (a) Mandible, right lateral view Temporomandibular joint
  • Slide 38
  • Facial Bones Maxillary Bones Maxillae Fused medially Form upper jaw and central portion of face Upper teeth alveolar margins
  • Slide 39
  • Figure 7.11b Frontal process Articulates with frontal bone Anterior nasal spine Infraorbital foramen Alveolar margin (b) Maxilla, right lateral view Orbital surface Zygomatic process (cut)
  • Slide 40
  • Figure 7.4a Zygomatic bone (a) Anterior view Irregularly shaped Cheek bone and part of inferolateral margins of orbits
  • Slide 41
  • Facial Bones Nasal Bones Thin, rectangular, bridge of nose Attach to cartilage of external nose
  • Slide 42
  • Figure 7.5a Nasal bone Thin, rectangular, bridge of nose Attach to cartilage of external nose Facial Bones Nasal Bones
  • Slide 43
  • Figure 7.