So long Middle English Periodhello Elizabethan Period What happened during the Elizabethan Era? Lots of political upheaval (wars between countries) Lots of religious upheaval (the beginning of Puritanism) Change in the economics (new merchant class) Cultural changes (influences of the Renaissance)
The Social Ladder of the Elizabethan Era Monarchs (king/queen) Nobles, knights (wealthy, but sometimes only in title!) Clergy Merchants (the people who bought and sold goods for profit) Explorations/discoveries of new lands and seaways- expanded commerce/trade. England became a great power in world-wide seafaring trade. The power in the state was shifting from the landed aristocracy to the merchant/middle class.
Peasants/paupers Still not a pleasant life to live! Squalor living conditions Bubonic plague Vagabonds, laborers, child labor Poor relief
Lets take a closer look at politics and religion Henry VII Took the throne in 1485 (ending the Wars of the Roses) Took power away from the feudal baronsgoodbye feudal system!
Henry VIII ascended to the throne in1509 (chopchopchopdivorce-beheaded- died-divorced-beheaded-survived!) Successfully challenged the Popes authority over the country Broke from the Roman Catholic Church 1535- Established the independent Church of England (with himself as the Head!)
Just so you know Around the same time as Henry VIIIs break with the Catholic Church, religious unrest was spreading throughout Europe. Did you ever hear of Martin Luthers Ninety-Five Theses? This was a catalyst to the Protestant Reformation- a schism in the Roman Catholic church. Protestant Reformation: Started as a way to reform the Catholic Church Some did not like the teaching and sale of indulgences, simony, Mariology (devotion to Mary), devotion to the saints, clerical celibacy, authority of the Pope, etc. Some saw these as corruption of the church
Troubled times Edward VI (1547-1553) strong Protestant Mary I (1553-1558) tried to turn the people back to Catholicism by a series of bloody executions. Bloody Mary Locked her sister into the Tower of London Can you say crazy?!
Troubled times turn into good times Elizabeth I (Good Queen Bess) took the throne. Got England out of debt Stopped wars with Spain Sponsored the arts This is whom the era is named after
Worked out a compromise on religion: Church of England kept some Catholic doctrine and ritual, but remained separate and independent. BUT-this did not suit some extreme Protestants and they wanted to purify the C of E from Catholic influences. These extremists were called Puritans.
Puritans Encouraged direct personal religious experience with God (no middle-men priests, archbishops, etc.) Followed strict moral conduct Held simple worship services (no flashy indulgences, etc.) Believed that Christianity should be taken as the focus of human existenceyou are here to serve GodNOT to have fun!
Cultural Change However, Puritans were not the only reformers of the time Another influence on Englands religion and culture was the Renaissance. English scholars visited Italy & brought back the spirit of the Renaissance
In this corner we have the Humanists, and in the far cornerthe Puritans! Man-centered vs. God-centered Renaissance emphasized human potential, NOT Gods power. Individual authority vs. Submitting to authority Humanists believed a persons role in life should be action, NOT religious contemplation.
There was one common denominator though Both Humanists and Puritans believed in analyzing, questioning and scrutinizing the Church, NOT submitting to the authority of church officials The Renaissance influenced a critical study of the Scriptures which partly led to a challenge of Roman Catholicism & the emergence of English Protestantism.
The Renaissances Influence on Learning: Learning was important & for everyone Before Caxton printed his first book(1476) in English, no more than 2% of the English people could read. Afterwards, learning increased rapidly-from the Crown to the commoner. Access of information is easier Books become more accessible
Universities offered: Latin, logic, rhetoric (public speaking), arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy Universities promoted questioning attitudes about: the status quo scientific discovery
With all this emphasis on learning, its no wonder a new hero evolved! New hero of the Renaissance: The Scholar Hero Accomplished at reading, writing, composing poetry, etc Knew the Greek and Roman period, the Classics & the ideas put forth in the Classics Accomplished musician
Knew the skills of diplomacy (foreign languages) and Court etiquette Was a member of the new Protestant religion (at least in Public) Was able to fence & ride (a horse!) Was able to fight Was interested in exploration and conflict with other countries
Everyday Life in the Renaissance-DVD
What about our English language? English had already triumphed over French as the spoken language by the late14 th century. During Elizabethan Era, English became the language of scholars and some theologians were starting to use it, too.
English expanded its vocabulary again! Influences from Latin and Greek literature (brought in by the Humanists) Explorers/overseas tradesmen brought an influx of words from many foreign languages Many writers (like Shakespeare) were inventing new words daily In 1582 Robert Mulcaster proposed a system of regularized spelling-this made a significant difference by 1600.
Literature At the beginning of the period, England was far behind the literary progress of France and Italy. However, by the end of the Elizabethan Period, England was in the lead (mostly due to the writings of Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Sir Philip Sidney and Christopher Marlowe.
Poetry During Elizabeth Is reign, England was called a nest of singing birds; every courtier felt it part of his duty to write poetry; sonnet sequences by the hundreds appeared; and English poetry was the admiration of all Europe.
Sonnets Are poems consisting of 14 lines in iambic pentameter with rhymes arranged according to a fixed scheme, usually divided either into octave and sestet or, in the English form, into three quatrains and a couplet. Got that? Dont worry, well come back to it.
What were sonnets written about? Love Nationalistic pride Mans potential Nature Seven deadly sins Gluttony, lust, pride, envy, wrath, sloth, and avarice Seven cardinal virtues Faith, hope, love, prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance
The Humors In the old theory of physiology, the four chief liquids of the human body were: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. It was believed that: Both physical diseases & mental and moral dispositions were caused by the dominance of some element within a humor, or from an imbalance of the humors.
Divine Right of Kings A political & religious doctrine of royal absolutism. A monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God. To go against the king or to restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and could be considered heresy. Divine right started in Medieval times and only ended in 1689.
The Great Chain of Being God Angels Humans Beasts Plants Stones The ladder of intellect
Elizabethan poetrys literary devices: Conceits- were prominent in many love poems. unusual and elaborate comparisons between two dissimilar things. these images were usually about a despairing lover and his unpitying, but idolized, mistress. Ex. A lover is compared to a ship on a stormy sea and his mistress is a cloud of dark disdain.
Stock devices themes, characters, etc. which show up again and again. This is especially apparent in poems dealing with the tradition of courtly love. The idea of the cruel or indifferent mistress The idea of the all-consuming passion The pale, wan lover
The paradoxical pain and pleasure of lovesickness is often described using oxymorons- (a figure of speech that combines normally-con