Elizabethan Era Poetry Unit 1485-1625. Vocabulary Church of England Puritan Renaissance Sonnet –Petrarchan –Shakespearean –Spenserian

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Elizabethan Era Poetry Unit 1485-1625 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Vocabulary Church of England Puritan Renaissance Sonnet Petrarchan Shakespearean Spenserian </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Iambic foot monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter Octave Sestet Quatrain Couplet Conceit Stock devices Oxymoron </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Simile Metaphor Personification Allusion Apostrophe Rhyme scheme Rhythm Scansion </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Bound verse Polyrhythmic/free verse Blank verse Forced rhyme Carpe diem Archaism Sonnets (Petrarchan, Shakespearean, Spenserian) Pastoral/idyll lyrics </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> So long Middle English Periodhello Elizabethan Period What happened during the Elizabethan Era? Lots of political upheaval (wars between countries) Lots of religious upheaval (the beginning of Puritanism) Change in the economics (new merchant class) Cultural changes (influences of the Renaissance) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Social Ladder of the Elizabethan Era Monarchs (king/queen) Nobles, knights (wealthy, but sometimes only in title!) Clergy Merchants (the people who bought and sold goods for profit) Explorations/discoveries of new lands and seaways- expanded commerce/trade. England became a great power in world-wide seafaring trade. The power in the state was shifting from the landed aristocracy to the merchant/middle class. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Peasants/paupers Still not a pleasant life to live! Squalor living conditions Bubonic plague Vagabonds, laborers, child labor Poor relief </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Lets take a closer look at politics and religion Henry VII Took the throne in 1485 (ending the Wars of the Roses) Took power away from the feudal baronsgoodbye feudal system! </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Henry VIII ascended to the throne in1509 (chopchopchopdivorce-beheaded- died-divorced-beheaded-survived!) Successfully challenged the Popes authority over the country Broke from the Roman Catholic Church 1535- Established the independent Church of England (with himself as the Head!) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Just so you know Around the same time as Henry VIIIs break with the Catholic Church, religious unrest was spreading throughout Europe. Did you ever hear of Martin Luthers Ninety-Five Theses? This was a catalyst to the Protestant Reformation- a schism in the Roman Catholic church. Protestant Reformation: Started as a way to reform the Catholic Church Some did not like the teaching and sale of indulgences, simony, Mariology (devotion to Mary), devotion to the saints, clerical celibacy, authority of the Pope, etc. Some saw these as corruption of the church </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Troubled times Edward VI (1547-1553) strong Protestant Mary I (1553-1558) tried to turn the people back to Catholicism by a series of bloody executions. Bloody Mary Locked her sister into the Tower of London Can you say crazy?! </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Troubled times turn into good times Elizabeth I (Good Queen Bess) took the throne. Got England out of debt Stopped wars with Spain Sponsored the arts This is whom the era is named after </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Worked out a compromise on religion: Church of England kept some Catholic doctrine and ritual, but remained separate and independent. BUT-this did not suit some extreme Protestants and they wanted to purify the C of E from Catholic influences. These extremists were called Puritans. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Puritans Encouraged direct personal religious experience with God (no middle-men priests, archbishops, etc.) Followed strict moral conduct Held simple worship services (no flashy indulgences, etc.) Believed that Christianity should be taken as the focus of human existenceyou are here to serve GodNOT to have fun! </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Cultural Change However, Puritans were not the only reformers of the time Another influence on Englands religion and culture was the Renaissance. English scholars visited Italy &amp; brought back the spirit of the Renaissance </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> In this corner we have the Humanists, and in the far cornerthe Puritans! Man-centered vs. God-centered Renaissance emphasized human potential, NOT Gods power. Individual authority vs. Submitting to authority Humanists believed a persons role in life should be action, NOT religious contemplation. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> There was one common denominator though Both Humanists and Puritans believed in analyzing, questioning and scrutinizing the Church, NOT submitting to the authority of church officials The Renaissance influenced a critical study of the Scriptures which partly led to a challenge of Roman Catholicism &amp; the emergence of English Protestantism. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> The Renaissances Influence on Learning: Learning was important &amp; for everyone Before Caxton printed his first book(1476) in English, no more than 2% of the English people could read. Afterwards, learning increased rapidly-from the Crown to the commoner. Access of information is easier Books become more accessible </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Universities offered: Latin, logic, rhetoric (public speaking), arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy Universities promoted questioning attitudes about: the status quo scientific discovery </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> With all this emphasis on learning, its no wonder a new hero evolved! New hero of the Renaissance: The Scholar Hero Accomplished at reading, writing, composing poetry, etc Knew the Greek and Roman period, the Classics &amp; the ideas put forth in the Classics Accomplished musician </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Knew the skills of diplomacy (foreign languages) and Court etiquette Was a member of the new Protestant religion (at least in Public) Was able to fence &amp; ride (a horse!) Was able to fight Was interested in exploration and conflict with other countries </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Everyday Life in the Renaissance-DVD </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> What about our English language? English had already triumphed over French as the spoken language by the late14 th century. During Elizabethan Era, English became the language of scholars and some theologians were starting to use it, too. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> English expanded its vocabulary again! Influences from Latin and Greek literature (brought in by the Humanists) Explorers/overseas tradesmen brought an influx of words from many foreign languages Many writers (like Shakespeare) were inventing new words daily In 1582 Robert Mulcaster proposed a system of regularized spelling-this made a significant difference by 1600. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Literature At the beginning of the period, England was far behind the literary progress of France and Italy. However, by the end of the Elizabethan Period, England was in the lead (mostly due to the writings of Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Sir Philip Sidney and Christopher Marlowe. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Poetry During Elizabeth Is reign, England was called a nest of singing birds; every courtier felt it part of his duty to write poetry; sonnet sequences by the hundreds appeared; and English poetry was the admiration of all Europe. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Sonnets Are poems consisting of 14 lines in iambic pentameter with rhymes arranged according to a fixed scheme, usually divided either into octave and sestet or, in the English form, into three quatrains and a couplet. Got that? Dont worry, well come back to it. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> What were sonnets written about? Love Nationalistic pride Mans potential Nature Seven deadly sins Gluttony, lust, pride, envy, wrath, sloth, and avarice Seven cardinal virtues Faith, hope, love, prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The Humors In the old theory of physiology, the four chief liquids of the human body were: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. It was believed that: Both physical diseases &amp; mental and moral dispositions were caused by the dominance of some element within a humor, or from an imbalance of the humors. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Divine Right of Kings A political &amp; religious doctrine of royal absolutism. A monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God. To go against the king or to restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and could be considered heresy. Divine right started in Medieval times and only ended in 1689. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> The Great Chain of Being God Angels Humans Beasts Plants Stones The ladder of intellect </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Elizabethan poetrys literary devices: Conceits- were prominent in many love poems. unusual and elaborate comparisons between two dissimilar things. these images were usually about a despairing lover and his unpitying, but idolized, mistress. Ex. A lover is compared to a ship on a stormy sea and his mistress is a cloud of dark disdain. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Stock devices themes, characters, etc. which show up again and again. This is especially apparent in poems dealing with the tradition of courtly love. The idea of the cruel or indifferent mistress The idea of the all-consuming passion The pale, wan lover </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> The paradoxical pain and pleasure of lovesickness is often described using oxymorons- (a figure of speech that combines normally-contradictory terms. Ex. wise fool, failed success, dark sunshine Similes Metaphors </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Personification Allusion -making reference to a famous historical event, literary figure, or pop culture person/event that would be known of by the majority of the population. Apostrophe -to address the absent as though present, the dead as though living, or the inanimate object as if it were animate. Ex: an invocation to the muses. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Rhyme scheme Rhythm accented and unaccented syllables. Iambic- an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Ta THUMP To swell the gourd, and plump the haz el shells. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Scansion-the division of verse into feet by indicating accents and syllables to determine the meter of a poem. (iambic feet)(pentameter, etc.) ta TUM-5 metrical feet A line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet in a row: da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM To swell / the gourd, / and plump / the haz / el shells. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Rhythm types Iambic ~ / (The most common meter in our language and naturally falls into everyday conversation. To BE or NOT to BE- Shakespeare. Trochaic / ~ DOUBle DOUBle TOIL and TROUBle. Anapestic ~ ~ / I aRISE and unBUILD it aGAIN. Dacylic / ~ ~ Openly Spondee / / HEARTBREAK Pyrrhic ~ ~ (generally used to vary rhythm) </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Meter-rhythm type Monometer-one foot in a line Dimeter-two feet Trimeter- three feet Tetrameter-four feet Pentameter-five feet Hexameter-six feet </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Bound Verse is poetry which must conform to a specific pattern: Uniform line length Consistency in the number of lines in a stanza Rhythm must be uniform (but may have exceptions) Rhyme scheme should have a pattern </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Free Verse/Polyrhythmic Verse Does not have to conform to a specific structure Is distinguished by an irregular metrical pattern The focus is not on the way it is written, but on the message </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Poetry notes on FRIDTM (handout) Form Rhythm &amp; rhyme Imagery Diction Theme Mood </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Sonnets There are three types of sonnets in English literature: Italian (Petrarchan) English (Shakespearean) Spenserian </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Petrarchan Sonnet Also called the regular or classical sonnet Is divided into the octave (first 8 lines) and the sestet (last 6 lines) The rhyme scheme of the octave is: abba, abba The rhyme scheme of the sestet is: cdc, cdc or cd, cd, cd The octave sets out the problem or difficulty The sestet attempts a solution </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Spenserian Developed by and named for Edmund Spenser It consists of three quatrains and a couplet The rhyme scheme is abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Shakespearean Sonnet Has four divisions: three quatrains and a rhymed couplet. The rhyme scheme is : abab, cdcd, efef, gg The concluding couplet is usually a comment on the preceding lines or acts like a general statement about life. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Lets take a look at some poets and their sonnets! Get ready to FRIDTM and WTF the following poems </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Edmund Spenser Believed in the Renaissances ideals of: mans potential, human love, earthly beauty and the value of art. Believed in the Reformation ideals of: moral idealism and religious devotion. Used metaphors and similes. Was very concerned with structure and rhythm. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Edmund Spenser-from Amoretti XLVII Amoretti sonnets are a sequence of sonnets in which Spenser paid court to the lady who became his wife. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> WTF: What is this poem about? Form: This is a typical Spenserian sonnet. Explain. Rhythm: What is the scansion of line five? Imagery: What is the conceit? What stock devices are used? Diction: What does the word tied (in line 12) mean? Theme: What is one possible theme for this poem? Explain your answer. Mood: What is it? What words from the poem set this mood? What are some of the subjects touched upon in this poem that are common of sonnets written during this period? (ie. Nature, Nationalism, Love, Mans potential, Seven Deadly Sins/Cardinal Virtues, Divine Right of Kings, Humors, Great Chain of Being) </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Shakespeare Wrote 154 sonnets. His sonnets dealt with the usual themes/stock devices of the time period: the beauty of his lady the intensity of his love for his lady the assurance of her immortality through his verse the sufferings of the frustrated lover, etc. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Shakespeare-Sonnet CXXX WTF: Whats this poem about? Form: Is it bound verse or polyrhythmic? What is the purpose of the rhyming couplet? Rhythm: What is the line scansion of line one? What is the rhyme scheme of the poem? Classify the type of sonnet this is an example of. Imagery: Find 5 metaphors. What stock devices are being used? Diction: By looking at the word choices, what is the authors purpose for writing this poem? What does the word dun mean? Why did the poet include it? </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Sir Thomas Wyatt Graduated from Cambridge Member of Henry VIIIs court Was a diplomat &amp; knighted for his services to the kingbut fell out of favor and was imprisoned (twice) in the Tower of London. His poetry was inspired by Italian lyrics and Petrarch. He imported the sonnet to England. He often ended his sonnets with a couplet, thus taking a step in the direction of the Shakespearean sonnet. </li> <li> Sli...</li></ul>