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El subjuntivo. ¿ Cómo se forma el presente de subjuntivo? 1.«yo» del presente de indicativo + quita (drop) la letra «o» 2.añade (add) verbos que terminen

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  • El subjuntivo

  • Cmo se forma el presente de subjuntivo?yo del presente de indicativo + quita (drop) la letra oaade (add) verbos que terminen en ar yo: e nosotros: emos t: es vosotros: is l, ella, Ud.: e ellos, Uds.: en verbos que terminen en er o ir yo: a nosotros: amos t: as vosotros: is l, ella, Ud.: a ellos, Uds.: an

  • Ojo! Hay muchos verbos irregulares en la forma de yo del presente de indicativo.tenerponervenirorcaersalirhacerdecirconocerescogerpensarpedirdormir

    tengopongovengooigocaigosalgohagodigoconozcoescojopiensopidoduermotengapongavengaoigasalgahagadigaconozcaescojapiensepidaduerma

    infinitivo presente de indicativo presente de subjuntivo

  • Verbos irregularesir = vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayis, vayanhaber = haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayis, hayanser = sea, seas, sea, seamos, seis, seansaber = sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepis, sepan

  • Un uso del subjuntivo: Los mandatosRegla:Todos los mandatos son formas del presente de subjuntivo con la excepcin de los mandatos familiares positivos (t + vosotros).

  • Los mandatos formales (Ud. + Uds.)Usa el presente de sujuntivo en la forma de Ud. o Uds.ejemplos: Give me! Dme! Denme! (dar) Eat! Coma! Coman! (comer) Write! Escriba! Escriban! (escribir)

  • Mandatos formales irregularesGo! (ir) = Vaya Ud.! Vayan Uds.Be! (ser) = Sea Ud.! Sean Uds.!Know! (saber) = Sepa Ud! Sepan Uds.

  • Los mandatos formales negativosUsa el presente de sujuntivo en la forma de Ud.,Uds. o tDont leave! = No salga Ud. / No salgan Uds. / No salgas t.Dont yell! = No grite Ud. / No griten Uds. / No grites t.Todos los mandatos negativos son presente del subjuntivo

  • El subjuntivo en clusulas nominalesWhat does a noun clause look like?The sentence has 2 subjects and 2 verbs; in other words there are 2 conjugated verbs.example: 1. I hope (that) it doesnt snow.I want you to leave. (I want that you leave.)

    (conjugated verb) que (conjugated verb)

  • When does a noun clause use the subjunctive?

    Whether or not to use the subjunctive depends on the first verb of the sentence. It must fit one of the following criteria:It is a verb of emotion. (to be happy about something.)It is an impersonal expression. (Es posible)Someone is trying to influence anothers behavior. (I want you to leave.)4. doubt or denial (dudar, negar, no creer)

  • Impersonal expressions # 1These are expressions that start with the word EsExamples: Es (posible, importante, necesario, bueno, malo, urgente, preferible)

    Almost all impersonal expressions use the subjunctive for the second verb of the sentence. ejemplo: Es importante que vengas a tiempo. (Its important you come on time.)

  • Impersonal expressions # 2The only impersonal expressions that do not use the subjunctive are those that sound like they are facts.These are: Es obvio (Its obvious) Es verdad (Its true) Es evidente (Its evident)ejemplos: Its true that he leaves tomorrow. Es verdad que l sale maana. (no subjunctive)

  • Impersonal expressions # 3All negative impersonal expressions use the subjunctivo, including No es verdad, No es evidente, No es obvio.

    No es verdad que yo no haga mi tarea.(Its not true that I dont do my homework.)

  • Persuasion: someone is trying to influence the behavior or another.Verbs in this group include: querer, preferir, decir, pedir, recomendar, aconsejar, mandar, insistir en, permitir, prohibir, sugerir, esperarejemplos:I insist you help. Insisto en que ayudes.I suggest you leave. Sugiero que salgas.Im telling them to listen. Les digo que escuchen.

  • PrcticaI doubt you have the time.Its important you come.They want us to help.Im sorry you are sick.Its not true that he knows.Shes asking us to listen.We dont believe it is true.Do you believe he is in Calif.?Dudo que tengas el tiempo.Es importante que vengas.Quieren que ayudemos.Siento que ests enfermo.No es verdad que l sepa.Ella nos pide que escuchemosNo creemos que sea verdad.Crees que l est en Calif.?

  • El subjuntivo en clusulas adjetivasWhen a sentence has two conjugated verbs, it is possible one of the two verbs is in the subjunctive. We have studied the subjunctive in noun clauses: conjugated verb + que + conjugated verb. l Quiero que me ayudes. (I want you to help me.) Another kind of clause is an adjective clause. I know someone who works there.who works there describes someone. An adjective clause describes a noun (a person, place or thing).When the adjective clause describes a specific person, place or thing, the subjunctive is NOT used.When the adjective clause describes any persona, place or thing the subjunctive IS used.When the subjunctive says that a person, place or thing does not exist (No hay), the subjunctive IS used.

  • Examples of adjective clauses:I know someone who has lived in Russia. (no subjunctive)Im looking for someone who has lived in Russia. (subjunc.)I have a house that is in the country. (no subjunctive)I want a house that is in the country. (subjunctive)We have a car that goes fast. (no subjunctive)We want a car that goes fast. (subjunctive)There is someone who can help. (no subjunctive)There is no one who can help. (subjunctive)

  • PrcticaI know someone who lives there.I dont know anyone who llives..I need a car that is economical.I have a car that is economical.There is no one who can help.Shes looking for someone who has lived in Spain.

    Conozco a una persona que vive..No conozco a nadie que vivaNecesito un coche que seaTengo un coche que esNo hay nadie que pueda ayudar.Ella busca a alguien que haya vivido en Espaa.

  • El imperfecto de subjuntivo(past subjunctive)You may have noticed that up to this point all the main verbs in our sentences with subjunctive have been in the present tense.When the main verb is in the present indicative tense, it makes sense that the subjunctive we use is the present subjunctive.On the other hand, when the main verb is in the past tense, we cannot use the present subjunctive. We need to use the past subjunctive.

  • Cmo se forma el pasado del subjuntivo?We start with the verb in the ellos form of the preterite = aron (ar verbs) or ieron (er or ir verbs)

    We drop the last 2 letters: miraron comieron

    We add: yo = a nosotros = amos t = as vosotros = ais l, ella, Ud. = a ellos, Uds. = an

  • Ejemplosbesar: pretrito = besaron past subjunctive = besara, besaras, besara, besramos, besaran

    salir:pretrito = salieronpast subjunctive = saliera, salieras, saliera, saliramos, salieran

  • There are no irregulars if you know the preterite. Ojo! There are lots of irregular verbs in the preterite.dar: dieronser: fueronir: fuerondormir: durmieronpedir: pidieronsentir: sintieronconducir: condujerontraer: trajerondecir: dijerontener: tuvieronandar: anduvieronestar: estuvieronquerer: quisieronhacer: hicieronvenir: vinieronsaber: supieronleer: leyeron

  • Prcticallevar: yotomar: tllorar: lmirar: nosotrosgritar: ellos

    comer: yoaprender: tcorrer: ellasalir: nosotrosbeber: ellosllevaratomaraslloraramirramosgritaran

    comieraaprendierascorrieraSaliramosbebieran

  • Ms prcticavolver: yoencontrar: yo

    dormir: yomorir: yo

    sentarse: yopensar: yo

    sentirse: yopreferir: yo

    pedir: yoservir: yovolvieraencontrara

    durmieramuriera

    me sentarapensara

    me sintieraprefiriera

    pidierasirviera

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