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  • Prepared within the project Sustaining Rural Communities and their Traditional Landscapes Through Strengthened Environmental Governance in Transboundary Protected Areas of the Dinaric Arc

    Feasibility study on establishing transboundarycooperation in the potential transboundaryprotected area:

    Tara-Drina National Park

  • ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLEin the Dinaric Arc

    A Western BalkansEnvironment & DevelopmentCooperation Programme

    2

    Author:Marijana Josipovic

    Photographs:Tara National Park archive

    ProofreadingLinda Zanella

    Design and layout:Imre Sebestyen, jr. / UNITgraphics.com

    Available from:IUCN Programme Office for South-Eastern EuropeDr Ivana Ribara 9111070 Belgrade, [email protected] +381 11 2272 411Fax +381 11 2272 531www.iucn.org/publications

    Acknowledgments:A Special thank you goes to:

    Boris Erg, Veronika Ferdinandova (IUCN SEE), Dr. Deni Porej, (WWF MedPO),Ms. Aleksandra Mladenovic for commenting and editing the assessment text.Zbigniew Niewiadomski, consultant, UNEP Vienna ISCC for providing the study concept.Emira Mesanovic Mandic, WWF MedPO for coordinating the assessment process.

  • 3

    The designation of geographical entities in this publication, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN, WWFMedPO and SNV concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN, WWF MedPO and SNV.

    This publication has been made possible by funding from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.

    Published by: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Belgrade, Serbia in collaboration with WWFMedPO and SNV

    Copyright: 2011 International Union for Conservation of Nature

    Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder, provided the source is fully acknowledged.

    Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder.

    Citation: Josipovic, M., (2011). Feasibility study on establishing transboundary cooperation in the potential Tara-Drina National Park. Gland, Switzerland and Belgrade, Serbia: IUCN Programme Office for South-Eastern Europe. Number of pages, 32 pp.

  • ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLEin the Dinaric Arc

    A Western BalkansEnvironment & DevelopmentCooperation Programme

    4

    Table of Contents

    Background of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Purpose of the assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

    CONTEXT FOR TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION

    Historical context of the area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Border context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Socioeconomic context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Demography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Transport infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

    UNIFING ELEMENTSNATURE OF THE PROPOSED TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAEnvironmental conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Overview of nature values in the region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Existing and potential natural and landscape linkages across the border . . . . . . . .18Potential threats to environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

    SUPPORT FOR TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATIONLegal and institutional framework for biodiversity conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Protected areas in the planned transboundary protected area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Funding and coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Support and involvement of local stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Examples of common transboundary initiatives undertaken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

    FIRST STEPS IN TRANSOUNDARY COOPERATION:opportunities, challenges, benefitsExisting grounds for transboundary cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Benefits for the local population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

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    List of acronyms:

    AEWS Accident Emergency Warning System

    BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina

    CBD COP 9 9th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity

    CBD PoWPA Convention on Biological Diversity, Programme of Work on Protected Areas

    EU IPA European Union, Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance

    GEF Global Environment Fund

    IUCN SEE International Union for Conservation of Nature Programme Office for South-Eastern Europe

    NP National Park

    PA Protected Area

    REC Regional Environmental Center

    SR Republic of Serbia

    SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

    TBPA Transboundary Protected Area

    TBR Transboundary Biosphere Reserve

    UNDP United Nations Development Programme

    UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

    WWF MedPO World Wide Fund for Nature Mediterranean Programme Office

  • ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLEin the Dinaric Arc

    A Western BalkansEnvironment & DevelopmentCooperation Programme

    6

    BACkGROUND OF THE STUDY

    The Project Environment for People in the Dinaric Arc

    The project Environment for People in the Dinaric Arc began in 2009 and is funded by the Ministry for Foreign Af-fairs of Finland. The project is expected to last three years. It represents a joint development initiative by IUCN (In-ternational Union for Conservation of Nature) implemented by the IUCN Re-gional Office for Pan-Europe and IUCN Programme Office for South-Eastern Europe, in partnership with the World Wide Fund for NatureMediterranean Programme Office and SNVNether-lands Development Organisation.

    The project was developed to sup-port the political commitments of the Dinaric Arc countries towards enhancing cooperation on protected area establishment and management within the framework of implement-ing CBD PoWPA. In this context, the most important step was the Big Win commitment for the Dinaric Arc, jointly signed by Albania, Bosnia and Herze-govina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia in May 2008 during the 9th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 9) in Bonn, Germany. The commitment includes the general statement of all signatories to build an effective network of protected areas, based on the recognition of the natural and cultural wealth of the Dinaric Arc region. It also includes a list of specific national and regional priorities for each country. These priorities include the es-tablishment of 13 new protected areas and the evaluation of the contribution the protected areas could make to the local and national economies. They also include strengthening regional collaboration by creating a series of transboundary natural resource management areas (i.e. transbound-

    ary protected areas), which shows a general awareness that protecting this natural and cultural wealth can only be achieved through the close coopera-tion of the Dinaric Arc countries. The EU perspective is currently the main political driver, since EU accession is the principal objective for the countries of the region. Strong economic growth and progressing integration into the EU are set to bring the stability, security, and prosperity that the peoples of the region are hoping for. In this context, establishing transboundary collabora-tion on environmental and develop-ment issues is of interest to all the western Balkan countries.

    The Environment for People in the Dinaric Arc project aims to trans-for