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DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Student Edition
1. The discovery of which of the following has most directly led to advances in the identification of suspects incriminal investigations and in the identification of genetic diseases?
A. antibiotics B. cell structure C. DNA structure D. sterile procedures
2. Which of the following is the template for the production of RNA within a cell?
A. DNA B. ATP C. protein D. carbohydrate
3. Which sequence of DNA bases would pair with the ones shown in the partial strand below?
4. What molecules do both DNA and RNA contain?
A. uracil B. thymine C. nucleotides D. deoxyribose
5. A chromosome is best described as a
A. gene that has more than one form. B. green cell found in many plants.
C. strand of DNA containing genetic information. D. reproductive cell found in certain kinds of bacteria.
6. Which statement about DNA is correct?
A. A child’s DNA will be unrelated to the mother’s or father’s DNA.
B. A child’s DNA will show similarities to both the mother’s and father’s DNA.
C. A female child’s DNA will exactly match the mother’s DNA.
D. A male child’s DNA will exactly match the father’s DNA.
7. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope.
Which of the following questions may best be answered by studying an organism’s chromosomes?
A. What sex is the organism? B. Is the organism endangered?
C. Where is the organism’s ecosystem? D. How does the organism obtain its food?
8. Genetic information usually flows in one specific direction. Which of the following best represents this flow?
A. DNA → Protein → RNA B. Protein → RNA → DNA
C. RNA → Protein → DNA D. DNA → RNA → Protein
9. The diagram below shows a strand of DNA matched to a strand of messenger RNA.
What process does this diagram represent?
A. mutation B. respiration C. transcription D. translation
10. Why is the particular sequence of bases in a segment of DNA important to cells?
A. Some base sequences code for protein production.
B. Some base sequences cause the release of lipids from the nucleus.
C. Some base sequences contain the order of sugars in polysaccharides.
D. Some base sequences produce electrical signals sent to the cytoplasm.
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11. A rare genetic condition causes dwarfism and immunodeficiencies. Which of the following is the most likely causeof this condition?
A. a parasitic infection B. a mutation in DNA C. a bacterial disease D. an excess of ATP
12. Which of the following best describes the result of a mutation in an organism’s DNA?
A. The mutation may produce a zygote. B. The mutation may cause phenotypic change.
C. The mutation causes damage when it occurs. D. The mutation creates entirely new organisms.
13. Which of the following statements best describes a DNA molecule?
A. It is a double helix. B. It contains the sugar ribose.
C. It is composed of amino acids. D. It contains the nitrogenous base uracil.
14. The box below contains a statement about mutations.
In many cases throughout geologichistory, if mutations in the geneticmaterial of existing species had notoccurred, new species would not haveappeared.
Which of the following conclusions about mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene is most consistent with thestatement?
A. Mutations are always rapidly occurring.
B. Mutations are always beneficial.
C. Mutations are the only way new species arise.
D. Mutations are an important mechanism for the evolution of new species
15. A mutation in which of the following types of cells could be passed on to an organism’s offspring?
A. blood B. egg C. muscle D. nerve
16. In a molecule of double-stranded DNA, the amount of adenine present is always equal to the amount of
A. cytosine. B. guanine. C. thymine. D. uracil.
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17. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a hereditary disease that destroys brain cells. In individuals with HD, the functioningof a specific protein is altered, and this leads to the disease’s effects.
Which of the following is the most likely cause of the altered protein function in individuals with HD?
A. a mutation in the DNA sequence that codes for the protein
B. an increase in the amount of fat rather than protein in the diet
C. a decrease in the amount of glucose and amino acids in the blood
D. a structural abnormality in the endoplasmic reticulum of brain cells
18. What is the role of hydrogen bonds in the structure of DNA?
A. to code for proteins B. to synthesize proteins
C. to separate the strands D. to connect the base pairs
19. A segment of a DNA strand has the following bases:
What is the complementary strand of DNA?
A. UAG CAU B. TAG CAT C. ATG CTA D. AUG CUA
20. Scientists can use the amino acid sequence in proteins to determine the evolutionary relationships of primates. Ofthe following, which primate is least closely related to humans?
Human: SER THR ALA GLY ASP
A. Gorilla: SER THR ALA GLY ASP B. Baboon: ASN THR THR GLY ASP
C. Chimp: SER THR ALA GLY ASP D. Lemur: ALA THR SER GLY GLU
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21. This chart represents amino acids that are coded from different combinations of mRNA codons.
Which amino acid sequence can be coded from the DNA sequence CAG TAG CGA?
A. Valine — Isoleucine — Glycine B. Valine — Aspartic Acid — Alanine
C. Valine — Isoleucine — Alanine D. Valine — Phenylalanine — Alanine
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22. This diagram represents samples of DNA that were cut with a restriction enzyme during DNA fingerprinting in acrime lab.
Which technique was used to produce these bands?
A. cloning B. gel electrophoresis C. gene splicing D. genetic engineering
23. What process produces many variations in phenotypes?
A. independent assortment B. asexual reproduction
C. regeneration D. cloning
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24. This chart shows a list of messenger RNA codons.
A strand of DNA with the sequence AAC AAG CCC undergoes a mutation, and the first A is changed to a C.How will this mutation affect the amino acid sequence?
A. One amino acid will change. B. Two amino acids will change.
C. All of the amino acids will change. D. The amino acids will remain the same.
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25. The table below shows the amounts of adenine, cytosine, and guanine found in a sample of nucleic acid.
Nucleic Acid Sample
Percent of Numberof Molecules
Which statement best explains whether the sample of nucleic acid is DNA or RNA?
A. The sample is DNA because the amounts of adenine and cytosine are approximately equal.
B. The sample is RNA because the amounts of adenine and cytosine are approximately equal.
C. The sample is DNA because the amounts of cytosine and guanine do not have to be equal.
D. The sample is RNA because the amounts of cytosine and guanine do not have to be equal.
A strand of mRNA containing the repeating sequence AAGAAGAAGAAG could code for which of the followingamino acid sequences?
A. lys–arg–glu–lys B. ser–ser–glu–glu C. lys–arg–lys–arg D. lys–lys–lys–lys
27. 5’ ATCAGCGCTGGC 3’
The above sequence of DNA is part of a gene. How many amino acids are coded for by this segment?
A. 4 B. 8 C. 12 D. 20
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28. Which of the following base pair sequences could be produced in DNA replication?
A. 5’ AGTCUT 3’3’ TCUGTA 5’
B. 5’ AGTCAT 3’ 3’TCAGTA 5’
C. 5’ AGTCAT 3’ 3’CTGACG 5’
D. 5’ AGTCAT 3’ 3’UCAGUA 5’
29. 5’ G T A A A 3’
3’ C A T G C A T T 5’
This segment of DNA has undergone a mutation in which three nucleotides have been deleted. A repair enzymewould replace them with
A. CGT. B. GCA. C. CTG. D. GTA.
30. An Olympic gold medalist in cross-country skiing has a gene which causes him to produce 50% more hemoglobinthan the average person. Which of these most likely caused this trait?
A. a special diet designed for the skier B. the climate where the skier lives
C. the training routine of the skier D. a mutation carried by the skier
31. How many nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid?
A. 1 B. 3 C. 4 D. 6
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32. The diagram below shows the key steps for making proteins. Use the diagram to answer the following question(s).
According to the diagram, in which step is messenger RNA being constructed?
A. I B. II C. III D. IV
33. Which step involves transfer RNA?
A. I B. II C. III D. IV
34. Which step involves ribosomes?
A. I B. II C. III D. IV
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35. Which of these represents the structure of messenger RNA?
36. Use the information below to answer the following question(s).
Scientists genetically modified a variety of corn to protect it against pests like the corn borer. The corn borer is aninsect caterpillar that feeds on the corn stalk, which weakens the stalk and makes it fall over. A new gene in thegenetically modified corn causes the plant to produce a chemical that is toxic to the corn borer. Some people areconcerned that the genetically modified corn could harm other insects such as the monarch butterfly caterpillar.The monarch caterpillar eats leaves of milkweed plants that might be coated with toxic corn pollen. However, notall researchers agree with the concerns regarding the monarch butterfly caterpillar. They state that it is unusual forlarge amounts of harmful corn pollen to be found on milkweed leaves. Also, only a small percentage of caterpillarsfeed on the milkweed plants near corn fields.
Which was most likely introduced into corn that made it pest-resistant?
A. gene B. lipid C. toxin D. protein
37. When the segment of human DNA that codes for insulin production is inserted into bacterial DNA, the bacteriumbegins producing human insulin.
Which of these best identifies the process by which human DNA is inserted into bacterial DNA?
A. gene splicing B. crossing-over C. mutation D. cloning
38. In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA molecule functions most like
A. a pair of scissors. B. a computer memory chip.
C. a ballpoint pen. D. a zipper.
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39. Use the diagram below to answer the following question.
Which statement describes the diagram?
A. DNA transcription is producing messenger RNA. B. DNA transcription is producing ribosomal RNA.
C. DNA translation is producing messenger RNA. D. DNA translation is producing ribosomal RNA.
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40. The picture below shows two mature plants.
The two plants were cross-pollinated and each plant produced seeds. Which statement most likely describes acharacteristic of the offspring that will grow from the seeds produced by each plant?
A. The offspring will grow taller than the parent plants.
B. The offspring will have healthier leaves than the parent plants.
C. The offspring will produce fewer flowers than the parent plants.
D. The offspring will have light-colored flowers like the parent plants.
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