1 DICTIONARY OF TRUCKING TERMS (Australian and North American Terms) - Symbols and Numbers - 2AB-QUAD - Adapted by inventive operators to comply with the current overall length limit of 53.5-metres (175-feet) and exploit tri-axle load limits of up to 23.5- tonnes, the 2AB Quad is a four-trailer combination made up of two A-trailers (regular semi-trailers) coupled via a dolly converter and, in turn, hooked up to a B-double set. These combinations are extensively used by fuel giants Shell and BP on long-distance runs between Adelaide and Darwin and can gross approximately 194-tonnes when used in conjunction with a tri-drive tractor unit thereby employing eight tri-axle groups each capable of accommodating 23.5- tonnes. There is some debate as to whether the two A-trailers should be at the front end of the combination – ahead of the B-double, at the rear end – behind it, or even at either end with the B-double sandwiched in between. It appears that operators have their own ideas as to which set-up handles best and enjoys the best road manners when running at the supposed legal maximum speed of 90- kph or 56-miles per hour. See also, Type 2 Road Train. Mitchell Fuel Kenworth 2AB Quad Mighty Atom 2AB Quad BP Volvo 2AB Quad 2AB-Quads 4-WHEELER - See Four Wheeler. 10-1 - Receiving poorly. 10-2 - Receiving well. 10-3 - Stop transmitting. 10-4 - ¹OK. ²Message received. ³Understood. (Remember that 10-4 only means "message received". If you want to say "yes", use "yes". For "no", use "no")
DICTIONARY OF TRUCKING TERMS (Australian and North American Terms)
- Symbols and Numbers - 2AB-QUAD - Adapted by inventive operators to comply with the current overall length limit of 53.5-metres (175-feet) and exploit tri-axle load limits of up to 23.5-tonnes, the 2AB Quad is a four-trailer combination made up of two A-trailers (regular semi-trailers) coupled via a dolly converter and, in turn, hooked up to a B-double set. These combinations are extensively used by fuel giants Shell and BP on long-distance runs between Adelaide and Darwin and can gross approximately 194-tonnes when used in conjunction with a tri-drive tractor unit thereby employing eight tri-axle groups each capable of accommodating 23.5-tonnes. There is some debate as to whether the two A-trailers should be at the front end of the combination – ahead of the B-double, at the rear end – behind it, or even at either end with the B-double sandwiched in between. It appears that operators have their own ideas as to which set-up handles best and enjoys the best road manners when running at the supposed legal maximum speed of 90-kph or 56-miles per hour. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
Mitchell Fuel Kenworth 2AB Quad Mighty Atom 2AB Quad BP Volvo 2AB Quad
2AB-Quads 4-WHEELER - See Four Wheeler. 10-1 - Receiving poorly. 10-2 - Receiving well. 10-3 - Stop transmitting. 10-4 - ¹OK. ²Message received. ³Understood. (Remember that 10-4 only means "message received". If you want to say "yes", use "yes". For "no", use "no")
10-5 - Relay message. 10-6 - Busy, stand by. 10-7 - Out of service, leaving the air (you’re going off the air). 10-8 - In service, subject to call (you’re back on the air). 10-9 - ¹Repeat. ²Repeat message. ³What? 10-10 - Transmission completed, standing by (you’ll be listening). 10-11 - Talking too quickly/rapidly. 10-12 - Visitors present. 10-13 - Advise weather/road conditions. 10-16 - Make pick up at... 10-17 - Urgent business. 10-18 - Anything for us? 10-19 - Nothing for you, return to base. 10-20 - ¹My location is ... ²What’s your location? 10-21 - Call by telephone. 10-22 - Report in person to: ... 10-23 - Stand by. 10-24 - Completed last assignment. 10-25 - Can you contact...? 10-26 - ¹Disregard last information. ²Cancel last message. ³Ignore. 10-27 - I am moving to channel... 10-28 - Identify your station. 10-29 - Time is up for contact.
10-30 - Does not conform to FCC rules. 10-32 - I will give you a radio check. 10-33 - Emergency traffic at this station. (Note: NOT an auto accident like many people think. See 10-42) 10-34 - Trouble at this station, help needed. 10-35 - Confidential information. 10-36 - ¹Correct time is ... ²What time is it? 10-37 - Wrecker needed at... 10-38 - Ambulance needed at... 10-39 - Your message delivered. 10-41 - Please turn to channel... 10-42 - ¹Traffic accident at ... ²Vehicle accident. 10-43 - Traffic tie-up at... 10-44 - I have a message for you. 10-45 - All units within range please report. 10-50 - Break channel. 10-60 - What is next message number? 10-62 - Unable to copy, use phone. 10-63 - Net directed to... 10-64 - Net clear. 10-65 - Awaiting your next message/assignment. 10-67 - All units comply. 10-70 - Fire at... 10-71 - Proceed with transmission in sequence.
10-73 - Speed trap at... 10-75 - You are causing interference. 10-77 - Negative contact. 10-81 - Reserve hotel room for... 10-82 - Reserve room for... 10-84 - My telephone number is... 10-85 - My address is... 10-91 - Talk closer to the mike/microphone. 10-92 - Your transmitter is out of adjustment. 10-93 - Check my frequency on this channel. 10-94 - Please give me a long count (1 to 10). 10-95 - Transmit dead carrier for 5 seconds. 10-99 - Mission completed, all units secure. 10-100 - ¹Need to go to bathroom. ²Bathroom break/rest stop. 10-200 - Police needed at... 18 WHEELER - See Eighteen Wheeler.
- A - AAB-QUAD - BAB-Quads, AAB-Quads and ABB-Quads are innovative Type 2 Road Trains that operate at an overall length of more than 36.5 meters, but not more than 53.5 meters. The maximum GCM varies depending on the axle configuration. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
An AAB-Quad road train
ABB-QUAD - A prime mover towing a single semi-trailer and a set of B-triple trailers, connected by a converter dolly. ABB-quads have a maximum length of 53.5 meters. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
An ABB-Quad road train
ABS - ¹Antilock Braking System. Computer, sensors and solenoid valves which together monitor wheel speed and modulate braking force if wheel lockup is sensed during braking. Helps the driver retain control of the vehicle during heavy braking on slippery roads. ²An abbreviation for anti-lock brakes. AB-TRIPLE - ¹A vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover and semi-trailer combination connected, by a converter dolly (with no more than 3 axles), to two semi-trailers which are connected by a fifth wheel coupling. ²A prime mover towing a single semi-trailer and a set of B-double trailers, connected by a converter dolly. AB-triples have a maximum length of 36.5 meters. ³Another configuration that has gained wide acceptance with operators, particularly those engaged in bulk haulage, is the AB-triple. This three-trailer combination is made up of a regular semi-trailer (the A-trailer) coupled via a dolly converter to a two-trailer B-double set. Axle groups may be tandems or tri-axle and this factor dictates the maximum gross weight of the combination. Again maximum overall length is 36.5-metres. See also, Type 1 Road Train.
A typical AB-Triple
Hubbard Western Star AB Triple Western Star AB Triple
AB-Triples ACCESSORIAL SERVICE - A service rendered by a carrier secondary to a transportation service. Examples are storage, reconsignment, stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload, etc.
ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT - Any non-expendable item of equipment which has been fixed in place or attached to a craft, vehicle or other equipment, but which may be severed or removed without impairing the item removed or affecting the basic function of the object to which it is fastened. A-CONNECTION - Drawbar. (See Type 2 Road Train) ACTUAL VALUATION - Actual value of goods required to be shown on bill of lading by shipper, when rate to be applied is dependent on that fact. A-DOLLY - ¹(A variant of a converter dolly) An A-dolly is a trailer which has a single drawbar with a centred coupling. See Converter Dolly, Dolly. ²This converter dolly has an "A" shaped drawbar that joins at a single connection point to the trailer ahead of it. These dollies can have one or more axles and are the most common in use. ADR - Australian Design Rule. A set of regulations governing vehicle design (e.g. ADR 38 covers heavy vehicle braking systems.) AD VALOREM TAX - A charge levied on persons or organizations based on the value of transaction. It is normally a given percentage of the price at the retail or manufacturing state and is a common form of sales tax; e.g. Federal excise tax on new trucks and trailers. A-FRAME - See Cradle. AFTERCOOLER - See Intercooler. AFV (ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLE) - Vehicle powered by a fuel other than gasoline or diesel. AGENT - ¹Person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another. ²Like a dispatcher, but cannot force you to take a load. The good ones realize this and they try to act nice or beg you to take the load. AGGREGATED TRAILER MASS - The total mass of a trailer carrying the maximum load as specified by the trailer manufacturer. It includes the mass of the drawbar as well as the mass on the axles. AGGREGATE MASS - The maximum allowable loaded mass of a particular vehicle or combination comprising the GVM or GCM plus the overload tolerance applicable in a given state. AGGREGATE WORKING LOAD LIMIT - The summation of the working load limits or restraining capacity of all devices used to secure an article on a vehicle.
AGITATOR BODY - Truck body designed and equipped to mix concrete in transit. AGRICULTURAL COMBINATION - A combination that includes at least one agricultural vehicle. AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT - A vehicle without its own motive power, built to perform agricultural tasks. AGRICULTURAL MACHINE - A machine with its own motive power, built to perform agricultural tasks. AGRICULTURAL VEHICLE - An agricultural implement or agricultural machine. AIR BAG - An inflatable barrier placed between a section of the load and the vehicle to stop any movement of the load. It can be disposable or reusable. AIR BRAKE - ¹An air-operated or air-assisted brake. ²A brake which is operated by air. The air brake is operated by use of air lines, valves, tanks, and an air compressor. AIR CAN TRAILER - (Slang) Pneumatic tank trailer for transporting solids in bulk. AIR FREIGHT CONTAINER - A smaller and lighter cargo container often made out of fiber glass designed to hold cargos that are shipped in airplanes. AIR LIFT AXLE (LIFT AXLE) - An air-powered axle which, when lowered, will both convert a vehicle into a multi-axle unit and provide greater load carrying capacity. AIR LOCK - An air bubble in fuel system, etc. AIR RIDE SUSPENSION - A suspension which supports the load on air-filled rubber bags rather than steel springs. Compressed air is supplied by the same engine-driven air compressor and reservoir tanks which provide air to the air brake system. See also, Air Suspension. AIRSPRING SYSTEM - A system whereby the container and plunger are separated by air under pressure. When the container and plunger attempt to squeeze together, air compresses and produces a spring effect. AIR SUSPENSION - ¹A suspension in which the weight of the vehicle is supported by air bags containing compressed air and the axles are held in position longitudinally and laterally by bushed rods. See also, Air Ride
Suspension. ²A Suspension system using air rather than metal springs to support the vehicle and control ride motions. Air springing results in a smoother ride, because the natural frequency of vibration of an air spring does not vary with loading as it does with metal springs. Air springs can be made very soft for the lightly loaded condition and the pressure automatically increased to match any increase in load, thus maintaining a constant sprint vibration period any load. AIR TANK - A reservoir for storing air for use in the air brake system. Without this storage tank there would not be enough air for braking when needed. AIR TRIP - An air-activated release catch on a tipper tailgate which is operated from the cab. ALLIGATOR - A tyre recap or tyre part from a blown tyre that is on the road. AMMETER - ¹An amp gauge. ²A gauge which registers the output of the alternator or generator. ANCHOR IT - Apply brakes for an emergency stop. ANCHOR POINTS - ¹Strong devices for attaching lashings to the mainframe or chassis to restrain the load. ²Fitting or attachment on a vehicle or load to secure lashings. ANGEL GEAR - Slang term for coasting down hills in neutral, an illegal and dangerous practice. Also called Mexican Overdrive. ANTI-SLIP MAT - See Load Mat. APPROVED AIR SUSPENSION SYSTEM - In relation to a vehicle, means a suspension system in which — (a) vertical movement between each axle and the body of the vehicle is controlled by variations in the pressure of air in an air spring; and (b) the proportion of the vehicle’s mass that is borne by the air spring remains substantially constant despite variations in the pressure of air in the air spring. AQUAPLANING - See Hydroplaning. ARMSTRONG STARTER - Old-fashioned hand crank. ARTICLE OF CARGO - A unit of cargo, other than a liquid, gas, or aggregate that lacks physical structure (e.g. grain, gravel, etc.), including articles grouped together so that they can be handled as a single unit or unitized by wrapping, strapping, banding, or edge protection device(s).
ARTICULATED VEHICLE - A vehicle with flexibly connected sections. Usually applied to a prime mover and semi-trailer as opposed to a truck and trailer which is called a combination vehicle.
ARTICULATION - The space between the power unit and trailer that allows the combination to pivot and turn corners. ATA (AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS, INC.) - ¹Serves the united interests of the trucking industry through a national federation of 50 independent state trucking associations plus the District of Columbia (each representing all classes and types of trucking operation), 12 independent conferences (each representing a special class or type truck operation) and the national headquarters. ²A national federation of independent and autonomous truck carrier conferences and state trucking associations. Includes Regular Common Carrier Conference, National Tank Truck Carriers Conference. ATC (AUTOMATIC TRACTION CONTROL) - Usually an optional feature based on ABS, it prevents spinning of the drive wheels under power on slippery surfaces by braking individual wheels and/or reducing engine throttle. Also called ASR, an acronym sometimes loosely translated from the German as anti-spin regulation. A-TRAIN - ¹Usually refers to a prime mover and semi-trailer towing a trailer. ²A tractor pulling a semi trailer with a shorter trailer or pup by means of reach or spindle hook. ³(Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by A-dollies. ATTACHED LOAD - See Direct Restraint. ATV (ALL TERRAIN VEHICLE) - Vehicle designed for any type of terrain. AUDIT OF FREIGHT BILLS - The process of verifying if transportation charges shown on the carrier’s freight bill are reasonable.
AUGER - A shaft with a broad spiral flange rotating inside a cylindrical casing to carry bulk material from one end of the shaft to the other. Augers are used to unload cargoes such as grain from grain trailers. AUSTRALIAN STANDARD - A standard approved for publication on behalf of the Standards Association International Limited. AUTO CARRIER - ¹A cargo body with two decks to carry automobiles. Also called auto transporter. ²This cargo body style is typified by the multi-decked auto carrier trailer and/or power unit.
AUTOMATIC GEARBOX - These work in much the same manner as in modern automatic cars. See Automatic Transmission. AUTOMATIC TOW COUPLING - The most common type of heavy trailer hitch in Australia and Europe. The trigger in the coupling automatically releases the spring loaded towing pin when the trailer drawbar eye touches it. Far easier to couple up than the cheaper American type pintle hook. Commonly referred to as a Ringfeder. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSON - ¹A mechanical transmission which shifts gears automatically in response to speed and/or load, rather than requiring the operator to do so manually; an automatic gearbox. ²A mechanism of the drivetrain which takes the power from the engine and transfers it to the driveshaft or wheels. Without using a clutch, it uses a torque converter and fluid coupler to change the gear ratio. It automatically effects gear changes to meet varying road and load conditions. Gear changing is done through a series of oil operated clutches and bands. AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTER - Any company certified to transport motor vehicles by hauling them on special vehicles or driving them. AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTER BODY - Truck body designed for the transportation of other vehicles. AUTO TRANSPORTER - See Auto Carrier.
AUXILIARY GEARBOX - A secondary gearbox which may be located before or after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios. If mounted behind the main gearbox it is sometimes called a 'joey box'. AVERAGE GROSS REVENUE PER LOADED MILE - Average total payment received per mile traveled with a load. AVI - (Automatic Vehicle Identification) System combining an on-board transponder with roadside receivers to automate identification of vehicles. Uses include electronic toll collection and stolen vehicle detection. (See E-ZPass, IVHS) AVIATOR - Speeding driver. AVL - (Automated Vehicle Location) Class of technologies designed to locate vehicles for fleet management purposes and for stolen vehicle recovery. Infrastructure can be land-based radio towers or satellites. (See IVHS) AXLE - ¹One or more shafts, positioned in a line across a vehicle, on which one or more wheels intended to support the vehicle turn. ²Structural component to which wheels, brakes and suspension are attached. Drive axles are those with powered wheels; front axle is usually called the steer axle; pusher axles are unpowered and go ahead of drive axles; rear axles may be drive, tag or pusher types; tag axles are unpowered and go behind drive axles. ³An axle is a shaft on which the wheels revolve. A full-floating axle is used to drive the rear wheels. It does not hold them on nor support them. A semi-floating or one-quarter floating axle is used to drive the wheels, hold them on, and support them. A three-quarter floating axle is used to drive the rear wheels as well as hold them on, but it does not support them. A live axle holds the wheels and transmits power to the wheels. A dead axle or beam axle merely holds the wheels, but does not transmit power to the wheels. See also, Axles. AXLE GROUP - ¹A group of axles (or a single axle) supporting one section of a vehicle. Axle groups in Australia are required to be loadsharing. ²A single axle group, tandem axle group, twinsteer axle group, tri-axle group or quad-axle group. AXLE LOAD -The total load transmitted to the road by all the wheels and tyres on that axle. AXLES - (1) A vehicle component to which wheels, brakes, and suspension attach; (2) Axle designations such as "4x2," "6x4," etc.: the number of wheels followed by the number of wheels driving, each axle assumed to have one wheel at each end, e.g. 6x4 is 6 wheels total, 4 driving, thus, a 3-axle power unit with 2 drive axles. See also, Axle.
AXLE WEIGHT - ¹The weight transmitted to the surface by one axle or a combination of axles in a tandem assembly. ²Amount of weight transmitted to the highway by one axle.
- B - BAB-QUAD - A prime mover towing two sets of B-double trailers, connected by a converter dolly. BAB-quads have a maximum length of 53.5 meters. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
A BAB-Quad road train
BACK DOOR - Behind you or to your rear. BACK-HAUL - ¹(a) to haul a shipment back over a part of a route traveled; (b) traffic moving in direction of light flow when a carrier’s traffic on a route is heavier in one direction than the other. ²Loads that you move back towards your tractor’s base of operation. BAFFLES - ¹Barriers fitted crosswise and lengthwise inside tanks to limit surging of fluids (or loads which behave like fluids) during acceleration, braking and cornering. ²Walls or partitions inside liquid tanks that inhibit the flow of fluids reducing the slosh effect that liquid tankers experience. BALLARD - See Park-N-View (PNV). BALL COUPLING - See Bartlett Hitch. BALLOON FREIGHT - ¹Light, bulky cargo. ²The term used when a driver is hauling cargo that is very light in weight compared with the cubic space occupied. BALL RACE - A type of turntable on which the top section rotates on the bottom through a series of bearings.
BANDING - A strip of material that may be used to unitize articles and is tensioned and clamped or crimped back upon itself. (Same as “Strapping”) BAREBACK - Tractor without its semi-trailer. BARN DOORS - Doors on a trailer that open on hinges, similar to that of a regular door. BARRIERS - To maintain axle weight limits, loads are often separated into two parts. To restrain the rear part, a movable barrier can be used. The barrier should be chained back near the top and bottom, to the tie rails on both sides. BARTLETT HITCH - A ball coupling usually used for attaching a rigid vehicle to a pig trailer. Better able to handle the heavy vertical load of a pig trailer than a Ringfeder type coupling. See Trailer Hitch. BASELEG - A structural member of a high-lift truck, containing load wheel(s), that extend in front of the mast from both sides. Also referred to as outriggers. BASELEG OPENING (BLO) - The distance between the inside of the baselegs, measured at the narrowest point. BASELEG OVERALL WIDTH (OAW) - The distance measured across the widest part of the outside of the baselegs. BASING POINT - A point in which rates to another destination are computed through. For example, a rate from Louisville, KY to a point near Jacksonville, Fl is computed as follows: The rate form Louisville to Jacksonville to the nearby point. Jacksonville, in this case, is the basing point. BASING RATE - See Proportional Rate. BA-TRIPLE - ¹A three-trailer combination made up of a B-double coupled to a single A-trailer via a dolly converter. The reverse of an AB-Triple. ²A BA-Triple is a vehicle combination consisting of: (a) A B-Double combination connected, by a converter dolly, to a semi-trailer; or (b) A B-Double combination connected to dog trailer. See also, Type 1 Road Train.
A typical BA-Triple
BAULKING - A solid object, often a large piece of timber placed against the load and fixed securely to the vehicle to prevent movement of the load.
BBC - (Bumper to Back of Cab) Distance from a truck's front bumper to the back of its cab. BB-QUAD - ¹This four-trailer combination comprises two B-doubles coupled together via a dolly converter. The configuration is used primarily by bulk operators employing tankers or side-tipping trailers. In Western Australia companies employ this set-up behind four and five-axle tractor units (prime movers) and by using tri-axle groups throughout – including the tractor unit’s drive axles – can achieve gross weights approaching 150-tonnes. ²A BB-Quad is a vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover towing two B-Double semi-trailer combinations that have been connected by a converter dolly. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
A typical BB-Quad
Giacci BB-Quad Giacci BB-Quad
BB-Quads B-CONNECTION - Fifth wheel or turntable. (See Type 2 Road Train) B-DOLLY - A fifth wheel mounted on one or more axles that are permanently attached and extend off the rear of a semi-trailer, most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. B-DOUBLE - ¹An articulated vehicle with a second semi-trailer attached to the rear of the first semi-trailer by means of a turntable. Called a B-Train in North America. ²A prime-mover towing two semi-trailers. The first trailer is a lead semi-trailer ("A trailer"), and the second trailer is a conventional semi-trailer ("B trailer"). The lead semi-trailer (“A trailer”) has a turntable at its rear, which means that another semi-trailer can connect without the use of a converter dolly. B-
triples are variations of this concept where three semi-trailers are connected. ³A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 2 semi-trailers.
Lead semi trailer
A typical B-Double
B-DOUBLE COMBINATION - A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 2 semi trailers.
B-DOUBLE LEAD TRAILER - A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the lead trailer in a B-double combination. BEAN HAULER - A driver who transports fruit and vegetables. BEAR - ¹A law enforcement officer. ²(Smokey, Full-Grown, Full Grown Bear) A state police car. BEAR-IN-THE-AIR - Police in a plane or helicopter. BEAVERTAIL - Refers to hinged ramps on the end of a flatbed trailer enabling vehicles or heavy equipment to drive onto the trailer. These ramps can be powered by a hydraulic mechanism. BED - ¹The part of a truck, trailer, or freight car designed to carry loads. ²Transportation: the body or, sometimes, the floor or bottom of a truck or trailer. BELL PIPE CONCRETE - Pipe whose flanged end is of larger diameter than its barrel. BELLY BIN - Boxes attached under the floor of a trailer, can carry cargo, but more often for carrying spare parts or dunnage. BELLY DUMP - ¹A trailer that discharges its load from the bottom. ²Another name for a hopper bottom trailer; both empty from underneath via gravity. BEVERAGE SEMI-TRAILER - A van-type, drop-frame semi-trailer designed and used specifically for the transport and delivery of bottled or canned beverages which has side-only access for loading and unloading this commodity. BIBLE - The "Golden Rule" safe driving book. BIG HAT - State Trooper. BIG HOLE - (The Big Hole) The top (highest) gear in a truck's transmission. BIG RIG - (See Big Truck) BIG RIGGER - Arrogant driver, or one who will drive only long trailers. BIG TRUCK (BIG RIG, RIG, 18-WHEELER, TRACTOR/TRAILER, SEMI) - These are terms for a tractor and semi-trailer. This is the truck you see on the road with only one trailer. The trailer is carried, not pulled. This means that the nose of the trailer physically rests on the tractor (truck) on what is called the 5th-
wheel. The first two can also be used to describe any commercial vehicle that is large in size. BILL BOX - A container on the front of a trailer to store the BOL if necessary. BILLED WEIGHT - The weight shown in a freight bill. BILLET - A solid length of raw material normally steel, bronze or aluminium. BILL OF LADING (BOL) - ¹An itemized list of goods contained in a shipment. ²Written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or their agents). It identifies the freight, who is to receive it, and the place of delivery. In addition, it gives terms of the agreement. ³A shipping document or shipping paper for a particular shipment. It contains an itemized list of goods in the shipment. It serves as a contract of shipment and a receipt for the goods. 4A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods. 5(Bills, Proof of Delivery, POD) Paperwork given to the driver by the shipper that shows what the product is, where it came from, where it's going, who the trucking company (carrier) is, what the product weighs, and a signature authorizing the movement of the freight. 6A contract between the shipper and the carrier that includes freight origin and destination, description, and weight. BINDER - A device used to tension a tie-down or combination of tie-downs. BINDERS - Brakes. BIRD DOG - A radar detector. BIRDYBACK - Intermodal transportation system using highway freight containers carried by aircraft. B/L - Bill of Lading. BLACK & WHITE - A law enforcement officer, particularly at city level; named for the black & white color schemes of their cars. BLANKET WRAPPING - When special blankets are wrapped around the freight to cushion the shipment. BLIND SIDE - Right side of truck and trailer (left side in Australia). BLIND SPOTS - Areas around a commercial vehicle that are not visible to the driver either through the windshield, side windows or mirrors.
BLIP - To quickly rev the engine then release the accelerator. See ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’. BLO - See Baseleg Opening. BLOCKED LOAD - See Direct Restraint. BLOCKING - Material, usually timber, placed between the load and the vehicle structure, to prevent movement of the load. BLOCK TRUCK - A haul unit expressly designed to tow other vehicles by means of a drawbar (rather than using a turntable). Often used to tow platforms, or dog trailers in situations where road trains are required to break up (split) at assembly areas.
BLOW OUT - A burst tyre. BLOW-THE-BRAKES - To set the parking brakes. BLUE LABEL - Atomic material shipment. BOAT TRANSPORTERS - Any vehicle combination designed and used specifically to transport assembled boats and boat hulls. Boats may be partially disassembled to facilitate transporting. BOBTAIL (BOBTAILING) - ¹A prime mover without a semi-trailer attached. ²A truck or tractor operating without a trailer. Also refers to a straight truck. ³To drive the truck only, without the trailer. 4(Slang) A tractor with no trailer. Sometimes straight trucks with no trailer are also referred to as bobtails.
BOC - Back of Cab. BODY - ¹The passenger - and cargo - carrying part of an aircraft, ship, or other vehicle. ²The bed or box of a vehicle on or in which the load is placed. ³The section of a vehicle, usually in the shape of a box, cylindrical container, or platform, in or on which passengers or the load is carried. 4Semi-trailer. BOG COG - A very low gear which is not used in normal circumstances. Also called a crawler, or stump puller. BOGEY - A two-axle assembly. See Bogie. BOGIE - (Also spelled bogey) ¹Assembly of two or more axles, usually a pair in tandem. ²An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for the purpose of converting a semi-trailer to a full trailer. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit. (Also referred to as a dolly) ³A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under a container. BOGIE DRIVE - A prime mover or truck with two drive axles at the back, a 6x4 or if twin steer 8x4 vehicle. Bogie drive prime movers are the most common type in Australia. The drive is usually transmitted from one axle to the other by means of a short drive shaft called a jack-shaft. BOL - Bill of Lading. BOLLARD - A series of short posts set to prevent vehicular access or to protect property from damage by vehicular encroachment. A bollard is sometimes used to direct traffic. BOLL WEEVIL - A novice truck driver.
BOLSTER - ¹A piece of steel or heavy timber firmly attached to the vehicle (often bolted to the chassis) to support the load and/or prevent it moving. ²Rigid support base commonly used to support logs. BONDED WAREHOUSE - A warehouse controlled by customs. BONNETTED VEHICLE - A vehicle where the driver sits behind the engine which is covered by a bonnet (the Americans call it a hood). Bonnetted heavy trucks are aerodynamically superior to cabovers because of their wedge shape. They are also usually cheaper and lighter than a cabover with the same powertrain, but not as maneuverable. BOOK MILES - The miles the load pays. (Not real miles) BOOM - A lifting mechanism. May be mounted on or as part of the cargo body of a truck. Booms are common on utility trucks or flatbeds. BOOMERS - Binder devices used to tighten chains around cargo on flatbed trailers. BOOM IT DOWN - Tighten chains around freight. BOOM TRUCK - This trailer is equipped with a small knuckle boom for self-unloading of units up to 6,000 lbs. This unit can load and unload on job sites or where unloading equipment is not available.
BOOSTER DOLLY - Usually at the rear of a truck or LCV and employs hydraulics to shift some of the load weight onto the rear dolly axles. BOTTLE - Refers to the cargo tank of a truck or trailer designed to carry liquefied or compressed gases. Examples include bottled gas, propane, and butane. BOTTLERS BODY - Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of cased bottled beverages. BOTTOM DUMPS - ¹Trailers that unload through bottom gates. ²Dry bulk bodies which empty by means of gravity alone through the bottom. Sometimes referred to as hopper-bottoms or belly dumps.
BOULDER - A large piece of natural rock that may be rounded if it has been exposed to weather and water, or is rough if it has been quarried. BOX - ¹Trailer or semi-trailer. The most common type of trailer that can haul almost anything that can fit inside. Also called a van trailer. See also, Dry Van, Dry Van Trailer. ²Any container that can haul freight, i.e. the trailer. ³The transmission of a motor vehicle.
Enclosed Box Trailer (aka Dry Van)
Van (Box) trailer
BOXCAR - A closed rail freight car. BRACING - A structure, device, or another substantial article placed against an article to prevent it from tipping that may also prevent it from shifting. BRAKE CHECK - A sudden slow down in traffic where you have to hit the brakes. BRAKE FADE (SMOKING BRAKES, LOST BRAKES, BRAKE FIRE) - As you apply brakes, they generate heat. If they start getting too hot, they start to fade, meaning that you need to apply more pressure to get the same result. Brakes will get hotter faster by applying and releasing, than by applying and holding a steady pressure. At a certain point, when the brake shoe and drum get hot enough, the brakes will start to fade, and then as they fade and you apply more pressure to get the same braking power, they will start to smoke. If this continues to worsen, you will get to the point where the brakes have faded so badly, that you cannot apply enough pressure to get them to do anything – this is when you lose your brakes. At speed, brakes cannot normally catch fire. A brake fire normally occurs when the vehicle is stopped with badly smoking brakes – suddenly the grease and oil around the shoe, drum, and wheel will catch fire, and about 20 seconds
later the tyre will catch on fire. At that point the trailer or truck has a very good chance of burning to the ground, as well as catching the asphalt on fire too. A single fire extinguisher will almost never put out a brake fire – you use it, the flames go out; 10 seconds later, the flames are back, and so on. BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP) - Engine horsepower rating as determined by brake dynamometer testing. (See Horsepower) BRAKE REACTIVE SUSPENSION - A suspension in which there is a transfer of vertical loading from one axle to another in the same axle group when the brakes are applied. The front axle of the group tends to lock up, especially on tri-axle trailers. BRAKING SYSTEM - Of a vehicle, means all the brakes of the vehicle and all the components of the mechanisms by which they are operated. BREAK BULK - To separate a composite load into individual shipments and route to different destinations. BREAK THE UNIT - Uncouple the tractor from the trailer. BREAK TORQUE - Releasing engine power or load from the transmission and drivetrain by releasing throttle or depressing clutch pedal. BRIDGE FORMULA - A bridge surface protection formula used by Federal and State governments to regulate the amount of weight that can be put on each of a vehicle’s axles, and how far apart the axles (or group of axles) must be to safely and legally carry a given weight over a bridge. BRIDGE LAW - Federal regulations (in the United States) specifying maximum weight based on the distance in feet between axles. BRITISH STANDARD - A standard approved for publication on behalf of the British Standards Institution, being an institution established under royal charter in the United Kingdom. BROKER - A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. BROKERAGE LICENSE - Authority granted by Interstate Commerce Commission to persons engaged in the business of arranging for motor vehicle transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce. BROWNIE - Auxiliary transmission.
B-TRAIN - ¹A tractor pulling two semi-trailers. The lead unit having a fifth wheel at the back to attach the second semi-trailer or pup. Called a B-Double in Australia. See B-Double. ²(Slang) A truck tractor pulling two semi-trailers where the second trailer sits on a fifth wheel that is permanently attached and extends off the rear of the lead trailer. Most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. The B-train is considered a more stable double trailers configuration. B-TRIPLE - ¹A vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover towing three semi-trailers connected by fifth wheel couplings. ²A B-double with an additional trailer at the front. By using standard-sized “modular” trailers, the combination can be broken down as a B-double or hooked-up as a multi-combination for operation on approved road train routes. A standard B-triple is less than 35 meters long and weighs up to 82.5 tonnes gross weight. B-triples up to 36.5 meters long are allowed to operate in some States and Territories. ³A prime mover towing 3 semi-trailers connected by turntable couplings. B-triples have a maximum length of 36.5 meters. 4The B-triple marks the obvious and most natural evolution of the B-double and is – as the name suggests – three trailers coupled to one another via fifth wheels. This configuration is now widely used by parcel carriers utilising high volume curtain-sider trailers and is popular with companies operating on the 1,700-km Adelaide to Perth route. B-triple trailer sets have also been developed for livestock, tankers and for bulk materials. B-triples may operate at lengths up to 36.5-metres (120-feet) overall and at weights of up to 86-tonnes, the same as a two-trailer road train featuring tri-axle groups throughout. See also, Type 1 Road Train.
Argosy B-triple Neils Transport Air Road Kenworth B-Triple Bunker Freightlines Volvo FH B-Triple
Hahn Kenworth B-Triple tanks Kenworth B-Triple operated by Nascatrans
Argosy B-Triple in colours of 1st Express DHL B-Triple
B-Triples B-TRIPLE COMBINATION - A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 3 semi trailers. B-TRIPLE LEAD TRAILER - A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the lead trailer in a B-triple combination. B-TRIPLE MIDDLE TRAILER - A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the second trailer in a B-triple combination. BTS - (Bureau of Transportation Statistics) BUCKET-MOUTH (RATCHET-JAW) - Someone who ties up the channel on the CB and doesn't let others talk. BUG IT - To carry freight from the front to the back of a truck. BUILDING MATERIALS - This cargo category is for bricks, blocks, cement in bags, wallboard, insulation, and mixed cargoes of these in addition to drywall, lumber, paint, hardware, and other materials are included. BULK CARGO - Loose and unpackaged, sometimes referred to as aggregate cargo.
BULKER - A container that is fitted with loading hatches on the roof and discharge hatches on the doors or front wall. Used for any loose bulk commodity (e.g. sugar, salt, coal). BULK FREIGHT - ¹Unpackaged freight such as wheat, petroleum products, etc. ²Freight that is not in packages or containers. It is normally hauled in tanks or grain trailers. BULKHEAD - ¹A term sometimes applied to the gate at the front of a tray body or flat top trailer which is built heavier than side gates. Also called a Loading Rack. ²Firewall; front of trailer wall, or any dividing wall within a trailer. See also, Gates. ³A partition separating one part of a ship, freight car, aircraft or truck from another part. 4Wall-like structure used at the front of a flatbed or back of the power unit to protect against damage from shifting cargo, or a wall inside any trailer that partitions the load. BULK TRUCK/TRAILER - A vehicle that can carry loose cargos in bulk. It usually refers to solids in bulk. BULL HAULER - One who hauls livestock. BUMBLE BEE - A two-cycle engine. BUMP THE DOCK - To deliver a load. BUNDLE - A group of articles of that has been unitized for securement as a single article. BUNK - ¹A horizontal bolster fitted with a stake at each end that together support and contains a stack of logs, and is installed transversely. ²Cradle-like metal up-right brackets mounted on a log truck or trailer to hold the logs. Sometimes referred to as bolsters. ³A sleeping compartment mounted behind a truck cab, sometimes attached to the cab or even designed to be an integral part of it. Also called a Sleeper. 4The bed in a sleeper on a truck. BUNK-BUDDY - A female that rides along with a male truck driver – for sex, company, housekeeping, paperwork, etc. – in return for food, shelter, and adventure. When the driver gets bored he drops her off at a truck stop and she finds another driver to ride with. (This is not a girlfriend or a wife) BUSINESS CHANNEL - Channel 19 on the CB. Note: When on the I-5 (Interstate 5 – in California, Oregon or Washington) the business channel is 17. BUTTON HER UP - Tie down the load on a truck or trailer.
BUTTON HOOK - To make a right hand turn from the curb lane of one street to the curb lane of the new street, you must use the space in the intersection to do so.
- C - CA - (Rear of Cab to rear Axle) measurement. See Cab-to-Axle Dimension. CAB - ¹Driver’s compartment of a truck or tractor-trailer. ²The control room on a truck where the driver sits. ³The seating and bunk area of a tractor. 4Portion of truck where the driver sits; tractor. The passenger compartment of a vehicle. 5Normally the enclosed compartment in a vehicle in which the driver sits. CAB ASIDE ENGINE (CAE) - A truck where the driver's cab sits to one side of the engine as seen on refuse trucks and some construction equipment. CAB BEHIND ENGINE (CB, CBE) - Conventional, has a hood and an engine in front of the cab. CAB BESIDE ENGINE - ¹The cab is located to left or right side of the engine. ²Motor truck or truck tractor with the driver’s compartment and controls located beside the engine. CAB CHASSIS - A truck with only the cab fitted. Does not include load carrying or attaching components (e.g. body or turntable). CAB FORWARD - ¹(of the engine) The engine is directly behind the cab. ²Similar to a cabover in that the cab is positioned ahead of the engine. Most commonly seen on refuse trucks and some construction equipment. CAB GUARD - A steel structure fitted behind the cab on a prime mover to stop parts of the load striking the cab. CABOTAGE - Hauling freight within one country by a foreigner. CABOVER - (Cab Over Engine or COE) ¹A truck with the cab mounted directly above the engine and front axle. Allows shorter overall vehicle length for better maneuverability and has better all around view for the driver. COE trucks are dominant in Europe because they allow longer trailers within an overall length limit. ²Truck or tractor design in which the cab sits over the engine on the chassis. ³A style of tractor with a flat front due to the cab over the engine. 4A vehicle with a substantial part of its engine located under the cab. Also known as snubnose. 5A truck or tractor design in which the cab sits over the engine on the chassis. The cabover is identified by the windshield being located directly over the front bumper and the driver is directly over the steering axle. Also called flat-faced, butt-nosed, or Cab-over-engine. 6Motor truck or truck tractor with a substantial part of its engine located under the cab. 7Power unit, as opposed to the conventional cab located behind the engine. The cabover is identified by the windshield being located directly over the front bumper and driver more or less
directly over the steering axle. Sometimes referred to as "flat-faced" or "butt-nosed."
CAB SHIELD - A vertical barrier placed directly behind the cab of a tractor to protect the cab in the event cargo should shift forward. Also called a Cab Guard. CAB-TO-AXLE DIMENSION (CA) - The distance from the back of a truck cab to the center line of the rear axle. For trucks with tandem rear axles, the CA dimension is given midway between the two rear axles. CAB TO END (CE) - Distance from back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. (May also be identified as CF or LP) CACKLE CRATE - Truck that hauls live poultry. CAE - See Cab Aside Engine. CAMEL BACK BODY - Truck body with floor curving downward at the rear. CANTLING - A support frame used under an object shaped like a cylinder. CAP TARPAULIN or CAP TARP - A tarpaulin fitted over the top of load and about halfway down the gates. Used in conjunction with Side Curtains. CAR CARRYING TRAILER - Carries multiple cars; usually new cars from the manufacturer. CARGO - All articles or material carried by a vehicle, including those used in operation of the vehicle. CARGO-CARRYING UNIT - Any portion of a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) combination (other than a truck tractor) used for the carrying of cargo, including a trailer, semi-trailer, or the cargo-carrying section of a single-unit truck. CARGO WEIGHT - Combined weight of all loads, gear and supplies on a vehicle.
CARLOAD - Shipment of freight required to fill a rail car. CARRIER - ¹An individual, partnership, or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or persons. ²A transport company. CARRIER’S LIEN - Carrier’s claim on property it has transported as security for charges. CART - A vehicle or device designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals. A handcart is pulled or pushed by a person. It is different from a dray or wagon, which is a heavy transport vehicle with four wheels and normally at least two horses, which in turn is different from a carriage, which is used exclusively for transporting humans. The draught animals used for carts may be horses or ponies, oxen, water buffalo or donkeys, or even smaller animals such as goats or large dogs. CARTAGE - (Local) ¹Hauling between locations in the same town or city or contiguous municipalities. ²Usually refers to intra-city hauling on drays or trucks. CARTAGE COMPANY – A company that provides local (within a town, city or municipality) pick-up and delivery. CASES - Large boxes made of cardboard that are used as containers for packages. Cases are mainly used for transit and storage purposes. CASING SERVICE - Drilling service; from drill casings. CAST SPOKE WHEEL - Wheel with five or six spokes originating from a centre hub. The spoked portion, usually made of cast steel, is bolted to a multiple-piece steel rim (see Demountable Rim; Disc Wheel). CB - See Cab Behind Engine. CB (CITIZENS BAND RADIO, THE TWO-WAY, RADIO) - ¹Two-way radio for which no license is required by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Long beyond its heyday in the '70s, CB is still used by truckers and motorists for everything from traffic condition reports to emergency calls to idle chatter. ²Two-way radio used for communication between drivers. ³A Citizen's Band radio typically with 40 channels. The legal power maximum is 4 watts. CBE - See Cab Behind Engine. CC or C&C - Cab & Chassis. CDL (COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE) - ¹License which authorizes an individual to operate commercial motor vehicles and buses over 26,000 pounds
gross vehicle weight. For operators of freight-hauling trucks, the maximum size which may be driven without a CDL is Class 6 (maximum 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight). ²A license that authorizes an individual to operate a specific class of commercial motor vehicles. C-DOLLY - ¹(A variant of a converter dolly) A C-dolly is a trailer which has two separate couplings side-by-side. Note: The C-dolly design is not allowed in Australia, as it prevents articulation between the dolly wheels and the axles of the truck or trailer in front of the dolly. Australian rules require articulation between axle groups. ²This converter dolly has two drawbars and attaches at two connection points to the trailer ahead of it. These dollies can have one or more axles and are considered more stable than the common A-dolly. See Converter Dolly, Dolly. CE - (CF, LP) Distance from back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. See also, Cab to End. CEMENT MIXER - Truck with a noisy engine or transmission. CENTRE OF AN AXLE - If the axle consists of one shaft — a line parallel to the length of the axle and passing through its centre. If the axle consists of 2 shafts — a line in the vertical plane passing through the centre of both shafts and through the centers of the wheels on those shafts. CENTRE OF AN AXLE GROUP - ¹A line midway between the centers of the outermost axles of the group. If the axle group consists of 2 axles, one of which is fitted with twice as many tyres as the other — a line one-third of the way from the centre of the axle with more tyres to the centre of the axle with fewer tyres. ²For single axles, the centre-line of that axle. For tandem axles with equal numbers of tyres, a line located midway between those axles. For tandem axles where one axle is fitted with dual and one with single tyres, a line located ⅓ of the way from the dual tyred axle. For twin steer axle groups - a line located midway between the two axles in the group. For tri-axle groups - a line located between the extreme axles of the group.
Centre of an axle group
Centres of various axle groups CENTRE OF GRAVITY (CG) - Weight centre or balance point of an object, such as a truck body. Calculated to help determine optimum placement of truck bodies on chassis. See also, Centre of Mass. CENTRE OF MASS - The centre of balance of a load (also called ‘Centre of Gravity’). CENTROID - The centre point of the cross-section of the tank. CERTIFICATE OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY - Authority of certificate granted by the ICC or state regulatory agencies and required of certain for-hire carriers.
CF - Acronym for the distance from the back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. Also CE or LP are used for the same distance. See also, Cab to End. CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon. CFS - Container Freight Station. CG (CENTER OF GRAVITY) - See Centre of Gravity. CHAIN - Chains are usually fitted with hooks on each end and tensioned with ‘over-centre’ lever tensioners, commonly called ‘dogs and chains’. The chain commonly used is 8 mm high tensile ‘transport’ chain with a typical lashing capacity of 3800 to 4000 kg. Other sizes are 6, 7.3, 10, 13 and 16 mm. All transport chain is marked at least every 500 mm with its lashing capacity (LC). CHARGE BACKS - Those costs assumed by the carrier for independent contractors. It is understood through the lease that these costs will be charged back to the independent contractor at a later date. CHARGE IT - Let brake air flow into semi-trailer lines. CHASSIS - ¹A vehicle frame. ²A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure a container for movement. ³Refers to the frame of any vehicle, or to describe type of semi-trailer for transporting lift-off containers. CHASSIS CAB - ¹An incomplete vehicle consisting of a cab on a bare frame rail chassis, needing a body or load platform in order to become complete. ²Most trucks are sold as a frame (chassis) with a cab. The cargo body or fifth wheel is added by the purchaser or a "body builder." CHASSIS WEIGHT (CURB WEIGHT, TARE WEIGHT) - Weight of the empty truck, without occupants or load. (See also, Tare Mass, Tare Weight) CHEATER AXLE - (Slang) For a lift axle or an air-powered axle which, when lowered, will both convert a vehicle into a multi-axle unit and provide greater load carrying capacity. CHEATER BAR - Usually a length of pipe placed over the operating lever of a dog so as to extend its length. (The use of these extensions is not approved by any manufacturer and can be dangerous). CHECK CALL - A telephone call made to the company to inform them of the tractor/driver’s location and status (loaded, en route, unloaded, etc). CHICKEN COUP - A Department of Transportation weight check station.
CHIEF HOOD LIFTER - Garage superintendent. CHOCKS - Suitable blocks used primarily to restrain loads which could move during transit. (Also known as Cleats, Scotches or Gluts.) Chocks may also be used ahead of and behind road wheels to prevent movement of the vehicle. CHUNK - Differential housing on powered axles. CIRCUITOUS ROUTE - An indirect route. CIRCUS WAGON - Low sided trailer with high bow tarp. CITY FLYER - Short, low trailer with high bow tarp. CITY-KITTY - A local police car. CITYLINER - Truck used in the city for pickup and delivery. Also called "cub," "pickup," "whoopee," and "shags." CL - Carload or containerload. CLAIM - (a) A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in possession of the carrier; (b) A demand upon a transportation company for refund of an over charge. CLASS 1 VEHICLE - In Australia, a restricted access vehicle that is a special purpose vehicle, an agricultural machine or agricultural implement, or designed to carry, or is carrying, a large indivisible item. It is not a road train, B-double, or carrying a freight container designed for multi-modal transport. (Class 1 vehicles include low loaders, special purpose vehicles (e.g. cranes), and agricultural machinery) CLASS 2 VEHICLE - In Australia, a restricted access vehicle that complies with the mass and dimension limits prescribed, and is a B-double, a road train, a controlled access bus not more than 14.5m long, a combination carrying vehicles on more than one deck that, together with its load, meets one or both of the following criteria: its height exceeds 4.3m but does not exceed 4.6m and/or its length exceeds 19m; or a vehicle that exceeds 4.3m, but does not exceed 4.6m in height and is built to carry cattle, sheep, pigs or horses. (Class 2 vehicles include B-doubles, road trains, car carriers, and livestock carriers) CLASS 3 VEHICLE - In Australia, a restricted access vehicle other than a class 1 vehicle or a class 2 vehicle.
CLASSIFICATION (FREIGHT) - A publication containing a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for the purpose of applying class rates, together with governing rules and regulations. CLAW - A device with springs for grappling or holding. CLAW HOOK - A chain hook in the shape of a claw. CLEAN BILL OF LADING - A bill of lading signed by the carrier for receipt of merchandise in good condition (no damage, loss, etc., apparent) and which does not bear such notion as "shipper’s load and count." CLEAN BORE - A single tank without compartments inside. CLEARANCE LIGHTS - The lights that are on top of the front and are of the semi-trailer. CLEARING HOUSE - An organization set up to process and collect bills for participation trucking companies. CLEATS - Short pieces of material, usually wood, nailed to the deck to reinforce blocking. See also, Chocks. CLOSE THE GATES - Close rear doors of trailer. CLUB CAB - A two door truck cab with a back seat behind the front seats. CLUTCH - ¹An electrically operated coupling device that connects or disconnects the compressor pulley and compressor shaft. ²A device that disconnects the engine from the transmission, to allow the vehicle to change gears, and then allows the engine and transmission to resume contact and turn together at a new speed. ³The clutch is a device that lets us turn the engine’s power to the vehicle’s wheels on and off, whenever we want. When the pedal is ‘up’ (engaged), the full power of the engine is connected to the wheels and the clutch might as well not be there. When we press the pedal down (disengage) we separate the two (clutch) plates so that the second one cannot spin. This turns off ALL the engine’s power to the wheels and the engine might as well not be there. See the following diagram for an illustration of how the clutch works:
How the clutch works
CLUTCH BRAKE - ¹A device actuated by the last inch of clutch pedal travel which brakes the spinning gears in the transmission. It is used with non-synchronized gearboxes to pick up first or reverse gears when stationary. It can also be used for shifting while going uphill. ²(Used with pull-type clutches) - The clutch brake is applied by fully depressing the clutch pedal to the floor board. When applied the brake slows down and can stop the transmission front box gearing. It is a disc-type brake incorporated into the clutch and transmission drive gear assemblies. Never use the Clutch Brake when upshifting or downshifting. Use only for initial gear engagement when the vehicle is standing still. Compare with Countershaft Brake. CMV (COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE) - A motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used in commerce to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle: 1) Has a gross combination weight rating greater than or equal to 26,000 lb. including a towed unit with a gross vehicle weight rating of at least 10,000 lb.; or 2) Has a gross vehicle weight rating of at least 26,001 lb.; or 3) Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers including the driver; or 4) A motor vehicle of any size that transports hazardous materials of any kind. CNG - Compressed natural gas. COAL BUCKET - See Coal Trailer, Coal Truck. COAL TRAILER - Usually refers to a dump trailer, or a coal hopper bottom. AKA coal bucket. COAL TRUCK - Usually refers to a dump truck used to haul coal. AKA coal bucket.
COAMING - ¹The side rail of a tray, usually slightly raised. ²A frame border around the outside of a vehicle’s loading deck. CO-DRIVER - The person you drive with when Team Driving. COE - (Cab Over Engine) See Cabover. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (µ) - The coefficient of friction is a measure of the friction between two surfaces in contact. It is equal to the amount of force required to make one surface slide relative to the other, divided by the force that presses them together. COFC (CONTAINER ON FLAT CAR) - ¹Method of moving shipping containers which involves transporting them on railroad flat cars. ²Container without chassis on a railflat car. A form of intermodal movement of freight (rail and ocean). COFFEE SHOP - A cafeteria. COFFIN-BOX - Sleeper compartment independent of truck cab. COG - A gear or gear ratio. Swapping Cogs is shifting gears. COIL BUNK - A device that keeps timbers supporting a metal coil in place. COLLAPSIBLES - A container fitted with fold down front and back bulkheads. COLLECT SHIPMENT - ¹A shipment where the delivering carrier collects freight charges and advances. ²A collect shipment is one which the charges for transportation service, including accessorial services rendered at the request of the Consignee, or requested by the Consignor for the Consignee, are to be paid for by the Consignee. COMBINATION - A group of vehicles consisting of a motor vehicle connected to one or more vehicles. COMBINATION TRAILER - A trailer used to handle freight in the transportation of goods for others; excludes house trailers, light farm trailers and car trailers. COMBINATION TRUCK - Consists of a power unit (a truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semi-trailer or trailer). The most frequently used combination is popularly referred to as a "tractor-semi-trailer" or "tractor trailer". COMBINATION VEHICLE - ¹A rigid truck (or bus) towing one or more trailers. ²An equipment configuration which includes a tractor combined with a trailer. ³An equipment configuration which includes a separate power unit (tractor) and at least one trailer. 4A vehicle made up of two or more separate units hooked
together, such as a tractor-semi-trailer combination. Also called an articulated vehicle since units pivot at the coupling point. COMBINED TIE-DOWN and DIRECT RESTRAINT - Combined tie-down and direct restraint uses both friction and direct restraint. The following diagram illustrates load restraint provided by friction force from the weight of the load, plus friction force from tie-down lashings, plus blocking (the front part of the load is blocked by the headboard and the rear part of the load is then blocked by the front part). The load is prevented from moving forwards by a combination of friction force from the weight of the load and the lashing tension, and also blocking against the headboard. The load is prevented from moving rearwards and sideways only by friction, and the load is prevented from moving upwards by the lashings.
Friction + Blocking
The following diagram illustrates load restraint provided by friction force from the weight of the load, plus friction force from the downward force from the lashings, plus direct restraint from lashings that are attached to the load.
Friction + Direct Restraint
COMIC BOOK - A slang term for log book. COMMERCIAL TRAILER - A trailer used to handle freight in the transportation of goods for others; excludes house trailers, light farm trailers and car trailers.
COMMODITY - ¹Any article of commerce; goods shipped. ²Anything bought and sold. COMMODITY TARIFF - A tariff containing only commodity rates. COMMON CARRIER - ¹A freight transportation company which serves the general public. May be regular route service (over designated highways on a regular basis) or irregular route (between various points on an unscheduled basis). ²A transportation business that offers service to the general public. Interstate common carriers must hold a certificate issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission which limits service to a specific geographical area. COMPACTOR - A device used to compact things, particularly garbage. COMPENSATED INTRACORPORATE HAULING - Freight transportation service provided by one company for a sister company. COMPRESSION RATIO - The volume of the combustion chamber and cylinder when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, divided by the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at the top of its stroke. COMPUTER SIMULATION - Some truck dealers can program different combinations of specifications into a computer in order to judge fuel economy and performance. Mechanics also hook up vehicles to computers to discover malfunctioning parts. CONCEALED DAMAGE - Damage to the contents of a package which is apparently in good condition externally. CONCEALED LOSS - Loss or damage that cannot be determined until the package is opened. CONCRETE MIXER - Truck body designed to mix and agitate concrete. CONSIGNEE - ¹The person or firm to whom articles are shipped. ²The receiver. The company taking in your freight. The place you deliver your load to. ³The customer to whom a load is shipped to (also known as a receiver). 4A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. Officially, the legal owner of the cargo. 5(Delivery, Receiver) Where you take the load to. 6The person or firm designated to receive freight that has been shipped. CONSIGNMENT - A shipment, e.g. the freight on a trailer. CONSIGNOR - ¹The person or firm by whom articles are shipped. ²The shipper (person who ships the freight to another customer). ³A person or company shown
on the bill of lading as the shipper. 4The person or firm responsible for shipping a particular freight item. CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSION - ¹A transmission in which all gears remain in mesh at all times. Ratio changes are effected by means of dog clutches which lock the required gear to its shaft. The driver shifts the dog clutch between two gears compared with a crash box where he actually shifts the gears. Constant mesh gearboxes are non-synchronized and rely on driver skill in controlling engine revs and good timing to shift properly. Roadrangers are the most common constant mesh boxes in Australia followed by Spicers. ²A crash or constant mesh gearbox requires the operator to use the revs of the engine whilst the gearbox is in neutral and the clutch is out to aid in the changing of gears hence the term double declutching, (i.e. clutch in - neutral - clutch out - select revs - clutch in - select gear - clutch out). This style of gearbox is slowly losing popularity and will more than likely be fazed out completely in the future for more driver friendly gearboxes as has happened in Europe. The trend can be seen here (in Australia) in European and Japanese trucks like Volvo, Mack, Scania, Misubishi and Izusu. See also, Crash Box, ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’. CONTAINED - Cargo is contained if it fills a sided vehicle, and every article is in contact with or sufficiently close to a wall or other articles so that it cannot shift or tip if those other articles are also unable to shift or tip. CONTAINED LOAD - A load prevented from dislodging from the vehicle by the vehicle structure, gates, sides, racks, headboards, stanchions or other parts of the load. See Direct Restraint. CONTAINER - (Shipping Container) ¹A box used for the transporting of goods in bulk. Usually fitted with receptacles for twist locks in each corner and provision on the base for forklift handling. Standard lengths are 20 and 40 feet. ²Standard-sized rectangular box used to transport freight by ship, rail and highway (also known as a CAN). International shipping containers are 20 or 40 feet long, conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) standards and are designed to fit in ships' holds. Containers are transported on public roads atop a container chassis towed by a tractor. Domestic containers, up to 53 feet long and of lighter construction, are designed for rail and highway use only. CONTAINER CHASSIS - ¹Single-purpose semi-trailer designed to carry a shipping container. ²A truck or trailer chassis consisting of a frame (no floor, sides or roof) with locking devices for securing and transporting a container. CONTAINER CHASSIS VEHICLE - A vehicle specially built and fitted with locking devices for the transport of intermodal containers. CONTAINERIZATION - ¹Shipping system based upon large cargo-carrying containers that easily can be interchanged between trucks, trains, and ships
without rehandling the contents. ²Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. CONTAINER LOAD - A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. CONTAINER TERMINAL - An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. CONTRABAND - Goods legally prohibited in trade (also known as smuggled goods). CONTRACT CARRIER - ¹Company that transports freight under contract with one or a limited number of shippers. ²For Hire interstate operators [which] offer transportation services to certain shippers under contracts. ³A company that engages in for-hire transportation of property under individual contract or agreement with one or a limited number of shippers. CONVENTIONAL - ¹A style of truck with the engine compartment located in front of the cab or driver’s compartment. ²Engine forward of cab in power unit. Snub nosed, short hooded cabs are conventional. Step vans are conventional. CONVENTIONAL CAB - A cab design in which the engine is located ahead, or mostly ahead, of the cowl. CONVENTIONAL SPRING SYSTEM - A system which uses the conventional front and rear suspension springs. CONVERTER - Auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel. Used to connect multiple trailers together to haul behind one tractor. See Converter Dolly. CONVERTER DOLLY (DOLLY) - ¹A unit designed to convert a semi-trailer to a dog trailer. It includes a turntable, a draw bar and an axle group. A dolly can also be a device for spreading the weight of over-dimensional loads over more wheels. ²Auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel (coupling device), towed by a semi-trailer and supporting the front of, and towing, another semi-trailer. ³A trailer with one axle group or single axle, and a fifth wheel coupling, designed to convert a semi-trailer into a dog trailer. See also, Dolly. 4An undercarriage assembly with one or more axles, a fifth wheel, and a tongue, used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer.
CONVERTER GEAR - (Slang) Synonymous with converter dolly. CONVERTIBLE - A truck or trailer that can be used either as a flatbed or open top by means of removing side panels. CONVOY - Two or more vehicles traveling together. CORNER PROTECTORS - Material used to protect lashings and the exposed edges of loads and vehicles, and to allow lashings to slide freely when being tensioned. COTTON MODULE MOVER/TRUCK - A module mover, measuring 48.5 × 9 × 14.5', is legally defined as a motor truck, semi-trailer, or a truck tractor in combination with a semi-trailer, equipped with a self-loading bed and is designed and used exclusively to transport field-manufactured cotton modules to a cotton gin. A cotton module is shaped to the proportions of a module mover’s trailer and is loaded as a unit directly into the vehicle.
A cotton module mover/truck
COUNTERSHAFT BRAKE - (Used with push-type clutches) - The control button is mounted on the shift lever just below the shift knob. To operate, disengage the clutch, press down the control button, and shift into LO or reverse. This is an air operated mechanical brake which slows down the transmission gearing by forcing a piston against the countershaft PTO gear. Never use the Countershaft
Brake when upshifting or downshifting. Use only for initial gear engagement when the vehicle is standing still. Compare with Clutch brake. COUNTY-MOUNTIE - A county sheriff. COUPLING - See Fifth Wheel Coupling. COWBOY - Reckless driver. COWL - The front part of a cab or body directly below the base of the windshield, between fire wall and instrument panel, and usually including the hood. CRADLE - ¹A frame shaped to support a rounded object. ²A device or structure that holds a circular article to prevent it from rolling. CRASH BOX - ¹An older type transmission in which the ratios were changed by sliding the various gears into and out of mesh with each other. They were harder to shift properly than a constant mesh box and are no longer made for trucks. ²A transmission that has no synchromesh. This type of transmission must be double-clutched to reduce wear. ³A crash or constant mesh gearbox requires the operator to use the revs of the engine whilst the gearbox is in neutral and the clutch is out to aid in the changing of gears hence the term double declutching, (i.e. clutch in - neutral - clutch out - select revs - clutch in - select gear - clutch out). This style of gearbox is slowly losing popularity and will more than likely be fazed out completely in the future for more driver friendly gearboxes as has happened in Europe. The trend can be seen here (in Australia) in European and Japanese trucks like Volvo, Mack, Scania, Misubishi and Izusu. See also, Constant Mesh Transmission, ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’. CRAWLER - ¹See Crawler Gear. ²An off-road vehicle utilizing track propulsion instead of wheels. CRAWLER GEAR - A very low gear which is not used under normal circumstances. Also called a Bog Cog or Stump Puller. CREEPER GEAR - Lowest gear or combination of gears used for extra power. Also known as Grandma. CREW CAB - A four door truck cab with front and back seats. CRIBBING - A method of supporting a load on a stable column of packing of uniform thickness, stacked in pairs, with alternate layers at 90 degrees to one another. CROSSBEARER - A support placed transversely across the loading platform.
CROSSDOCK - The transfer of freight from one trailer to another. CROSS-MEMBER - A support placed crosswise below the loading deck. CROSSWISE - (Same as “Lateral”) CROWN - The rounded profile of the top of a stack of logs, when viewed from the ends of the stack. CRUISE CONTROL - A device which makes the vehicle maintain a pre-set speed and turns off when the driver touches the brakes or accelerator. C-TRAIN - ¹A C-train is a semi-trailer attached to a fifth-wheel on a C-dolly. The C-dolly is connected to the tractor or another trailer in front of it with two draw-bars, thus eliminating the drawbar connection as an articulation point. One of the axles on a C-dolly is self-steerable to prevent tyre scrubbing. ²(Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by C-dollies. CUBE - ¹(Cubic Capacity) Interior volume of a truck body, semi-trailer or trailer, measured in cubic feet or cubic meters. ²As in "cube out before grossing out", refers to cubic cargo area space. Can also be used to refer to a pallet of concrete blocks. CUBE VAN - Typically a straight truck with a van style cargo body where the width and height of the cargo body exceed that of the truck cab. CUBIC FOOT - A common measure of the capacity of a truck. 1 (cubic foot) = 1728 cubic inches. CUBIC INCH DISPLACEMENT (CID) - A measure of the physical size of the engine. CUBIC METER - A common measure of the capacity of a truck. One cubic meter equals 35.3 cubic feet or 1.3 cubic yards. One cubic meter also equals 1000 liters or one million cubic centimeters. CURB WEIGHT - See Chassis Weight, Tare Mass, Tare Weight. CURTAIN-SIDER - ¹A van type body with curtain sides that are held down along the sides by straps attached to the tie rail and pulled tight lengthwise by a ratchet. They are increasingly popular because they can be loaded or unloaded from the sides unlike a normal van and they have faster turnaround times than vans or flat tops which require tarping. Most curtain-siders in Australia are Tautliners. ²A curtain sider is similar to a box trailer except that the sides are movable curtains made of reinforced fabric coated with a waterproof coating. The
purpose of a curtain sider is to allow the security and weather resistance of a box trailer with the ease of loading of a flatbed. CUSTOMS BROKER - An agent that acts on behalf of a customer to clear a load crossing the Canadian/USA border. CUT-TO-LENGTH LOGS - See Shortwood. CVSA INSPECTIONS - Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance inspections.
- D - DANGEROUS GOODS - Hazardous materials. The transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated. DAY CAB - ¹A short cab without a bunk or sleeping compartment, usually used for city work. ²A truck or tractor without a sleeper berth. Typically used for day trips or local routes. DBA (DOING BUSINESS AS) - Common usage for a business license. DEAD AXLE - Non-powered rear axle on tandem truck or tractor. DEADHEAD (DEADHEADING, D/H) - ¹Operating a truck without cargo. ²Traveling without a load. ³Operating a truck without cargo in the trailer (also known as an empty move). 4Running empty. 5To drive the rig (tractor and trailer) from point A to point B without a load, typically without getting paid to do so. 6A trip where the tractor pulls an empty trailer or a trailer loaded with cargo that generates no revenue. DECAL - A sticker. DECK - ¹The load carrying platform. ²The load carrying area of a truck, trailer, or intermodal container. DECK LOAD - A deck load is the transportation of two to four trucks, typically in a piggyback fashion. Deck loads are the most efficient means of transportation for three or more trucks traveling a long distance. Due to DOT length and height regulations, a typical deck load is a three-way (one truck pulling two others). Two-ways and four-ways can also be done when appropriate.
A deck load
DECK PLATE - The grated or solid plate on the frame behind the cab or sleeper of the tractor that the driver can stand on.
DECK SET - (Slang) For piggyback hauled trucks. See also, Deck Load, Piggyback/Towaway. DEDICATED RUN - ¹A run that typically always goes to the same place, on nearly the same schedule. Many drivers would love to get a dedicated run. As a result, you usually have to wait awhile before it's offered/available to you. ²A scheduled run. DEEP REDUCTION BUTTON - See Shift Button. DEEP REDUCTION BUTTON SHIFT - See Shift Button. DEFICIT WEIGHT - The amount by which an article is under the minimum weight required. DEMOUNTABLE RIM - Multi-piece steel wheel rim assembly which is bolted to a spoke hub. Demountable rims are still in use, though they have been replaced in many applications by the simpler disc wheel. (See Cast Spoke Wheel) DEMURRAGE - Detention of a vehicle beyond the time allowed for loading, unloading, etc. Also the payment mode for such a delay. DESTINATION - The place to which a shipment is to be delivered. DETACHABLE TRAILER - This trailer detaches from the front to allow a piece of equipment to be driven on and off the trailer. The Detachable Trailer can handle equipment up to 55 tons and air ride is also available in this type of trailer. Most of the time you will see this type of trailer hauling construction equipment, but this trailer can also be used for the movement of heavy or oversized pieces of pre-cast concrete, structural steel, or machinery.
DETENTION - See Demurrage. DEVANNING - The unloading of a container or cargo van. D&H - Dangerous and Hazardous. D/H - (See Deadhead)
DIFFERENTIAL - ¹A device which allows drive to be transmitted to each wheel on an axle even when the wheels are turning at different speeds, such as during cornering. ²(Standard Type) The gear assembly on the drive axle that permits the wheels to turn at different speeds; no-slip or limited-slip type: a gear assembly on the drive axle that will not permit one wheel to spin while the other is motionless. ³An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route. DIFFERENTIAL LOCK - Locks the differential so that each drive wheel receives the same amount of torque which prevents loss of traction through one wheel spinning. Must be used only in slippery conditions, or where a wheel lifts off the ground. DIFFERENTIAL RATE - The amount added to or subtracted from a through (basing) rate to make a rate. For example, the rate Chicago to Philadelphia is made up of the basis rate (Chicago to New York) less the differential basis (or rate) to Philadelphia. DIRECT DRIVE - A transmission ratio in which the output shaft of the transmission turns at exactly the same speed as the input shaft (i.e. a ratio of 1:1). Direct drive transmissions have a 1:1 top or high gear. DIRECT RESTRAINT - A load can be directly restrained by containing, blocking or attaching without any assistance from friction. Direct restraint by containing or blocking is the best method for securing loads that are difficult to tie down. Specially constructed bodies and equipment can reduce the amount of time needed to restrain loads. ¹Contained loads can be directly restrained without any securing devices. These include liquids in tanks, bulk solids in tanks or rigid sided bodies and mixed loads of various items in rigid sided bodies or containers.
Load contained in tipper
²Blocked loads can be directly restrained by blocking against vehicle structures or other items of load or packing in contact with the structures. These structures include headboards, braced loading rack, drop-sides and bulkheads. The load in
the following diagram is blocked from moving forwards by the headboard, but requires additional sideways, rearward and vertical restraint.
Load blocked against headboard
³Direct restraint by attaching can use lashings or mechanical locking devices. Attached loads can be directly restrained by lashings that provide all the necessary restraint.
Load attached using direct lashings
Attached loads can be directly restrained by mechanical locking devices that provide all the necessary restraint. The following diagram shows a shipping container restrained by twist locks. The twist locks do not rely on friction between the load and the deck.
Load attached using twist locks
Compare with Tie-Down. See also, ‘Combined Tie-down and Direct Restraint’. DIRECT TIE-DOWN - A tie-down that is intended to provide direct resistance to potential shift of an article. DISC WHEEL - Single-piece rim/wheel assembly of stamped and welded steel or forged aluminium, anchored by 8 or 10 nuts to a hub. A "Budd wheel" is a ten-hole, stud-piloted disc wheel; a design originated by the Budd Corporation. DISPATCHER - ¹In a transportation organization, a person who controls the movements of vehicles. ²Truck driver supervisor who plans and dispatches loads. ³A person who tells a (company) truck driver where to go, where to deliver, how to get there, when the driver can go home, when the driver can be sick, and when the driver can go to the bathroom. Dispatchers are universally disliked by most (if not all) truck drivers. Most dispatchers have never been in a truck and have no empathy for drivers. DISPATCHING - The scheduling and control of intercity traffic and intracity pickup and delivery. DISPLACEMENT (PISTON DISPLACEMENT) - Sum of the volumes swept by an engine's pistons as they travel up and down in their cylinders. Based upon bore (diameter of cylinder) and stroke (distance travelled by piston). Expressed in liters or cubic inches. DISTANCE RATE - Charge made on basis of miles traveled, often used as one component of a freight rate. DITCH LIGHT - Spotlight aimed at right side of road. DITCH WITCH - Brand name of a machine which digs trenches. DIVIDED HIGHWAY - Road way with 2 directions of travel separated by a curb or grassy area. DIVISION - An established point where driver ends trip. DOCK - A loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal. DOCK IT - Park truck at dock. DOCK WALLOPER - One who loads and unloads vehicles and handles freight on the dock.
DOG - ¹A chain tensioner incorporating an over-centre locking action with a fixed or pivoting lever. ²A device used to tension chains when securing loads. See also, Over-centre Tensioners. ³Truck with little power. DOG BOX - See Sleeper Box. DOG TIGHTENER - Packing placed between the base of the load and the surface of the load platform. It levels or sections the load. It may also be placed between parts of the load to keep it steady. DOG TRACKS - Unit or straight truck that runs out of line. DOG TRAILER (PUP TRAILER) - ¹A trailer with two axle groups, the front group being steered by the drawbar coupled to the towing vehicle. On some units the turntable can be locked to simplify reversing. ²A trailer (including a trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly) with — (a) one axle group or single axle at the front that is steered by connection to the towing vehicle by a drawbar; and (b) one axle group or single axle at the rear. ³A dog-trailer (also called a pup) is a trailer that has a convertor dolly hooked in front of it, with a single A-frame drawbar that fits in the ringfeder on the rear of the trailer in front, giving the whole unit 3-5 articulation points and very little roll stiffness.
Triple road train with 2 dog trailers DOLLIES - The legs located towards the front of the trailer for standing free from a tractor (also referred to as landing gear). DOLLY (TRAILER) - ¹An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for the purpose of converting a semi-trailer to a full trailer. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit. (Also referred to as a bogie) ²A dolly that can be coupled to a truck or trailer so as to support a semi-trailer. The
dolly is equipped with a fifth wheel to which the semi-trailer is coupled. This dolly needs its own rear lights and a registration plate. A tow dolly is little more than two wheels, an axle and a tow-hitch, used to tow a front-drive suspension car behind an RV (or motor home) or other larger vehicle. There are two basic types of dolly: (1) Convertor dolly, equipped with between one and three axles and designed to connect to a towbar on the rear of the truck or trailer in front. There are two variants of this: (a) An a-dolly has a single drawbar with a centred coupling. (b) A c-dolly has two separate couplings side-by-side. (2) Low Loader dolly, equipped with a gooseneck type drawbar that attaches to the fifth-wheel coupling on the rear of a prime mover to distribute the mass on the fifth wheel on the dolly between the prime mover and the wheels of the dolly. Predominantly fitted with two axles.
Major Types of Converter Dollies DOMESTIC INTERCITY TRUCKING - Trucking operations within the territory of the United States, including intra-Hawaiian and intra-Alaskan, which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones. DONALDSON - A brand of paper element air filter which, in different sizes, is fitted to most Australian trucks. DONUTS - Truck tyres. DOODLE BUG - Small tractor used to pull two axle dollies in a warehouse. DOT - Department of Transportation.
DOUBLE - A combination of two trailers pulled by a power unit. Usually refers to a power unit pulling two 28' trailers. See also, ‘Doubles (Twins, Twin Trailers)’, ‘Rocky Mountain Double’, ‘Turnpike Double’. DOUBLE BOTTOM - ¹Combination of a prime mover, semi-trailer and trailer. A two trailer roadtrain. ²Combination consisting of a truck tractor, a semi-trailer, and a full trailer coupled together. ³Unit consisting of tractor, semi-trailer and full trailer. Also called "twin trailers", "doubles." 4(Slang) A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling a semi-trailer and a full trailer. DOUBLE-BOTTOM COMBINATION - (Doubles) A combination of a power unit pulling two (2) semi-trailers or a semi-trailer and a full trailer. DOUBLE CLUTCHING or DOUBLE DE-CLUTCHING - ¹A shifting technique used on non-synchronized gearboxes. It involves letting the clutch pedal out briefly while the gearstick passes through neutral and helps ensure that the gears are spinning at the same speed when they come together. Also called a double shuffle. ²Double-declutching means to change gear, by moving the gear lever first into neutral and then into the desired gear, releasing the clutch pedal between each movement. Double-declutching is not recommended for synchromesh gearboxes as it may cause long term damage. ³Done quickly, double de-clutching is: (1) When changing into a higher gear – clutch in, pull out of gear into neutral, clutch out, clutch in, push into higher gear, clutch out and rev; (2) When changing into a lower gear – clutch in, pull out of gear into neutral, clutch out, "blip" throttle to increase engine RPM, clutch in while holding engine RPM, push into lower gear, clutch out and rev. 4The shifting technique used when moving the shift lever to the next lever position. Procedures: Depress clutch pedal, move lever to neutral, let up clutch pedal, accelerate or decelerate engine to obtain synchronous, depress clutch pedal again, and move lever into gear. 5Shifting the gears of a truck transmission without clashing them. DOUBLE DECKER - Double deckers or deckers are trailers with either a fixed, hinged or moveable second floor to enable them to carry more palletized goods. In general, a double decker can carry 40 pallets as opposed to 26 for a standard trailer. Double deck trailers are generally a stepped box or curtain siders, with box trailers having either a fixed or movable (floating) deck and curtain sides having either a fixed or hinged second deck. This hinged second deck generally swings into a position down the length of the trailer and can be divided into 2 or 3 sections to allow greater load flexibility. DOUBLE DROP - See Double-drop Deck. DOUBLE DROP DECK - ¹A flatbed trailer (stepdeck) whose deck drops at the rear, ahead of the tyres as well as at the front of the trailer, but deeper than a single drop. This puts the deck closer to the ground than a single drop as the deck drops below the top of the tyres. ²A double drop is a 3 level trailer; freight is
mainly transported on the middle deck, which is the longest and lowest to the ground. ³A trailer, usually a flatbed, with a floor set at three different heights, it steps down towards the middle and then steps back up at the rear. Sometimes referred to as a stepdeck.
DOUBLE DROP TRAILER - See Double-drop Deck. DOUBLES - (Set of Doubles, Twins, Twin Trailers) ¹Combination of a tractor and two semi-trailers connected in tandem by a converter dolly. ²A two trailer roadtrain. ³A tractor with two trailers. Typically a tractor (two axle) with one drive axle and two 27 foot trailers. Each trailer usually only has one axle as well. (See Converter Dolly, Pintle Hook) DOUBLES A-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by A-dollies. DOUBLES B-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling two semi-trailers where the second trailer sits on a fifth wheel that is permanently attached and extends off the rear of the lead trailer. Most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. The B-train is considered a more stable double trailers configuration. DOUBLES C-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by C-dollies. DOUBLE TRAILER COMBINATION - A vehicle consisting of a prime mover, semi-trailer and a trailer. A two trailer roadtrain. DOWN IN THE CORNER - "Creeper" gear.
DOZER - A blade used to move material by pushing. The vehicle itself is often called a dozer, and it may be tracked or wheeled. DRAG DOWN - Shift too slowly to lower gears. DRAWBAR - ¹A part of a trailer (except a semi-trailer) connecting the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes. ²Can be either a single rigid bar or an A-frame which is part of a trailer (except a semi-trailer) connecting the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes. The distance between the coupling pivot point on the drawbar of a dog trailer, and the centre of the front axle group or of the front single axle of the trailer, must not be over 5m, and under 3m, if the trailer is used in a road train over 19m long. The distance between the coupling pivot point on a drawbar, and the centre of the axle group or single axle on a trailer with only one axle group or single axle (except a semi-trailer), must not be over 8.5m. ³Typically a metal bar that connects a truck and trailer. Sometimes referred to as the tongue of the trailer.
Drawbar DRAWBAR LENGTH - The distance from the line of the towing pivot, to the centre-line of the leading axle group of the trailer. DRAWBAR STAND - A leg that holds a trailer drawbar at coupling height to make hooking up easier. DRAWBAR TRAILER - See Dog Trailer. DRAY - A low, heavy cart without sides, used for haulage. DRAYAGE - ¹The charge made for hauling freight on carts, drays or trucks. ²Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck. DRAY BODY - (See Camel Back Body) DRIVE AXLE - ¹The axle, differential and wheels that transmit torque to the road. ²The axle or dual axle to the rear of the tractor that carries the power of the
engine to the road (drives the tractor). ³Any axle that carries power from the engine to the wheels that propel a truck or tractor. See Axle. DRIVELINE - ¹The motor, clutch, gearbox, drive shafts, diff(s) and axle(s). ²All the components which together transmit power from the transmission to the drive axle(s). These consist of at least one driveshaft (propeller shaft) with a universal joint at each end. DRIVER ASSIST - When the truck driver assists with loading and/or unloading the freight. DRIVER PAY - What the driver is paid to drive the truck. Some drivers get paid by the hour (not many), most get paid by the mile, and some get paid a percentage of the truck gross. DRIVERS - Drive wheels. DRIVER TEAM - See Team. DRIVESHAFT - The shaft connecting the transmission output shaft to the differential pinion shaft. It transmits power from the transmission to the differential. It is found primarily on rear-drive vehicles. There is usually a universal joint on either end. Also called propeller shaft. See also, Tailshaft. DRIVETRAIN (POWERTRAIN) - ¹As for the driveline but usually doesn’t include the engine. ²All the components, excluding engine, which transmit the engine's power to the rear wheels: clutch, transmission, driveline and drive axle(s). (See Powertrain) DRIVE TYRES (DRIVES, THE DRIVES) - The tyres on the second and/or third axle of the tractor. They can be new or recap (recapped) tyres. DRL (DAYTIME RUNNING LIGHTS) - System that automatically turns on a vehicle's low beam headlights when the parking brake is released and the ignition is on. DROMEDARY - A vehicle which combines features of a truck and truck tractor. It has a van body at the rear of the cab and a fifth wheel to the rear of the body. DROP and HOOK (TRAILER POOL, PRELOADED) - ¹This means that you take your empty trailer into a shipper's facility and drop it. You then pick up a trailer that has already been loaded. It saves an enormous amount of time and most drivers find a company that has a high percentage of drop and hook to be a big advantage (less dock time). ²The driver drops off a loaded trailer and hooks onto another loaded trailer for a different destination. ³Normally you load your trailer at a shipper, and unload your trailer at the consignee. But if the shipper has a trailer
pool (extra empty trailers in their yard), they can have me drop my empty trailer in their yard and hook up to the preloaded (loaded before I got there) trailer and go. It's good for me (no waiting), and it's good for the shipper (he can load a trailer whenever he wants). The downside is that the shipper needs to have room for extra trailers plus the need for a yard goat to move them around. DROP A TRAILER - To unhook a trailer from the tractor and leave it in the company’s or customer’s yard. DROP-DECK TRAILER - A trailer on which the floor drops down a level once clear of the tractor unit. The most common types of drop-deck trailer are flatbeds and curtain siders. DROP FRAME TRAILER - This utility trailer has a frame which may be lowered to ground level at both the front and rear portions of the trailer to permit easy access and to facilitate loading and unloading of heavy vehicles or other items. The trailer frame is attached to a U-shaped axle which in turn is connected to a wheel suspension support. The wheel suspension may be raised or lowered by rotation of the wheel suspension about the axle allowing the rear of the trailer frame to be raised or lowered. The front of the trailer frame is connected to a cable controlled by a winch which will permit the lowering or raising of the front part of the trailer frame. Locking pins are employed to lock the suspension and the front portion of the trailer frame in place during travel. DROP IT ON THE NOSE - Uncoupling a tractor from a semi-trailer without lowering the landing gear to support the trailer's front end. DROPPING TRAILERS (FOR LOADING OR UNLOADING) – When trailers are left for several hours and up to several days to be loaded/unloaded at a client’s leisure. DROP THE BODY - Unhook and drive a tractor away from a parked semi. DRY BULK - A type of semi-trailer that resembles a big tanker, but is used for sugar, flour and other dry powder materials. DRY-BULK CONTAINER - A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform. DRY CARGO - Cargo that does not require temperature control. DRY FREIGHT CONTAINER - A normal, fully enclosed container with doors at the back and occasionally on one side.
DRY VAN - ¹A van that doesn't have a reefer unit. ²A box-shaped trailer or semi-trailer used to carry goods. It is used to carry most goods; it is not used for cold goods. See also, Dry Van Trailer, Reefer, Van. DRY VAN TRAILER - A type of trailer: freight is transported in an enclosed trailer (dry van) to limit exposure to the elements. See also, Box.
DUAL DRIVE - (See also Tandem) Box axles have drive mechanisms and are connected to engine power output. 1) Pusher tandem: only the rearmost axle is driving type and the forward unit is free rolling, also called "dead axle"; 2) Tag axle: forward unit of tandem is driving type while rear unit is free rolling. DUALS - (The Duals) ¹Two tyres that are on each side of an axle, on the drives or the trailers. ²Two tyre and wheel assemblies, mounted on one side of an axle. ³A pair of tyres mounted together. DUAL WHEELS - ¹A matched pair of wheels attached to each end of an axle. ²Four wheels per axle rather than two. See also, Duals. DUMP - A cargo body with a hydraulic, electric, or mechanical lifting mechanism that tilts to unload cargo. Dump includes side dumps, walking dumps, flatbed dumps, and dump trucks with snow plows or blades. DUMP BODY - Truck or trailer body of any type which can be tilted to discharge its load by gravity. DUMPSTER - A large metal container for garbage. The term is sometimes used to describe refuse trucks. Dumpsters are different from roll-off containers. A dumpster is usually kept at a garbage collection point and not carried on a refuse truck. Some refuse trucks carry dumpsters short distances for loading, unloading, or distribution. DUMP TRUCK - A heavy-duty truck having a bed that tilts backward to dump loose material. See also, Off-Road Dump Truck, Tipper.
DUNNAGE - ¹Packing material (e.g. pieces of timber, plywood, mats) placed between the cargo and the truck platform or between items of cargo to level the load and/or increase friction so load is less likely to move during journey. It is also used to leave a gap between load and deck or different parts of the load so forklifts can get under to lift. ²The material used to protect or support freight in trucks. The weight of dunnage is shown separately on the bill of lading since it is material used around a cargo to prevent damage. ³Empty return skids, plywood and other shipping materials. 4Loose materials (like padding) used around cargo to prevent damage. DUNNAGE BAG - An inflatable bag intended to fill otherwise empty space between articles of cargo, or between articles of cargo and the wall of the vehicle. DUSTING - Driving with wheels on road shoulder, thereby causing a cloud of dust. DVIR - Daily Vehicle Inspection Report. An inspection report that must be completed before driving the commercial vehicle each and every time a new trailer is picked up and must also be completed prior to operating the commercial vehicle every new day. DYNAMITE THE BRAKES - Emergency stop using every brake on the unit. DYNATARD - The Mack equivalent of a Jake brake. See Engine Brake. DYNO CHECK - The placement of the power vehicle on a device which indicates horsepower delivered to the ground.
- E - ECM - Electronic Control Module. Device allowing companies to track fuel, engine efficiency, and govern the speed of the truck. ED - Effective Diameter. EDGE PROTECTOR - ¹Material used to protect the exposed edges of soft sheet and similar materials from the lashings used. ²A device placed on the exposed edge of an article to distribute tie-down forces over a larger area of cargo than the tie-down itself, to protect the tie-down and/or cargo from damage, and to allow the tie-down to slide freely when being tensioned. EDI (ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE) - The business-to-business interconnection of computers for the rapid exchange of a wide variety of documents, from bills of lading to build tickets at auto plants. EGT GAUGE - Exhaust Gas Temperature gauge. See Pyrometer. EIGHTEEN WHEELER - (Slang) Most commonly a combination vehicle consisting of a three axle tractor pulling a two axle semi-trailer or a two axle tractor pulling a three axle semi-trailer. ELASTIC STRAPS - Elastic straps (octopus straps) are low strength lashings fitted with end hooks, commonly used for restraining lightweight equipment. ELECTRIC RETARDER - An electric auxiliary brake that works on the drivetrain (also known as a Telmar brake). ELECTRIC VEHICLE - See EV. ELECTRONIC TRIP RECORDER - A device for recording data on a vehicle's performance, originally designed for monitoring and optimizing engine performance, in recent years GPS systems have been added to enable dispatchers to geo-locate their trucks and many trip recorders maintain HOS data, eliminating the need for driver maintained logbooks. ELEVATOR - Hydraulic end-gate. EMERGENCY BRAKE - A brake designed to be used if a service brake fails. EMERGENCY VEHICLE - A vehicle operated by the police force and ordinarily used by police officers in the course of carrying out their duties; a vehicle operated by a fire brigade, a bush fire brigade; a State Emergency Service (SES) vehicle; an ambulance.
EMPTY WEIGHT - What the tractor, trailer, fuel, and all the other stuff weighs without a load on. Typically around 34,000 lbs. ENGINE BRAKE or MOTOR BRAKE - ¹An auxiliary brake fitted to an engine (also known as Jake brake, Dynatard, C-brake, Cummins brake) that uses the valves to increase engine retardation. ²Various devices that use characteristics of the engine to slow the tractor, usually through mechanisms that retard the escape of exhaust (also known as Jake Brake). See also, Retarder, Speed Retarder. ENGINE RETARDER - Electronic equipment which governs engine speed control. EN ROUTE - On the way. EOBR (ELECTRIC ON-BOARD RECORDER) - Cab-mounted device which electronically records data such as truck speed, engine rpm, idle time and other information useful to trucking management. EQUIPMENT DUMP - Refers to equipment hauling flatbeds. EQUIPMENT LOADER - Refers to equipment hauling flatbeds. ESCAPE RAMP - See Runaway Truck Ramp. ESCORT VEHICLE - A motor vehicle that is being used — (a) to transport a police officer, or other person authorized to direct traffic; and (b) to warn other road users of the presence of an oversize vehicle. ETA - Estimated Time of Arrival. EV (ELECTRIC VEHICLE) - Vehicle powered by electric motor(s) rather than by an internal combustion engine. Most common source of electricity is chemical storage batteries. EXCLUSIVE USE OF TRUCK - A request made by a shipper on the bill of lading for the complete use of a vehicle. EXEMPT - Free from ICC rules regulating other cargos transported by interstate for-hire carriers. EXEMPT CARRIER - ¹Company which transports commodities exempted from Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) economic regulation. ²Trucks hauling certain commodities which are exempt form ICC economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carriers transport agricultural commodities or seafood.
³A for hire interstate operator [which] transports commodities or provides types of services that are exempt from federal regulation, could also operate within exempt commercial zones. EXEMPT COMMODITY - A commodity that may be transported in both interstate and intrastate commerce without operating authority or published rates. EXHAUST BRAKE - ¹An auxiliary brake that works on the drivetrain by restricting the exhaust gases with a slide or butterfly valve. ²A moveable flap in the exhaust system that creates backpressure to retard the engine and create more engine braking to assist when driving downhill. EXPANDABLE - Flatbed or pole trailers that can be expanded beyond their regular length to carry larger shipments. EXPRESS BODY - Open box truck body. EXTENDABLE (FLATBED) TRAILER - A flatbed trailer whose length may be readily increased or decreased within prescribed limits and with prescribed variations in load carrying capability. Used mainly for oversized loads.
EYE (OF A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT) - The hole through the centre of the article. E-ZPASS - An electronic toll collection device working on AVI Technology. The electronic card is read by a receiving antenna at participating toll plazas and the toll is electronically deducted from the prepaid toll account.
- F - FAK - (Freight of All Kinds) An acronym for mixed general freight in the back of a truck or trailer. See LTL. FAN CLUTCH - A device which disconnects the drive to the fan when it is not needed for cooling which saves engine power and reduces noise. FANTAINER - A fully enclosed dry container fitted with a fan and mainly used for transporting onions. FARM PRODUCTS - This category is for unprocessed items which were grown in or produced from agricultural activity on a farm or in a garden, nursery, or orchard. Articles manufactured or processed from these commodities are not included in this category. FARS - (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) Operated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). FCL - Full Container Load. FEDERAL-AID PRIMARY HIGHWAY SYSTEM - The Federal-Aid Highway System of rural arterials and their extensions into or through urban areas in existence on June 1, 1991, as described in 23 USC 103b in effect at that time. FHA - Federal Highway Administration. FIFTH WHEEL - ¹The term favored in the US and Britain for what Australians generally call a turntable which is a device for coupling a prime mover and a semi-trailer. See Turntable. ²Coupling device attached to a tractor or dolly which supports the front of a semi-trailer and locks it to the tractor or dolly. The fifth wheel's centre is designed to accept a trailer's kingpin, around which the trailer and tractor or dolly pivot in turns. ³A device used to connect a semi-trailer and tractor. 4The circular steel member with a slot lying flat above the drive axles of the trailer that secures the tractor to the trailer. 5A device mounted on a truck tractor or similar towing vehicle (e.g. converter dolly) which interfaces with and couples to the upper coupler assembly of a semi-trailer. 6Load supporting plate mounted to frame of vehicle. Pivot mounted, it contains provisions for accepting and holding the kingpin of a semi-trailer, providing a flexible connection between the tractor and the trailer.
Turntable/Fifth Wheel FIFTH WHEEL COUPLING - ¹A device, except the upper rotating element and the kingpin (which are parts of a semi-trailer), used with a prime mover, semi-trailer, or converter dolly, to allow quick coupling and uncoupling and to provide for articulation. ²This provides a secure link between a semi-trailer and a towing truck, or any other form of towing vehicles that may supply secure travel along the road. Usually, if an RV is set in a Fifth Wheel configuration, the Fifth Wheel Coupling must be placed in the truck bed of the certain towing vehicle in order to be used to tow. The fifth wheel coupling consists of a kingpin, also known as a coupling pin, that is installed to the front of the semi-trailer, and a U-shaped plate coupling gimmick called a fifth wheel on the rear of the towing vehicle. All parts must be firm and fit well to assure all things go well when you’re out towing the trailer on the road, while it has been installed with a fifth wheel coupling atop the truck bed. Four-wheel horse drawn carriages and wagons were equipped with a coupling that was alike to the fifth wheel, in which the entire build of the fifth wheel coupling was partially based off of. The coupling can join a tractor and a trailer together. The fifth wheel consists of two metal plates, situated on the tractor, which is named the lower fifth wheel, and another on the trailer named the upper fifth wheel. With the upper and lower Fifth Wheel makes a resilient coupling which forms a rotational and vertical motion with both the tractor, and the trailer. The upper fifth wheel is accommodated with a kingpin; the lower fifth wheel has a locking jaw mechanism that lock around the kingpin to join the trailer-tractor together. The locking jaws are operated by a hand lever that will extend to the side of the lower fifth wheel and can be released by either pulling the locking handle forward, or pulling the locking handle outward. ³The fifth wheel coupling procedure is as follows: (1) Line up tractor with semi-trailer and reverse tractor till you hear the big click as trailer's kingpin locks into tractor's turntable jaws, and apply "Parking Brake"; (2) Do a visual inspection of coupling to ensure kingpin is locked securely into place on turntable; (3) Raise up landing gear to about an inch off the ground; (4) Release "Parking Brake" and do a tug test - foot almost off the clutch, in second gear; (5) Apply "Parking Brake" and raise landing gear all the way up (return steel bar to its proper place); (6) Connect the hoses correctly, ensuring they cannot become disconnected during travel; (7) Turn the trailer's lights on and check that are working; (8) Release "Parking Brake" and "Trailer Air Supply" and drive away.
FINGERPRINT (A LOAD) - ¹If the driver must "fingerprint" a load, it means he/she must unload it themselves. Not a terribly popular option to most drivers. ²Manually unload a trailer. FIXED CHARGES - Carrier costs that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic. An accounting classification, sometimes called fixed operation costs. FIXED LEVER DOG - See Over-centre Tensioners. FIXED TANDEM - Assembly of two axles and suspension that is attached to the chassis in one place, and cannot be moved fore and aft. (See Sliding Tandem) FIXED TURNTABLE - See Turntable. FLATBED (FLATDECK) - ¹A semi-trailer with no sides. ²A truck with a flat deck made of wood or metal for carrying cargo. ³Consists of just a load floor and removable side rails, and a bulkhead in front to protect the tractor in the event of a load shift. Can haul almost anything that can be stacked on and strapped down. 4Truck or trailer without sides and top. 5A truck with a flat deck (and no sides or top) so that any size or shape item can be loaded (within reason) regardless of height, length, or width. 6This cargo body style is typified by a flat cargo area. Includes angle beds, rollback beds, and ramp hoists, which are flatbeds that tilt down to the ground so vehicles can be driven onto the bed.
FLATBED TRAILER (FLATDECK TRAILER) - ¹A trailer consisting of a completely open platform with no sides or railings. ²A trailer with a flat deck (and no sides or top) so that any size or shape item can be loaded (within reason) regardless of height, length, or width. ³A trailer that is not enclosed. Tarps and straps are used to secure the load. See Flatbed Trailer. 4A type of trailer: freight is transported on a flat, open-deck trailer, which can be loaded from the side.
FLATBED VEHICLE - A vehicle with a deck but no permanent sides. See Flatbed, Flatbed Trailer. FLATBED WITH EQUIPMENT - This cargo body style is typified by flatbeds with permanent cranes, loaders, pumps, winches, or other significantly heavy and large appurtenances. FLATBED WITH SIDES - A cargo body style typified by flatbeds with sides to hold and protect cargo. See Stake Body. FLAT BOTTOM - See Flatbed. FLAT CAR - A rail car without a roof and walls. FLATDECK - See Flatbed. FLATDECK TRAILER - See Flatbed Trailer. FLAT FACE - Cab over engine. FLAT RACK - A steel base for supporting loads fitted with receptacles for twist locks and provision for forklift operation. (A large steel pallet) FLAT TOP - A truck, trailer or semi-trailer that has a flat goods carrying area without sides. Weather protection is usually provided by tarpaulins. The
traditional trailer type for general use but losing favor because tarps take too long and are too much trouble. FLOAT - See Flatbed. FLOATER - Driver without a steady job. FLOATING THE GEARS - Shifting gears without using the clutch. FLOATS - Large single, instead of dual tyres. FLOOR JACK - A motorized or non-motorized forklift mechanism. Capable of lifting heavy pallets to low heights for towing by hand. FLOOR LOADED - Freight that has been loaded on the floor of the trailer without pallets or slip sheets. FLUSH DECK - A flat loading deck without a raised coaming. FLYER - A run in which the driver takes a trailer to a distant terminal, leaves it there and immediately pulls another trailer back to his home terminal. FLYING ORDERS - Trip instructions issued to a driver by his dispatcher. FOG LIGHT - See Front Fog Light, Rear Fog Light. FORCE - ¹Force is applied to a mass to move it. (Force is normally measured in Newtons (N) or kilo Newtons (kN). ²In physics, a force is whatever that can cause an object with mass to accelerate. Force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. According to Newton's second law, an object with constant mass will accelerate in proportion to the net force acting upon it and in inverse proportion to its mass. An equivalent formulation is that the net force on an object is equal to the rate of change of momentum it experiences. Forces acting on three-dimensional objects may also cause them to rotate or deform, or result in a change in pressure. The tendency of a force to cause angular acceleration about an axis is termed torque. Deformation and pressure are the result of stress forces within an object. FOR HIRE - Refers to a vehicle operated on behalf of or by a company that provides transport services to its customers. FOR HIRE (MOTOR) CARRIER - Company in the business of transporting freight belonging to others (see Private Carrier). FORKLIFT - An off-road vehicle with 'forks' for lifting and moving crates. There are warehouse and rough-terrain forklifts. AKA hi-lo.
FORWARD CONTROL - Vehicle with driver controls (pedals, steering wheel, instruments) located as far forward as possible. Supplied with or without body, the controls are stationary mounted as opposed to the special mountings of tilt cabs. FORWARD CONTROL VEHICLE - A truck with the cab mounted over the engine. Forward control moves the driver forward of his traditional position behind the motor. That allows a shorter overall vehicle length or leaves more of the length for cargo. Most buses and all cabover or COE trucks are forward control. FOUR BANGER - Four cylinder engine. FOUR BY FOUR - Four speed transmission and 4 speed auxiliary transmission. FOUR WHEELER - ¹A car driver. Also, a car, a van or a pickup. A non-professional vehicle driver. ²Not a nice term for a passenger vehicle. FRAME CONSTRUCTION - A type of trailer construction in which the weight of the load is transmitted through the cross members and outriggers directly into the main frame, rather than borne by the sides of the trailer. FRAME VEHICLE - A vehicle with skeletal structure fitted with one or more bunk units for transporting logs. A bunk unit consists of a front bunk and a rear bunk that together cradle logs. The bunks are welded, gusseted, or otherwise firmly fastened to the vehicle’s main beams, and are an integral part of the vehicle. FREE-ASTRAY - A shipment miscarried or unloaded at the wrong terminal is billed and forwarded to the correct terminal free of charge because it is astray. Hence the term "free-astray." FREE ON BOARD (FOB) - Usually indicates place where responsibility for expenses and risk for goods is passed from seller to buyer. For example, FOB motor carrier would usually mean that a price quoted for goods would include loading on a truck at the seller’s building. This term is not always used precisely and it’s best to qualify it to show exactly what is meant. FREE TIME - ¹The period freight will be held before storage charges are applied. ²The amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. FREIGHT - ¹Product that is hauled in the trailer. ²Any commodity being transported.
FREIGHT BILL - ¹Document for a common carrier shipment. Gives description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges, taxes, and whether collect or prepaid. Bills paid in advance are called prepaid freight bills. Bills collected at destination are called collect. ²Document for a carrier shipment giving a description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges, the rate of charges, taxes, and whether it is collect or prepaid. If the charges are paid in advance or are to be collected at the origin, it is called a prepaid freight bill. If the charges are to be collected at the destination, it is called a destination or collect freight bill. FREIGHT CHARGES - Payment due for freight transportation. FREIGHT CONTAINER - See Container. FREIGHT FORWARDER - An individual or company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) or less-than-carload (LCL) shipments from shippers and combines them into carload and truckload lots. Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act. FREIGHT OF ALL KINDS - See FAK. FRICTION - The resistance to movement caused by the ‘roughness’ of two surfaces in contact with each other. For example, rubber is used to cover a slippery metal brake pedal so as to increase friction and stop the driver’s foot slipping off. A simple method of testing friction is by tipping the surfaces until sliding occurs. Slippery surfaces slide at low angles and rough surfaces slide at higher angles.
The following table shows a comparison of the amount of friction present with some typical loads.
Typical Friction Levels Load Friction Wet or greasy steel on steel VERY LOW Smooth steel on smooth steel LOW Smooth steel on rusty steel LOW TO MEDIUM Smooth steel on timber MEDIUM Smooth steel on conveyor belt MEDIUM Rusty steel on rusty steel MEDIUM TO HIGH
Rusty steel on timber HIGH Smooth steel on rubber load mat HIGH
Friction depends only on the type of surfaces and the force between them. Friction force is independent of the amount of surface area in contact. For example, there is no difference between the friction from a ‘checker plate’ or a flat plate that are made from the same metal. Similarly, adding extra timber dunnage under a load will not increase the friction force. As shown in the following diagram, a horizontal force of 4 tonnes will just move the 10 tonne load regardless of whether there are two, four or more pieces of dunnage underneath.
Extra contact area – no effect
Friction between smooth surfaces can be increased using timber or anti-slip rubber matting. Oil or water between metal surfaces act as lubricants and reduce the friction. Friction can also be greatly reduced if there is dust, sand or other particles between the surfaces. FRICTION COEFFICIENT - See Coefficient of Friction. FRICTION MAT - A device placed between the deck of a vehicle and cargo or between articles of cargo, intended to provide greater friction than exists naturally between these surfaces. See also, Load Mat. FRIG PAN - A refrigerated pantechnicon or van, with the body often now made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) and usually having a diesel powered refrigeration unit at the front. FRONT AXLE - Usually has a single wheel on either side of the truck that steers the vehicle. FRONT DOOR - A term used for a truck in front of other trucks keeping an eye out for bears and keeping the lead pace. FRONT END LOADER - An off-road vehicle, with a forked loading device in front. FRONT FOG LIGHT - A light used to improve the illumination of the road in case of fog, snowfall, heavy rain or a dust storm.
FRONT-LOADER - A refuse truck that is loaded at the front usually has hydraulic arms that lift dumpsters over the cab dumping their contents into a bin with some kind of compacting mechanism. Arms must be included in truck length. FTL - Full Truck Load. The quantity of freight required to fill a trailer. FUEL STOP - A service station that is set up to fuel tractors. FULLMOUNT - A smaller vehicle mounted completely on the frame of either the first or last vehicle in a saddlemount combination. FULL TRAILER - ¹Truck trailer with wheels on both ends (as compared to a semi-trailer in which the front rests on the rear of the power unit). ²A truck-trailer with front and rear axles. The load weight is distributed over both the front axle(s) and rear axle(s). ³A trailer with axles in the front as well as the rear. It can stand without support. Full trailers are coupled to straight trucks and to the rear of semi or full trailers by a tongue or drawbar. Full trailers are seldom used alone with tractors. FURNITURE VAN BODY - Truck body designed primarily for transportation of furniture or household goods. Furniture van trailers are usually of drop frame construction.
- G - g - g or g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's acceleration expressed in gs. It is proportional to the reaction force that an object experiences as a result of this acceleration—or, more correctly, as a result of the net effect of this acceleration and the acceleration imparted by natural gravity. It is equal to 9.80665 m/s² (9.81 meters per second every second) or 32.174 ft/s² (32.2 feet per second every second). GARBAGE/REFUSE - A cargo body style typified by Garbage trucks that often have hydraulic packing mechanisms or hydraulic arms for lifting dumpsters. Included are roll-offs, vehicles used for transporting refuse containers. Roll-offs have rails or a flatbed and a hoist for loading and unloading the refuse container. GASES IN BULK - These are carried in pressurized tankers only, and are not otherwise containerized. Examples: Aerosol propellant, butane, CO2, LPG, nitrogen, and propane. GATES - Frames used at the front, sides and rear of the load carrying platform to contain the load. The front gate is also known as a loading rack, bulkhead or headboard and must be strong enough to resist load shifting in accidents or under severe braking. GATOR - Blown-out truck tyre pieces that are on left on the road. GAWR (GROSS AXLE WEIGHT RATING) - Maximum weight an axle is rated to carry by the manufacturer. Includes both the weight of the axle and the portion of a vehicle's weight carried by the axle. GBL - Government Bill of Lading. GCM - See Gross Combination Mass. GCW - See Gross Combination Weight. GCWR - See Gross Combination Weight Rating. GEAR BONGER - Driver who grinds gears when shifting. GEARBOX - An automotive assembly of gears and associated parts by which power is transmitted from the engine to a driving axle. (Called a “Transmission” in North America.) See ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’, ‘Synchromesh Gearbox’, ‘Automatic Gearbox’, ‘Double-declutching’.
GEARED SPEED - Calculated vehicle speed at the engine's governed rpm in each transmission gear, or (commonly) in top gear. GEAR JAMMER - One who constantly clashes the gears. GEAR RATIO - Number, usually expressed as a decimal fraction, representing how many turns of the input shaft cause exactly one revolution of the output shaft. Applies to transmissions, power takeoffs, power dividers and rear axles. Example: If 2.5 revolutions of an input shaft cause one revolution of the output shaft, the gear ratio is 2.5:1. GENERAL FREIGHT - This cargo category is for processed items, packaged or in some way containerized, and fairly closely packed. GENERAL FREIGHT CARRIER - A carrier which handles a wide variety of commodities, typically in LTL quantities and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments. G-FORCE - See ‘g’. GIN - Can refer to cotton, cotton waste, or the engine that separates the cotton from the seed. See Cotton Module Mover/Truck. GIN-POLE TRUCK - A truck equipped with hoisting equipment and a pole or arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy machinery. GLAD HANDS - ¹The attachments at the end of the air hoses at the back of the tractor that connect to the trailer. ²Air hose brake system connections between tractor and trailer. GLIDER KIT - Usually a cab and chassis without an engine or rear axles. Used to rebuild a wrecked tractor or to custom build to buyer specification. GLOW PLUGS (HEATERS) - ¹Devices used on some diesel engines to assist starting in cold conditions. ²Pre-heaters that aid starting cold engines. GLUTS - See Chocks (also see Dunnage). GOAT 'N' SHOAT MAN - Driver of a livestock carrier. GONDOLA - Refers to coal hopper bottom trailers or large produce bins that are transported on flatbeds. GOODS – Merchandise or product.
GOODS VEHICLE - A motor vehicle built to be used primarily to carry goods or materials used in any trade, business or industry. GOOSENECK - ¹On a drop frame trailer, that portion of the trailer which extends upward and forward from the front of the loading deck to, and including, the upper coupler and front crossmember. ²A hitch resembling the neck of a goose. Can be 5th wheel or an inverted ball hitch attachment. Both straight trucks and tractor-trailer rigs can use goosenecks. GOVERNOR - ¹A device for regulating a supply of fuel that keeps the same, maximum speed regardless of the load. ²A control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel). ³A built-in pressure regulating device to control pump discharge pressure by manipulating engine rpm; a device that governs the maximum rpm of an engine. GRAB HANDLE - See Grabrail. GRAB ONE - To shift into a lower gear as a means of gaining power when driving uphill. GRABRAIL (GRAB HANDLE) - The various hand-holds on the outside or inside of the truck. GRADE - Steepness of a grade or hill, expressed as a percentage. Example: A vehicle climbing a 5% grade rises 5 feet for every 100 feet of forward travel. GRADEABILITY - Vehicle's ability to climb a grade at a given speed. Example: A truck with a gradeability of 5% at 60 mph can maintain 60 mph on a grade with a rise of 5%. GRAIN BODY - Low side open top truck or trailer body primarily designed to transport dry fluid commodities. GRANDFATHER RIGHTS - The right provided in the Motor Carrier Act for a common or contract carrier to obtain a certification of public convenience and necessity to operate over the route or routes, over which it or its predecessor in interest was in bona fide operation on June 1, 1935, without further proof of public convenience and necessity. GRANNY LANE - The right lane, the slowest moving lane. (In Australia, the left lane) GRAVEL TRAILER - A dump trailer or a gravel hopper bottom which is used to haul gravel. GRAVEL TRUCK - A dump or a hopper bottom truck which hauls gravel.
GRAY AREA - Except for those carrying certain exempt commodities, for-hire trucking companies must be certificated and regulated by state and federal governments. "Gray area" carriers illegally operate as for-hire carriers through the use of some form of subterfuge or camouflage. GREASE MONKEY - Mechanic. GREASY PLATE - A type of turntable, consisting of two large plates lubricated with grease which functions like a ballrace turntable. Usually used with semi-trailers having a trailer block behind the kingpin. GREASY SPOON - Not a good restaurant. GROSS - (Gross Pay, The Gross) The gross (total) pay for the load, before anyone gets their cut. GROSS COMBINATION MASS (GCM) - The loaded weight of an articulated vehicle or combination vehicle. (Also called Gross Train Mass) GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT (GCW) - ¹Total weight of a loaded combination vehicle, such as a tractor-semi-trailer or truck and full trailer(s). ²How much the entire rig weighs including tractor, trailer and load. ³The maximum allowable fully laden weight of a tractor and its trailer(s). GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT RATING (GCWR) - ¹The value specified for the vehicle by the “Manufacturer” as being the maximum of the sum of the “Gross Vehicle Mass” of the drawing vehicle plus the sum of the “Axle Loads” of all vehicles being drawn. ²The vehicle weight plus maximum cargo weight plus trailer weight. GROSS.........LIMIT - The three terms listed above are often used to define the respective mass limits although this is not strictly correct unless the word LIMIT is also added (e.g. GROSS COMBINATION MASS LIMIT). GROSS ROADTRAIN MASS (GRTM) - The loaded weight of a road train. GROSS TON - 2,240 pounds. More commonly called a long ton. GROSS TRAILER MASS (GTM) - ¹The mass on the axle(s) of a trailer when fully loaded. ²The mass transmitted to the ground by the axles of a trailer when the trailer is loaded to its GVM and connected to a towing vehicle. GROSS TRAIN MASS - See Gross Combination Mass (GCM).
GROSS VEHICLE MASS (GVM) - ¹The loaded weight of a rigid vehicle. ²The maximum loaded mass of a vehicle — (a) as specified by the manufacturer; or (b) as specified by the relevant authority if — (1) the manufacturer has not specified a maximum loaded mass; (2) the manufacturer cannot be identified; or (3) the vehicle has been modified to the extent that the manufacturer’s specification is no longer appropriate. GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT (GVW) - ¹Total weight of a vehicle and everything aboard, including its load. ²Total weight of a vehicle (tractor, trailer and the load). ³The maximum allowable weight in pounds or tons that a truck is designed to carry. 4The total amount tractor (including fuel and everything else), semi-trailer (trailer), and load can weigh. Typically, the GVW is 80,000 lbs. GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING (GVWR) - ¹The maximum laden weight of a motor vehicle as specified by the “Manufacturer”. ²Total weight a vehicle is rated to carry by the manufacturer, including its own weight and the weight of its load. ³The vehicle weight plus maximum cargo weight. The GVWR is not the unloaded weight. GROSS WEIGHT - (a) The weight of an article together with the weight of its container and the material used in packing; (b) As applied to a truck, the weight of a truck together with the weight of its entire contents. GROUND CONTACT WIDTH - In relation to an axle, means the distance between the outermost point of ground contact of the outside tyres on each end of the axle. In relation to an axle group, means the greatest ground contact width of all the axles in the group.
Ground contact width of an axle
GRTM - See Gross Roadtrain Mass. GTA - Greater Toronto Area.
GTM - See Gross Trailer Mass. GUM BALL MACHINE - Rotating warning light on top of an emergency vehicle. GVM - See Gross Vehicle Mass. GVW - See Gross Vehicle Weight. GVWR - See Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. GYPSY - ¹An independent truck operator who drives his own truck and obtains/secures freight wherever he can. ²One who trip leases to authorized carriers.
- H - HAMMER LANE - Left lane on a four lane highway. HANDLE (CB-HANDLE) - ¹A name for a person that is primarily used while talking on the CB. ²CB call sign or name. HAND RATCHET - See Hand Ratchet Winch. HAND RATCHET WINCH - The ‘in-line’ tensioners can be either hand ratchet winches or over-centre buckles that are attached to the tie rails, using a webbing strap and hook.
Hand ratchet winch
The amount of tension produced by a truck winch or hand ratchet depends on the length of the handle and how large the diameter of the webbing spool becomes during tightening. Hand ratchets that operate by pulling the handle downwards will normally produce much more tension than truck winches. Higher tensions can be obtained by looping the strap over a standard triangular end fitting. The lashing capacity can be doubled and the pre-tension increased by an extra two-thirds.
High pre-tension tie-down
This principle can be used for a combined chain and webbing system. (The loose end of any lashing should be positively secured on the vehicle to prevent contact with rotating wheels and unexpected wheel lock-up). HAULING - What you are carrying in your trailer or what you are hauling. HAULING POST HOLES - Driving an empty truck or trailer. HAULING UNIT - A prime mover, or a rigid motor vehicle being used to tow a trailer. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS - Any load that requires placards is considered hazardous, e.g. paint, explosives, radioactive materials, etc. See Placard. HAZMAT - ¹Hazardous materials, as classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation. ²Hazardous materials and transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated (also known as Dangerous Goods or TDG). HCFC - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. HEADACHE RACK - ¹Heavy protective barrier mounted behind the tractor's cab. Designed to prevent "headaches" caused by load shifting forward from the trailer and crushing the cab. ²Heavy bulkhead that extends over cab from trailers, usually made of pipe and used in steel hauling. ³A heavy bulkhead that is positioned behind the cab of a power unit. Usually made of pipe and meant to stop any forward cargo shift. See Bulkhead. HEADBOARD - ¹Usually a permanent vertical frame used at the front of a vehicle’s loading deck to contain its load (also known as a bulkhead). ²A vertical
barrier across the front of the deck of a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo. See also, Gates. HEADER BAR - Rear cross piece on open top trailer. HEADER BOARD - Protective shield at front end of flat bottom trailer to prevent freight from shifting forward. HEADING - What direction you are going in or where you are traveling to. HEAD RAMP - An apparatus attached over the cab of tractors to carry motor vehicles as freight. Auto carriers may or may not have head ramps. HEATER - An insulated dry van trailer equipped with a heater to control the temperature inside the unit. HEATER SERVICE - Protection by heat of freight that would be damaged by freezing. HEAVY DUTY TRUCK - Truck with a gross vehicle weight generally in excess of 19,500 pounds (class 6-8). Other minimum weights are used by various law or government agencies. HEAVY MACHINERY - This cargo category will tend to be on flatbed trucks and trailers, though not necessarily. Examples: Off road-vehicles, like bulldozers and backhoes, forklifts, construction machinery, large lathes, and farm tractors. HEAVY SPECIALIZED CARRIER - A trucking company franchised to transport articles which because of size, shape, weight, or other inherent characteristics require special equipment for loading, unloading, or transporting. HEAVY TRAILER COMBINATION - A hauling unit and trailer with a GCM over 13.5 tonnes. HIGH-BEAM - High-beam for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle, means that the light is built or adjusted so that, when the vehicle is standing on level ground, the top of the main beam of light projected is above the low-beam position. HIGHBOY - A trailer with a flat deck. HIGH CUBE - ¹Cargo of such low density that the amount that can be transported is limited by the vehicle’s volume rather than its mass, or a vehicle especially designed for maximum cargo space. ²A body with above average cubic content. Usually constructed with low floors and thin walls.
HIGH TORQUE RISE ENGINES - The latest technology in fuel efficient engines. HIGHWAY DOUBLES - Typically a three axle (2 drive axles) tractor with two 45 foot (or 48 foot) trailers. These trailers will have two axles. HIGHWAY TRACTOR - A tractor is the power unit used for pulling trailers on the highway. See Tractor. HIGHWAY USER FEE or TAX - A charge levied on persons or organizations based on the use of public roads. Funds collected are usually applied toward highway construction, reconstruction and maintenance. Examples include vehicle registration fees, fuel taxes, and weight-distance taxes. HOBO - Tractor that is shifted from terminal to terminal. HOIST - Sometimes used to refer to the lifting mechanism under cargo bodies that dump. HOIST BOX (TURRET) - A guard fitted around a hydraulic hoist ram on a tipper body to protect it from damage. HOME BASE - The location where a vehicle is usually parked when not in use or on the road. HOOD - American term for bonnet. HOOK-LIFT CONTAINER - A specialized container, primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste, recycling, construction/demolition, and scrap industries, which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles, in which the container is loaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm. HOOD LIFTER - Garage mechanic. HOPPER - A container designed for discharge of loose dry material through a gate valve at the bottom of the container. May be mounted on a vehicle or trailer or may form an integral part of a trailer. HOPPER BODY/BOTTOM - ¹Truck or trailer body capable of discharging its load through a bottom opening without tilting. ²An open top cargo body capable of discharging its load through a bottom opening without tilting. Sometimes referred to as bottom dumps. HORSE - Tractor or power unit. HORSE LIGHT - Spotlight mounted on cab to reveal open-range livestock.
HORSEPOWER - (HP) Measure of power (the amount of work that can be done over a given amount of time). One horsepower is defined as 33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute. Example: Lifting 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute, or lifting 3300 pounds ten feet in one minute. HORSEPOWER, GROSS LABORATORY - Tested horsepower of a "bare" engine without fan, water pump, alternator, exhaust system or any other accessories. HORSEPOWER, SAE NET - Horsepower capability of an engine with full accessories and exhaust system. Test procedures per standards of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). HORSE VAN BODY - ¹Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of valuable horses. ²Truck designed for the transportation of valuable horses (livestock). HOT LOAD - ¹Emergency shipment of cargo needed in a hurry. ²A load with a delivery guarantee that needs delivery as soon as legally possible after the pick up and can carry penalties to the carrier if the load is late. ³Rush shipment of cargo. HOT SHOT - (Slang) 1) A local freight hauler; 2) A one ton truck equipped with a fifth wheel for pulling light weight trailers. HOURS-OF-SERVICE (HOS) - ¹U.S. Department of Transportation safety regulations which govern the hours of service of commercial vehicle drivers engaged in interstate trucking operations. ²U.S. and Canada have set rules that govern the hours of service of commercial vehicle drivers engaged in interstate and international trucking operations. ³Safety regulations that govern the hours in which a driver can operate a commercial (HOS) vehicle. HOUSEHOLD GOOD MILES - A source of mileage between points commonly used by shippers and carriers for freight rate purposes. HOUSEHOLD GOODS - This cargo category is for uncrated household or office furniture, band equipment, theatrical equipment, and trade show displays. HUBODOMETER - A distance recording device usually mounted on drive and trailer wheel hubs. HUNGRY BOARD - ¹A board fitted around the top of a tip truck to increase capacity. Also known as a Cheat Board. ²A rail or framework (permanent or removable) added to the sides of a truck body to increase load capacity.
HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM - A system that uses hydraulic fluid for transmitting force to the braking units in each wheel. HYDRAULIC RETARDER - A hydraulic auxiliary brake that works on the drive train (sometimes called a Voith brake). HYDROPLANING - ¹When the tyres lose contact with a wet road surface. ²A phenomenon of driving when water builds up under the tyre tread, causing it to lose contact with the road. Caused by speed, water depth, tread depth, and inflation pressure. Slowing down will usually restore normal tyre contact with the road. Also called aquaplaning.
- I - I 94 CARD – A Visa Waiver Card. It is purchased the first time you cross the Canadian/USA border. It must be renewed every 3 months. ICC - See Interstate Commerce Commission. ICC BUMPER - Typically made out of 3" to 4"steel channel stock, usually about 75% of the width of the trailer, suspended half the distance from the trailer floor to the pavement with a strong enough bracing to meet federal regulations governing underride guards.
IN-BOND - A shipment that has not cleared customs and must be taken directly to a bonded warehouse to clear. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR - The person who owns and operates a truck, leasing himself and/or his rig for hauling products interstate. Same as Owner-operator. INDEPENDENT TRUCKER - See Independent Contractor, Owner Operator. INDIRECT RESTRAINT - See Tie-down. INDIRECT TIE-DOWN - A tie-down whose tension is intended to increase the pressure of an article or stack of articles on the deck of the vehicle. INDIVISIBLE ITEM - An item that cannot be divided without extreme effort, expense or risk of damage to it, and cannot be carried on any conforming vehicle combination without exceeding a mass or dimension limit.
INITIAL CARRIER - The transportation line that picks up a shipment from the shipper. INITIAL POINT - The point at which a shipment originates. INLAND CARRIER - A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points. IN-LINE TENSIONER - Can be either hand ratchet winches or over-centre buckles that are attached to the tie rails, using a webbing strap and hook. Webbing straps are tensioned using either attached clip-on, sliding winches or in-line tensioners. Geared winches are also available. See also, Hand Ratchet Winch, Over-centre Buckles, Truck Winch. INSULATED BODY - A truck, trailer or van body designed primarily for the transportation of commodities at controlled temperatures, and usually provided with refrigerating and/or heating equipment. INSULATED TRAILER - See Insulated Body. INSULATED VAN BODY - See Insulated Body. INSULATION - Any of several materials, or classes of materials, used in the construction of trailers and containers whose function it is to control the transfer of heat in or out of the vehicle. INTEGRAL LOCKING DEVICE - A device that is purposely designed and used to restrain an article of cargo on a vehicle by connecting and locking attachment point(s) on the article to anchor point(s) on the vehicle. INTEGRAL SECUREMENT SYSTEM - A feature of roll-on/roll-off containers and hook-lift containers and their related transport vehicles in which compatible front and rear hold down devices are mated to provide securement of the complete vehicle and its cargo. INTER-AXLE DIFFERENTIAL - A differential which operates between two driven axles to allow one axle to turn at a slightly different speed from the other. This allows for small differences in tyre diameters on the two axles and the different distances they travel on turns. INTER-AXLE LOCK - Locks up the inter-axle differential so drive is shared equally by both driven axles to reduce wheelspin and increase traction in slippery conditions. INTERCHANGE POINTS - A terminal where freight is transferred from one transportation line to another.
INTERCITY TRUCKING - Trucking operations which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones. INTERCOOLER - A device used for cooling turbocharged air before it enters the engine. The cooling increases air density and engine power and reduces thermal stress to the engine. Intercoolers can be air to air or air to water types and are sometimes called aftercoolers. INTERLINE FREIGHT - Freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies. INTERMEDIATE CARRIER (BRIDGE) - A transportation line hauling a shipment between the originating and delivery carrier. INTERMODAL - Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes, i.e. motor, water and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems. INTERMODAL CONTAINER - ¹A reusable, transportable enclosure that is specially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air. ²A cargo container designed for high-speed transfer of cargos between different transportation modes. Typically seen around harbor ports, railway yards, and cargo storage facilities. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION - Transportation movement involving more than one mode, e.g. rail-motor, motor-air, or rail-water. INTERSTATE - ¹Between states. ²Trucking commerce crossing state lines. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION (ICC) - (1887 – 1995) First regulatory agency established in the U.S. and a prototype for independent government regulatory bodies. An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation, it was responsible for the economic regulation of interstate surface transportation, including railroads, trucking companies, and bus lines. It certified carriers, regulated rates, oversaw mergers, and approved railroad construction. The ICC was dissolved in 1995. INTRASTATE - ¹Within a state. ²Travel within the same state. ³Trucking commerce within the same state. IRON - Old model truck. IRON LUNGER - The conventional 220 or 250 horsepower engine.
ISOLATION SWITCH - A device which completely disconnects the battery from the electrical system of the vehicle to prevent any possibility of fire due to short circuit. ITS (INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS) - See IVHS. IVHS (INTELLIGENT VEHICLE HIGHWAY SYSTEMS) - Blanket term for a wide array of technologies, including electronic sensors, computer hardware and software and radio communications. The purpose of IVHS is to increase efficiency of use of existing highways, reducing travel time, fuel consumption, air pollution and accidents. There are five functional areas: (1) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS); (2) Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS); (3) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS); (4) Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS); (5) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). A more recently coined term, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), encompasses both IVHS and modes of transportation other than highway, such as rail. (See AVI, AVL, WIM)
- J - JACKET - A cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles. JACKING IT AROUND - Backing a semi-trailer around a very sharp curve. JACK-KNIFE - ¹To place the trailer at a very sharp angle to the tractor. ²To purposely place the trailer at a very sharp angle to the tractor when backing. Also can refer to the loss of control where the trailer begins to push the tractor out of the way. ³Skidding of an articulated vehicle sometimes results in rotation at the articulation (hitch) point so that the tractor is rotated against the trailer in a manner similar to the closing of a jackknife. JACK-RABBIT START - The sudden or quick release of the clutch that causes immediate movement of the vehicle. JACK SHAFT - A short drive shaft especially one transmitting power from one drive axle to another. JAKE BRAKE - ¹This is a compression brake. It changes the valve timing to "retard" the engine. ²A general name for Engine Brakes based on a common brand, Jacobs Engine Brake. See Engine Brake, Retarder, Speed Retarder. ³A device that increases braking efficiency by manipulating the engine valves to create engine drag, also referred to as an engine retarder. JEEP DOLLY - A heavy-duty goose neck dolly usually with 2 or more axles that support the front of a cradle frame for transporting large objects or a heavy-duty lowboy trailer. JINKER - ¹A trailer designed to transport long logs. ²An axle or axle group which is built to support part of a load, and is connected to the vehicle in front of it by a pole or cable or the load itself, if any. JIT (JUST-IN-TIME) - See Just In Time. JOEY BOX - An auxiliary gearbox located after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios. May be mounted directly on the rear of the main gearbox or separately from it. JOINT RATE - A rate for hauling a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines, which cooperate to offer a through service. The shipment travels on one bill of lading. JOINT ROUTES - Routes established by two or more connecting carriers for the continuous through-movement of traffic over their lines.
JUMPED THE PIN - Missing the fifth wheel pin on the trailer when coupling tractor to trailer. JUMP SEAT - The passenger seat in a tractor. JUST IN TIME (JIT) - ¹Manufacturing system which depends on frequent, small deliveries of parts and supplies to keep on-site inventory to a minimum. ²In this method of inventory control, warehousing is minimal or non-existent; the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive "just in time", that is not too early or too late.
- K - KICK DOWN - Shift down to lower gear. KICK THE DONUTS - Check the tyres. KIDNEY BUSTER - Hard riding truck. KILOPASCAL (kPa) - A unit of pressure in the metric system. See also, Pounds per square inch (psi). (6.89 kPa = 1 psi) KINGPIN - ¹A pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which locks into a prime mover's turntable jaws. Also the pin around which a steerable wheel rotates in the vertical axis. ²An anchor pin at the center of a semi-trailer's upper coupler which is captured by the locking jaws of a tractor's fifth wheel to attach the tractor to the semi-trailer. ³Attaching pin on a semi-trailer that attaches to and pivots within the fifth wheel of a tractor or converter dolly. KINGPIN (AXLE) - Pin around which a steer axle's wheels pivot. KNOCKED DOWN - ¹A term denoting that an article is partially or entirely taken apart (not set up). Abbreviated KD. ²Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re-assembled. ³Unassembled freight or merchandise. KNOWN DAMAGE - Damage discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. KNOWN LOSS - Loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.
- L - LABOURING - See Lugging. LADING - ¹That which constitutes a load; the freight in a vehicle. ²Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment. LADING PROTECTORS - Material used to prevent the load being damaged through contact with restraining chains or lashings. LAID OVER - There is no load available for pick up. Generally a lay over is when a driver sits waiting for a load for 24 hours or more. LANDING GEAR or LANDING LEGS - ¹Retractable legs that support the front of a semi-trailer when not coupled to a prime mover. Usually raised and lowered with a two speed crank. ²Retracting legs which support the front of a semi-trailer when it is not coupled to a tractor. ³Retracting legs that support the front of a trailer when it is not coupled to a tractor (also referred to as Dolly Legs). 4Device that supports the front end of semi-trailer when not attached to a tractor. LARGE INDIVISIBLE ITEM - See Indivisible Item. LASHING CAPACITY (LC) - The maximum force (in kilograms) that a lashing system is designed to sustain in use. LASHINGS - ¹Fastening devices, chains, cables, ropes or webbing used to restrain loads. ²Ropes, chains and straps used to lash down loads. ³A lashing is a restraint device such as a rope, chain or strap and can include other components such as tensioners, hooks, etc. LATERAL - Sideways, transverse, crosswise, or across a vehicle. LAWFUL RATE - Any rate constructed and published in accordance with the laws, rules and regulations administered by the ICC in interstate traffic, or by state commissions in intrastate traffic. LAY ON THE AIR - Apply brakes. LAYOVER - ¹Any off-duty period away from home. ²Eight hours or more rest before continuing trip or any off-duty period away from home. LAYOVER TIME - The non-working time that a road driver spends away from his home terminal before being dispatched to some other destination.
LAZY AXLE - An unpowered axle which is part of an axle group which includes a drive axle. The lazy is usually behind the drive axle. See also, Pusher Axle, Trailing Axle, Tag Axle. LCL - Less Than Container Load. LCV (LONG COMBINATION VEHICLE) - ¹In general, vehicles longer than a standard doubles rig (tractor and two 28-foot semi-trailers). Examples of LCVs which are permitted in some U.S. western states and eastern toll roads: Twin 48-foot trailers; triple 28-foot trailers. See also, Turnpike. ²A tractor pulling two or more semi-trailers on an interstate roadway weighing more than 80,000 lbs, or a doubles rig with either trailer greater than 28.5 feet in length. LEAD TRAILER - In a combination, means the trailer that is, or that is to be, attached to the prime mover. LEASE - Truck companies sometimes lease trucks or trailers from leasing companies. For our purposes a long-term lease is equivalent to ownership, and the lessee is the operating authority. LEASE PURCHASE - Method of purchasing a rig from a regulated carrier, whereby rent (paid to the carrier for the privilege of using the cab) is applied to the principal owed. LENGTHWISE - (Same as “Longitudinal”) LESSEE - Company or individual which leases vehicles. LESSOR - Company which leases vehicles. LESS-THAN-TRUCKLOAD - See LTL. LICENSED WEIGHT - The maximum gross weight (vehicle plus cargo) a vehicle is licensed to carry. LIE SHEET - Driver's log book. LIFT - ¹Dressed timber or steel which has been stacked in layers. ²A tier of dressed timber, steel, or other materials. LIFT AXLE - Extra, unpowered axle needed only when the vehicle is loaded, allowing it to meet federal and state vehicle weight standards. The lift axle is mounted to an air spring suspension that raises the axle when it is not required.
LIFT OFF CONTAINER - A cargo container that is loaded and unloaded with a crane, most cargo containers are of this type, the exceptions are roll-offs and the air freight container. LIFT TAIL GATE - A power-operated tail gate capable of lifting a load from street level to the level of the truck or trailer floor. LIFT-UP LAZY - A retractable lazy axle that can lift the wheels clear of the ground when the truck is empty. LINEHAUL - ¹Operating on fixed long distance routes. ²Movement of freight between cities and terminals. Line haul does not include pickup and delivery services. ³The movement of freight from one point to another. It does not include pickup and delivery services. 4Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service. LINE-HAUL DRIVER -Truck driver who travels a set route from city to city and typically returns home after each shift. Also known as a regional driver. LIQUIDS IN BULK - This cargo category describes the contents of liquid tanks that are not otherwise packaged. Examples include brine, gasoline, whiskey mash, milk, driller's mud (90% water), oil, septic waste, molten sulfur, sulfuric acid, water, tallow, and live fish if transported in water. LIVE AXLE - Axle driven by engine. LIVE LOAD - ¹A load which, because it cannot be completely secured is able to move about within the load space (e.g. bulk liquids, livestock, hanging meat, pneumatic tyred earthmoving machinery). ²To load a trailer with the driver physically present at the time. LIVESTOCK BODY - ¹Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of livestock. ²Truck or trailer designed for the transportation of farm animals. Sometimes have double decks. Often has slatted or perforated sides. LIVESTOCK CARRIER - This trailer cargo body style typically has slotted or slatted sides. It may have a double deck. These trailers sometimes have "possum bellies," compartments in the bottom for holding smaller animals. LOAD - ¹In relation to a vehicle includes anything that is normally removed from the vehicle when the vehicle is not in use, but does not include — (a) tools, equipment or substances necessary for the vehicle or combination to function, or for any load to be restrained; or (b) personal items used by the driver. ²The normal term for the freight a truck is carrying on the trailer. LOAD ANCHOR POINTS - See Anchor Points.
LOAD BARS - A tool used to secure freight in a trailer. LOAD BINDER - ¹A device used for tensioning a lashing (see Truck Winch or Dog). ²A device fitted to a chain or lashing used to tighten (tension) the restraint. An over-centre locking action is incorporated. ³A binder incorporating an over-centre locking action. 4A mechanical device, consisting of a lever-operated toggle and lock, generally used to tighten a cargo securing system. Winches are sometimes used as load binders. LOAD BROKER - Agents that match shippers’ loads with the available carriers/trucks. LOAD CAPACITY (LC) - ¹The difference between the GVM or GTM of a vehicle and its tare mass. ²The maximum load which a vehicle is rated to carry by the manufacturer. ³The weight of cargo that a vehicle can carry when loaded to its allowable gross vehicle weight in a particular jurisdiction. LOAD-CARRYING - In relation to a vehicle, means a vehicle that is carrying, or is built to carry, a load. LOAD CARRYING VEHICLE - A vehicle designed and constructed to haul or carry goods and wares in addition to any fuel, water, lubricants, tools and any other equipment or accessories necessary for normal operation of the vehicle. LOAD DISTRIBUTION GRAPH - A load distribution graph shows the maximum load that can be carried at each position of the centre of mass of the load along the vehicle, without exceeding legal axle load limits and without reducing the weight on the steer axle(s) below the safe limit. Graphs should be obtained from the vehicle or body manufacturer or a vehicle engineer. LOADED MASS - ¹The total mass of the vehicle and its load. ²In relation to a vehicle, means the sum of the mass of the vehicle and the mass of the load on the vehicle that is imposed on the surface on which the vehicle is standing or running. LOADED MILE - Distance traveled with a loaded trailer. LOADER - (1) An off road vehicle with a large 'bucket' or shovel on the front to move material, particularly dirt or debris. (2) Refers to a hydraulic mechanism mounted on a trailer or behind the cab of a truck or tractor used to load cargo onto the trailer or truck. Some logging industry trucks are equipped with log loaders for loading fresh cut logs. See Front-end Loader. LOADING RACK - The heavy duty gate at the front of a flat top trailer. See also, Gates.
LOADING STAKE, PEG or PIN - A metal fixture used for load control when set in pockets. LOAD LOCKS - Long, telescoping poles with locking levers. They are set between the walls of the trailer or floor to the ceiling to prevent the freight from shifting en-route. See also, ‘Pads, Straps, and Load Locks (Accessory Equipment)’. LOAD LIMIT - The maximum load which may be carried in, or on any motor vehicle upon the road. This load limit varies from State to State although the trend is to nationwide uniformity. LOAD MAT - A sheet of material used to increase friction and protect the load (also called an Anti-slip Mat or Friction Mat). LOAD PROPORTIONING VALVE - See ‘Load Sensing or Load Proportioning Valve’. LOAD RACK - See Loading Rack. LOAD RANGE (TYRES) - Letter code system for the weight carrying capacity of tyres. LOAD RATIO - The ratio of loaded miles to empty miles per tractor. LOAD RESTRAINT METHODS - Loads can be restrained by two basic methods, either indirectly or directly. These methods are called ‘Tie-down’ and ‘Direct Restraint’ respectively. Tie-down is when the load is prevented from moving by friction only. Direct restraint is when the load is prevented from moving by containing, blocking or attaching it to the vehicle. These load restraint methods are summarized in the following diagram, which shows restraint of forward movement of the load. These principles also apply for restraint sideways, rearwards and vertically. See also, Tie-Down and Direct Restraint.
Load restraint methods
(To control forward movement) LOAD SENSING or LOAD PROPORTIONING VALVE - Reduces the proportion of braking effort going to the rear axle(s) to compensate for forward weight transfer and light or no load. Helps prevent rear wheel lock-up under braking. LOADSHARING SUSPENSION - A suspension which enables all wheels of an axle group to support an equal load. If one axle is dual tyred and another single, each gets its proportional share of the load. LOADSHARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM - An axle group suspension system that is built to divide the load between the tyres on the group so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if the load were divided equally, and has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the group. LOAD SHIFT - A specialized load restraint system that incorporates limited forward load shift to increase the pre-tension in the lashings up to their rated lashing capacity. LOAD STRAPS - Canvas belts that are long enough to go over the top of a load and used to hold the cargo onto the deck of a flatbed trailer. Load straps are also used on the inside of an enclosed van to secure freight. LOCAL CARTAGE CARRIER - A company that transports property entirely within the commercial zone of a municipality (or contiguous cities). This may be pickup and delivery service for a line haul carrier. LOCAL DRIVER -Truck driver who picks up and delivers packages along a city route. Drivers typically run the same route everyday, returning home after each shift. Also known as a city or P&D driver.
LOCAL RATE - A rate applying between stations located on the same transportation line. LOCAL TARIFF - A tariff containing rates applicable only between terminals located on the same transportation line. LOCKING TURNTABLE - A permanent trailer turntable which can be locked in the straight-ahead position enabling a dog trailer to be more easily reversed. Greasy plate and ballrace turntables can also be locked for use with semi-trailers that have no blocks behind the kingpin. See Turntable. LOG BODY - Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of logs or other loads which may be boomed or chained in place. LOG BOOK - ¹A driver's record of hours driven and rest periods taken. ²A book carried by truck drivers in which they record their hours of service and duty status for each 24-hour period. Required in interstate commercial trucking by the U.S. Department of Transportation. ³A book carried by truck drivers containing daily records of hours, routes, etc. Log books are required by government regulations. 4A daily record of where a driver is and what he/she does. For presentation to DOT or police to show that one has not gotten someplace too quickly or exceeded the hour of service limit. 5(Funny Book, Comic Book, Liar’s Book, Log) This is a diary that each driver must keep by law. It covers 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week, in 15 minute increments. There are four lines: (1) Driving; (2) On-duty (not driving); (3) Sleeper berth; (4) Off-duty. From the day you're hired, until you quit, you must keep a logbook. It is a federal document and has many pages of rules and regulations that a driver must follow. 6A daily record of a driver's hours, routes, etc. Required by the Department of Transportation. LOGGING TRAILERS - Some pole trailers consist of a set of axles with a cradle to hold logs and a pole attached to the rear of a power unit. Others are skeletally framed. Some have double decks. Most will have cradle-like features called bunks to hold the logs in place. LOGISTICS - ¹Process of systematizing information to facilitate the efficient and cost-effective flows of goods and services to produce customer satisfaction. The “Council of Logistics Management” defines logistics management as: "The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements." ²Movement and supply of goods. LOGS - Include all natural wood that retains the original shape of the bole of the tree, whether raw, partially, or fully processed. Raw logs include all tree species with bark that have been harvested and may have been trimmed or cut to some
length. Partially processed logs that have been fully or partially debarked or further reduced in length. Fully processed logs include utility poles, treated poles, and log cabin building components. LOGS, POLES, LUMBER - This cargo category includes processed wood, like 2x4's, plywood, pulpwood, firewood, and new pallets, fresh from the factory, but not used empty crates. Wood chips, wood residuals, and bark are solids in bulk. LONG COMBINATION TRUCK - A truck nominated to haul 2 or more trailers. LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) - Any combination of truck tractor and two or more trailers or semi-trailers which operate on the Interstate System at a gross vehicle weight greater than 80,000 pounds. LONG HAUL DRIVING - Driving that keeps the driver away from home for more than a night or two. Not a fixed term in the industry but a common one. LONGITUDINAL - Lengthwise or along the length of a vehicle. LONG TON - 2,240 pounds. LONGWOOD - All logs that are not shortwood and are over 4.9 m (16 feet) long. Such logs are usually described as long logs or treelength. LOT LIZARD - Trucker slang for prostitutes who hang out in truck stops. LOW-BEAM - Low-beam for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle, means that the light is built or adjusted so that, when the vehicle is standing on level ground, the top of the main beam of light projected is — (a) not higher than the centre of the headlight or fog light, when measured 8 m in front of the vehicle; and (b) not more than 1 m higher than the level where the motor vehicle is standing, when measured 25 m in front of the vehicle.
A headlight in the low-beam position
LOW-BED TRAILER - ¹A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. ²Open truck trailer constructed to provide a low platform height. Designed for the transportation of extremely heavy or bulky property.
LOWBOY - ¹Open flat-bed trailer with a deck height very low to the ground, used to haul construction equipment or bulky or heavy loads. See Low-bed Trailer. ²Type of flatbed in which the load floor is as close to the ground as possible. Most commonly used to haul heavy equipment, cranes, bulldozers, etc. ³A low trailer for hauling heavy machinery. See also, Lowboy Trailer. 4Gooseneck flatbeds slung very low to the ground. Often the gooseneck is detachable so that equipment can be loaded from the front. Sometimes ramps are at the rear. Typically about 12" off the ground. LOWBOY TRAILER - Lowboy trailers are very low to the ground and can transport freight up to 12 feet high.
LOW LOADER - A gooseneck semi-trailer with a loading deck no more than 1m above the ground. LOW LOADER DOLLY - A mass-distributing device that is usually coupled between a prime mover and a low loader, consists of a gooseneck rigid frame, does not directly carry any load on itself, and is equipped with one or more axles, a kingpin and a fifth wheel coupling. See also, Dolly. LP - Acronym for the distance from the back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. Also CF or CE are used for the same distance. See also, Cab to End. LPG - ¹Liquid propane gas. ²Liquefied Petroleum Gas, e.g. Propane Butane. LTL - (Less-Than-Truckload) ¹A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload (TL) rate; usually less than 10,000 pounds and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments. ²A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a full truckload (FTL) rate, and a combination of small shipments on a trailer from multiple shippers to multiple consignees. (See FTL, TL) ³Refers to situations in which general freight from various shippers is combined into a truck load. (See FAK)
LTL CARRIER - Trucking company which consolidates less-than-truckload cargo for multiple destinations on one vehicle. (See TL Carrier) LUGGING or LABOURING - Caused by the combination of overloading the engine and insufficient engine speed. The remedy is to shift to a lower gear. The symptoms of lugging are shuddering or excessive vibration in the engine, vibrations in the driveline and black exhaust smoke due to excessive fuel (all of which can result in engine and driveline damage). LUMBER BODY - Platform truck or trailer body with traverse rollers designed for the transportation of sawed lumber. LUMPERS - ¹Someone the driver pays to load or unload a trailer. ²A person hired to help unload a container or trailer instead of using the driver. ³Laborers who unload trucks for a fee charged to the trucking company or customer. LUMPING - ¹Loading or unloading a trailer by hand. ²The act of assisting a motor carrier owner-operator in the loading and unloading of property; quite commonly used in the food industry.
- M - MANIAC - Shop mechanic. MANIFEST - A document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle or ship. MARK - Slang expression used to refer to a shipment, as in "large Mark," "4 Marks." MARKS - Letters, numbers and characters put on a package for identification. MASS - The measure of the amount of matter in an object. MAXI-BRAKE - See Spring Brake. MAXI-CUBE - A non-articulating straight truck, in combination with a semi-trailer which does not exceed 34 feet and is designed to be loaded through the semi-trailer or in combination with a trailer that does not exceed 28 feet. MAXI-CUBE VEHICLE - A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit and a trailing unit, both of which are designed to carry cargo. The power unit is a non-articulated truck with one or more drive axles that carries either a detachable or a permanently attached cargo box. The trailing unit is a trailer or semi-trailer with a cargo box so designed that the power unit may be loaded and unloaded through the trailing unit. MAXIMUM GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT - The most weight allowed by law for a tractor and loaded trailer combined. MAXIMUM RATE - The highest lawful rate that may be charged. MEASUREMENT TON - 40 cubic feet. MEDIUM COMBINATION TRUCK - A truck, other than a short combination truck, nominated to haul one trailer. MEMORANDUM BILL OF LADING - A duplicate copy of a bill of lading. MERGE - To move gradually from one road or lane to another and blend in with traffic. METAL - This cargo category is for processed, generally unpackaged, metal only. This category includes metal pipe, coils, metal fencing, ingots, steel plates, corrugated tin, and similar processed metal cargoes. This category includes
items like steel guard rails, and other manufactured metal items that do not fall in either the heavy machinery, large object, or general freight categories. MEXICAN OVERDRIVE - ¹Slang term for coasting downhill in neutral, which is illegal and dangerous. Also called Angel Gear. ²Kicking out of gear going down grade. MICHIGAN DOUBLES - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling two trailers with a total of 11 axles, typically for hauling gravel (dump trailers) or steel (flatbed trailers). MICROBRIDGE - A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. MILE - 1.6 km. MILEAGE - Pay based on miles between origin and destination. MILEAGE TARIFF - A tariff containing rates applied according to distance. MILK RUN - Easy trip. MINI LANDBRIDGE - An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all-water move. MINIMUM RATE - The lowest lawful rate that may be charged. MINIMUM TRUCKLOAD WEIGHT - The lowest weight at which a shipment is handled at a truck load rate. MINNIE - Any shipment under 100 pounds. MIXED TRUCKLOAD - A truckload consisting of different articles in a single shipment. MLB - Mini Landbridge. MODAL SHARE - The percentage of total freight moved by a particular type of transportation. MODE - Frequently used to refer to the basis divisions of the transportation industry. The principal modes of transportation are truck, rail, air and water. MOTOR BRAKE - See Engine Brake.
MOTOR CARRIER ACT - A law passed in 1935 which brought the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) into the truck regulation business. MOTOR HOME - Camper. MOTOR VEHICLE(S) - ¹Any vehicle driven or pulled by mechanical power. It is used on the highways for hauling property or passengers as determined by the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). ²A vehicle built to be propelled by a motor that forms part of the vehicle. ³This cargo category refers to motor vehicles capable of at least 40 MPH on-highway, carried such that no wheels touch the road. These will probably be on flatbed trucks and trailers or on auto-carriers. MPG - Miles per gallon. MRC (MASS RATING for CHARGING) - In relation to a vehicle, means: (a) The maximum mass of the vehicle, including any load, recorded on the compliance plate as the Gross Vehicle Mass, Gross Trailer Mass Rating or Aggregate Trailer Mass of the vehicle; or (b) In relation to a vehicle for which there is no compliance plate--its operating mass. MT - Metric Ton. MUDGUARD - A fitting or device, with or without a mudflap, that is built and fitted to a vehicle in a way that will, as far as practicable, catch or deflect downwards any stone, mud, water or other substance thrown up by the rotation of the wheel to which the fitting or device is fitted. MULE - Small tractor used in warehouse to pull two axle dollies, also yard tractor. MULTI-AXLE LOWBOY TRAILER - Multi-axle lowboys are used to transport extremely heavy freight.
MULTI-COMBINATION PRIME MOVER - A prime mover nominated to haul 2 or more trailers. MULTI-STOP BODY - Fully enclosed truck body with driver’s compartment specifically designed for quick and easy entrance and exit. MUNITIONS CARRIER - A company that transports munitions by motor vehicle.
- N - NAFC - National Accounting and Finance Council, a self-sustaining group within the American Trucking Associations, Inc., composed of individuals specializing in motor carrier accounting and finance. NATION'S FREIGHT BILL - The amount spent annually on freight transportation by the nation's shippers; also represents the total revenue of all carriers operating in the nation. NECK - Refers to the non-load bearing coupling portion of a trailer. NET - In weighing terminology, refers to cargo weight. (Tare = unloaded, Net = cargo, Gross = Tare + Net). NET TARE WEIGHT - The weight of an empty cargo-carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached. NET WEIGHT - (a) The weight of an article excluding packing and container; (b) As applied to a truck-load, the weight of the entire contents of the truck. NHTSA - (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Part of the U.S. Department of Transportation. NMFC - National Motor Freight Classification. NON-POWERED AXLE - An axle that supports part of the vehicle weight but does not transmit driving force to the wheels. Also called a dead axle. NON-REGULATED TRUCKING - A carrier which is exempt from economic regulation, e.g. exempt agricultural shipments and private trucking operations. NON-SYNCHROMESH GEARBOX (CONSTANT MESH) - In this type of gearbox, the matching of engine and road speeds depends entirely on your judgment and skill as there are no synchronizers in the gearbox to help you. Double-declutching is essential while you are learning to use this type of gearbox. A non-synchromesh gearbox may commonly be known as a crash or constant mesh gearbox. See Constant Mesh Transmission, Crash Box, ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’. NON-SYNCHROMESH TRANSMISSION - See Constant Mesh Transmission, Crash Box, ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’. NON-SYNCHRONIZED TRANSMISSION - See Constant Mesh Transmission, Crash Box, ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’.
NORMAL CONTROL VEHICLE - A bonnetted vehicle where the driver sits in the "normal" position behind the engine. NOSE - Term that refers to the front of a trailer. NOSE DIVE - Trailer tipped forward on its nose. NO TOUCH - Means the driver does not have to "touch" the load -- doesn't have to fingerprint ... doesn't have to do any of the unloading.
- O - OAKIE BLOWER - Air scoop on air intake to increase power. OAL - Over-All-Length (Of the Vehicle). OCEAN CONTAINER - ¹Usually made of steel, it is a large rectangular box designed for easy lift on/off by cranes. ²A completely enclosed, often water tight container designed to be loaded onto ocean freighters to carry commodities overseas. OCEAN GOING CONTAINER - See Ocean Container. OCP - Overland Common Point. OCTOPUS STRAPS - See Elastic Straps. O/D - Overdrive. OD - Outside Diameter. ODOMETER - ¹A device that measures the distance of travel in miles. This device is attached to the speedometer. ²Mile or kilometer counter in the dashboard. OFFLOAD - To unload. OFF-ROAD DUMP TRUCK - Off-road dump trucks more closely resemble heavy construction equipment or engineering vehicles than they do highway dump trucks. They are used strictly off-road for mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs.
OILFIELD BODY - ¹Heavily-constructed platform type truck body equipped with a rear end roller or bullnose adapted for winch loading. Designed primarily for work in oil fields. ²Heavily constructed platform-type truck body equipped with instruments and machinery for oil drilling. OLD HAND - An "old hand" is a truck driver that has been around the block many times. He's wise, generally soft-spoken, doesn't offer an opinion unless asked for it (unless he thinks you're about to kill yourself, or someone else), and no one argues with him because he's right, and everybody knows it. Sort of a wise elder of trucking. OMC - (Office of Motor Carriers) Interstate heavy truck and bus regulatory agency. ON-BOARD COMPUTER - See Trip Recorder. OPEN TOP - ¹A container with sides and doors but no roof. ²A truck or trailer without a permanent metal top. ³Trailer with sides but without permanent top; often used for heavy equipment that must be lowered into place by crane. 4A cargo body style with sides but without a permanent, fixed, solid top. OPEN TOP VAN - See Open Top. OPERATING AUTHORITY - The entity responsible for a truck being on the roadway. An example would be if you own the truck and are transporting your own cargo then you would be the operating authority; or if you needed a commodity shipped and hired a trucking company to transport it for you, then the trucking company would be the operating authority. A rule of thumb in determining operating authority is to examine who owns or is responsible for the cargo. OPERATING EXPENSES - The costs of handling traffic, including both direct costs, (such as driver wages and fuel) and indirect costs (e.g. computer expenses and advertising) but excluding interest expense. OPERATING MASS - In relation to a vehicle, means the maximum mass of the vehicle, including any load, as determined by the Registration Authority having regard to the design and construction of the vehicle or of any of its components. OPERATING RATIO - Total operating expenses divided by gross freight revenue. OPERATOR - A person who controls or directs the operations of a vehicle, or who is otherwise responsible for it.
O, S & D - Overage, shortage and damaged. Someone in your company is in charge of O, S & D. You must call in if you have any of these conditions with your load before leaving the receiver -- and in some cases, you must call before even pulling out of their dock. OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OUT OF SERVICE - ¹Truck or trailer that has been declared unsafe by the DOT and ordered off the road until repairs are made. ²A driver who has been ordered off the road because DOT has discovered that he/she is over their limit of operating hours. ³A driver who has been ordered off the road because he/she did not have the legal documentation to operate a commercial vehicle. OUTRIGGER - ¹A horizontal beam, spar or framework projecting from the loading platform on the vehicle. Some may be retracted or extended. ²Structural load-carrying members attached to and extending outward from the main longitudinal frame members of a trailer. ³Device used for increasing width of trailers. 4Leg-like extensions used on the front or rear of machinery to improve stability. Also, structural load-carrying members attached to and extending from the main frame of a trailer. OVERAGE - Extra freight from what should have been shipped. OVER AXLE - When one of the axles is overweight. OVER-CENTRE BUCKLES - See Hand Ratchet Winch. OVER-CENTRE TENSIONERS - Chains can also be highly tensioned using turnbuckles or over-centre tensioners (also called ‘dogs’). Fixed lever dogs can cause injury to the operator when applying or releasing the chain tension especially when standing on the load and also when using pipe handle extensions (‘cheater bars’). The use of these extensions is not approved by any manufacturer and can be dangerous. The following diagram illustrates a fixed lever dog and a pivoting lever dog. When a fixed lever dog is released, the handle can rotate out of control releasing all the energy in the chain. If a cheater bar is used, it can be thrown off at high speed. The pivoting lever dog is designed to reduce the ‘kickback’ by limiting the lever movement.
Over-centre tensioners or ‘dogs’
Dogs are not suitable for tensioning short chains. This is because the chain link spacing can be greater than the stretch in the chain. The resulting chain tension could be much too low. Turnbuckles are screw tensioners operated by either a ratchet or sliding lever. See also, Turnbuckle. OVERCHARGE - To charge more than the amount provided in the proper tariff. OVER-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE - A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted length, width, weight or height. (See also, Over-height Vehicle) OVERDRIVE - ¹A gear ratio in which the engine turns more slowly than the tailshaft (e.g. for an overdrive ratio of 0.81 the engine turns only 8 times for every 10 turns of the tailshaft). Used properly, an overdrive allows the engine to turn more slowly at cruising speed which reduces engine wear and fuel consumption. ²Gearing in which less than one revolution of a transmission's input shaft causes one turn of the output shaft. The purpose of overdrive is to reduce engine rpm in high gear for better fuel economy. Example: A transmission with an overdrive top gear has a ratio of 0.70 to one. Turning the input shaft 0.7 revolutions causes 1.0 revolution of the output shaft. OVER GROSS - When a commercial vehicle, with all axle weights combined, has exceeded the maximum gross weight that it is licensed for. OVER-HEIGHT VEHICLE - A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted height. OVER HOURS - When a driver goes over the legal limit for hours of service. OVERMASS - Having a mass that, including the mass of any load, exceeds a relevant mass limit (whether or not the vehicle is also oversize).
OVER-REVVING - Occurs when the engine speed exceeds the maximum limit specified by the manufacturer. Usually caused by descending hills too fast and in the wrong gear. Can cause serious damage to the engine. The rev limit is usually marked on a rev counter by a red line. OVERSIZE - ¹Having a dimension that, including the dimension of any load, exceeds a relevant dimension limit (whether or not the vehicle is also overmass). ²An abnormal or wide load. OVERSIZE TRI-AXLE GROUP - A group of 3 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is more than 3.2m. OVER-THE-ROAD (DRIVER) - ¹Truck driver who travels cross-country to deliver freight and usually sleeps within a berth in the truck cab. Typically averages over 100,000 miles per year. ²Travel from one city to another, as distinct from travel in and around the vehicle's base. OW - Overall Width (Of the Vehicle). OWNER-OPERATOR - ¹A truck driver who owns and operates his own truck(s). ²The person who owns and operates his own rig(s). ³A professional driver who owns and operates his/her own truck(s). See Independent Contractor. 4An independent trucker who drives the vehicle for himself or on lease to a company. 5A for-hire carrier who both owns and drives a vehicle and serves as the operating authority.
- P - P&D - See Pickup and Delivery. PADS, STRAPS, and LOAD LOCKS (ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT) - Pads, straps, and load locks are often used to brace and cushion fragile freight to prevent damage. PAJAMA WAGON - Sleeper tractor. PALLET - ¹A portable platform or tray onto which loads are placed for mechanical handling. ²A platform or tray on which cargo is placed so that it can be handled as an article. (Same as “Skid”) ³A portable platform for holding material for storage or transportation. 4Double wooden platforms about three and a half feet by four feet, upon which freight is loaded. Between the top and bottom platforms is a four inch space into which the forklifts and floor jacks can slip their forks. 5A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. PALLETIZED - Stacked on pallets. See Pallet. PALLET JACK - ¹A dolly resembling the tines of a forklift with a handle attached, to move laden pallets on a dock, often motorized. ²A manual pallet jack is a hand-powered jack. Powered pallet jacks are motorized to allow lifting and moving of heavier and stacked pallets. These generally contain a platform for the user to stand on while hauling pallets around a warehouse or loading/unloading trucks. The powered pallet jack is generally moved by a throttle on the handle to move forward or in reverse and steered by swinging the handle in the intended direction. Some contain a type of dead man's switch rather than a brake to stop the machine should the user need to stop quickly or leave the machine while it is in use. PANCAKE - A brake diaphragm housing on each set of dual wheels on a semi-trailer and on most tractors. PANEL BODY - Small, fully enclosed truck body often used for small package delivery. PANTECHNICON, PANTECH OR PAN - A completely enclosed van body on a rigid vehicle, semi-trailer or trailer (e.g. furniture van). PAPERWORK - The documents surrounding a trip (bill of lading, receipts for items such as tolls, scaling, log sheets, etc.).
PARASITIC HORSEPOWER - Power produced by the engine, but absorbed by vehicle components before being delivered to the ground by the drive tyres. PARK-N-VIEW (PNV) - PNV is a service that a large number of truck stops offer. There is a junction box (or ballard) in the ground next to the trucks when they are parked. These provide hookups for cable TV and a phone line. You can then make local and 800 number calls for free from the cab of your truck. They also provide Internet access (ISPs). You can pay by the day or by the month. PARS - Pre-Arrival Review System. A system in which a driver can fax the paperwork for a shipment and the Customs Broker will set up the clearance of the load prior to the driver arriving. PAWL - A lever or lock which protects reverse rotation on a winch. PAYLOAD - ¹Weight of the cargo/freight being hauled. ²Total weight of the commodity being carried on a truck at a given time including packaging, banding, etc. ³Weight of commodity being hauled. Includes packaging, pallets, banding, etc., but does not include the truck, truck body, etc. PEANUT WAGON - Small tractor pulling a large trailer. PEDDLE FREIGHT - Shipments delivered from a terminal location to small surrounding communities beyond normal delivery limits. PEDDLE RUN - ¹Truck route with frequent delivery stops. ²Truck run with frequent deliveries en route. PEG - See Pegs. PEG-LEG - Tandem tractor with only one power axle. PEGS - Removable uprights that are used for restraining loads on the vehicle. See also, Bolster, Stanchion. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS - A way of specifying the minimum amount of load restraint required, measured in terms of ‘g’ (g-force) or the weight of the load. PERISHABLE FREIGHT - Freight subject to decay or deterioration. PERMIT - A written order or certificate granting permission to do something, a license.
PERMIT BOOK - Normally a three-ring binder in which the various permits required for operating are inserted for display to the DOT or other law enforcement agencies. PERMITS - (a) Authority granted by the ICC to allow motor carriers to operate in interstate commerce; (b) Permission granted to carriers by states to transport freight exceeding legal weight and size limits. PICK-UP - Small delivery truck. PICKUP and DELIVERY (P&D) - ¹Pickup and delivery may also be referred to as a city driver. ²Pickup and delivery is usually used in reference to city work. PICKUP TRUCK - Small delivery truck. PIG - See Pig Trailer. PIGGYBACK - ¹Semi-trailer built with reinforcements to withstand transport by a railroad flatcar. (See TOFC) ²Transportation of a highway trailer on a rail flatcar. There are five basic piggyback plans. Plan I is transportation on a trucking company owned trailer on a rail flatcar, for which the trucking company pays a negotiated rate. In Plan II, the railroad furnishes both trailer and flatcar. In Plan III, a shipper or freight forwarder owns the trailer. Plan IV is like Plan III, but the shipper or forwarder also owns the flatcar. Under Plan V, the company and railroad cooperate to offer the joint rate. A trucking company trailer is used. ³(See also Intermodal) A transportation concept whereby truck trailers are hauled on railroad flatcars. 4The transportation of highway trailers or removable trailer bodies on rail cars specifically equipped for the service. It is essentially a joint carrier movement in which the motor carrier forms a pickup and delivery operation to a rail terminal, as well as a delivery operation at the terminating rail head. 5Refers to the way empty log trailers are carried on the bed of a tractor such that no axles touch the ground. Also may refer to other kinds of vehicles carried on the rear of a power unit in a manner that axles do touch the road. See also, Deck Load, Deck Set. PIGGYBACK/TOWAWAY - This cargo category refers to motor vehicles being carried piggyback on a power unit. The trucks being carried have their front axles off the ground resting on the vehicle in front. Several vehicles may be hitched together in this way. This category is also used for wreckers towing a vehicle. See also, Deck Load, Deck Set, Piggyback. PIGGYBACK TRAILERS - Trailers which are designed for quick loading on railcars. PIGTAIL - Cable used to transmit electrical power from the tractor to the trailer. So named because it is coiled like a pig's tail.
PIG TRAILER - ¹A trailer having one non-steerable axle group near the middle of the length of the load carrying platform. ²A trailer with one axle group or a single axle near the middle of its load-carrying surface, and connected to the towing vehicle by a drawbar. ³Trailer transported on flat car.
Rigid truck and pig trailer combination PIKE - See Turnpike. PILOT VEHICLE - A motor vehicle, other than an escort vehicle being used to warn other road users of the presence of an oversize vehicle. PIN - ¹What locks into the drawbar eye on an automatic tow coupler. Also see Kingpin. ²The pin on the fifth wheel that locks the trailer to the tractor. PINS - Removable uprights that are used for restraining loads on the vehicle. See also, Bolster, Stanchion. PINTLE HOOK - ¹A type of trailer coupling widely used in the US but usually only on light or military trailers in Australia. Harder to hitch up than Ringfeder type couplings. See Trailer Hitch. ²Coupling device used in double trailer, triple trailer and truck-trailer combinations. It has a curved, fixed towing horn and an upper latch that opens to accept the drawbar eye of a trailer or dolly. PIN-UP - Hook tractor to semi-trailer. PISTON DISPLACEMENT - See Displacement. PIVOTING LEVER DOG - See Over-centre Tensioners. PK - Common abbreviation for pickup truck.
PLACARD - ¹A sign showing the type of hazardous materials loaded in a vehicle. ²A sign affixed to each side and each end of a truck, rail car, or freight container, which indicates the hazardous designation of the product being transported in that vehicle. ³Placards are warning signs placed on all four sides of the trailer denoting that the trailer is carrying hazardous materials. Examples are flammable, explosives, dangerous, etc. PLATFORM BODY - Truck or trailer body with a floor but no sides or roof. PLATFORM TRAILERS - Normally flatbed trailers. There are straight platforms, single drops and double drops. PLY RATING (PR) - ¹Relative measure of tyre casing strength. (See Load Range) ²A measure of the strength of tyres based on the strength of a single ply of designated construction. A 12 ply rating does not necessarily mean that 12 plies are present, only that the tyre has the strength of 12 standard plies. PMs - Preventive maintenance inspections. POCKETS - Housings or slots fixed to the vehicle to locate gates, stakes or loading pegs. POD (PROOF OF DELIVERY) - Signed copy of the bill of lading (BOL) and legal document that entitles the carrier to payment for the movement of the freight. POGO STICK - A spring mounted pole behind the cab for holding up trailer brake hoses and electrical connections. Can also be a spring loaded bar or pole for cargo restraint with ends that fit into recesses in van side walls. POINT OF ARTICULATION - ¹The axis of rotation of a turntable. The pivot or ’bending’ point of an articulated vehicle. ²Point of articulation means — (a) the axis of a kingpin for a fifth wheel; (b) the vertical axis of rotation of a fifth wheel coupling; (c) the vertical axis of rotation of a turntable assembly; (d) the vertical axis of rotation of the front axle group, or single axle, of a dog trailer; or (e) the coupling pivot point of a semi-trailer.
Point of articulation — fifth wheel coupling on a converter dolly (forming
the front axle group of a dog trailer)
Point of articulation — fifth wheel on a prime mover
Point of articulation — kingpin for fifth wheel
POINT OF ORIGIN - The terminal at which a shipment is received by a transportation line from the shipper. POLE/LOGGING - Some pole trailers consist of a set of axles with a cradle to hold logs and a long, sometimes adjustable pole attached to the rear of a power
unit. Others are skeletally framed. Some have double decks. Most will have cradle-like features called bunks to hold the logs in place. POLE TRAILER - ¹A trailer whose body consists simply of a drawbar by which the trailer is drawn. ²Truck trailer which uses a rigid pole as a structural member connecting the axle unit to the truck pulling it. They are used to haul long, rigid loads such as logs, poles, pipe and other cargo capable of resting as a beam between the axle unit and the truck pulling the trailer. ³A logging trailer. Usually has bunks for holding logs. The center portion of the trailer may be adjustable in order to accommodate loads of different lengths. See also, Pole-type Trailer. POLE TRUCK - (1) Also called a winch truck - it has lifting equipment for lifting poles in oilfield service and contracting. It can have an A-frame. (2) Sometimes refers to a flatbed with bunks. POLE-TYPE TRAILER - A trailer that is attached to a towing vehicle by a pole, or an attachment fitted to the pole, and is ordinarily used for transporting loads, such as logs, pipes, structural members, or other long objects, that can generally support themselves like beams between supports.
PONY AXLE - (Slang) For a smaller diameter wheel attached to a lift axle. PORT OF ENTRY - Weigh stations (scale) or Customs Office that routinely documents who comes into a province/state and where they are going. POSSUM BELLY - Livestock trailer with a drop frame to haul small animals (chickens, etc.) underneath heavy cattle. POSSUM BELLY TRAILER - See Possum Belly. POST TRIP - A quick visual inspection of the commercial vehicle at the end of the day or trip. POTATO TRUCK/TRAILER - A hopper bottom or a live bed truck used to carry potatoes. A "spud bed." POTS - Flares placed on highway to warn traffic of an obstruction or hazard.
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (PSI) - A unit of pressure in the imperial system. See also, kilopascal (kPa). (1 psi = 6.89 kPa) POUR ON THE COAL - Step on the gas. POWER BRAKE - Open throttle while applying brakes. POWER DIVIDER - See Inter-axle Lock. POWERED AXLE - An axle that supports a portion of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels. Frequently called a drive axle. POWER TAKE OFF (PTO) - ¹A device attached to a vehicle’s transmission or flywheel enabling engine power to be used to drive ancillary equipment (e.g. tipper hoist, bulk liquid pump, concrete mixer, garbage compactor, hydraulic hoist). ²Device used to transmit engine power to auxiliary equipment. A PTO often drives a hydraulic pump, which can power a dump body, concrete mixer or refuse packer. Some designs mount to a standard opening on the transmission, while others attach at the front or rear of the engine. ³A device usually mounted on the side of the transmission or transfer case, or off the front of the crankshaft, and used to transmit engine power to auxiliary equipment such as pumps, winches, etc. 4An outlet from a vehicle engine used to transfer power to towed equipment or machinery. POWERTRAIN (DRIVETRAIN) - ¹The group of components which drive the vehicle. Namely: engine, clutch, transmission, tailshaft and rear axle. See also, Drivetrain. ²All the components, including the engine, which transmit the engine's power to the rear wheels: clutch, transmission, driveline and drive axle(s). POWER UNIT - ¹The control and pulling vehicle for trailers or semi-trailers. ²The tractor or prime mover. ³A truck or the part of a combination that has the engine. See Prime Mover, Tractor. PRE-LOADED - A driver is not present at the time the loading of the trailer occurred. The load is ready in advance of sending the driver in to pick up the load. See also, Drop and Hook. PREPAID - A term denoting that transportation charges have been or are to be paid at shipping point. See also, Prepaid Shipment. PREPAID SHIPMENT - A prepaid shipment is one on which the charges for transportation service rendered at the request of the Consignor, including charges for any accessorial services performed at the request of the Consignor are to be paid by the Shipper.
PRE-PLAN - The next load that a driver is set up to pick up after the completion of the load that he/she is currently on. PRESELECT - (1) Moving the shift button just prior to starting the shift. The shift button should not be moved while the shift lever is in neutral. (2) Always preselect all range shifts when upshifting or downshifting. Preselection requires that the range lever is moved to the needed position before starting the shift. Preselected range shifts are completed automatically as the lever is moved through neutral and into the next gear. Preselecting all range shifts prevents damage to the transmission and provides for smoother shifts. PRE-SELECTION (OF GEARS) - A system of gear shifting in which selection and engagement of the gears are two distinct operations. The required gear is first selected by operation of the gear shift control (gear lever or shift button) but actual engagement of the gear is achieved by operating the clutch pedal or releasing the accelerator. Two speed axle ratios or transmission range changes may be pre-selected and then shifted in this manner. PRE-TENSION - ¹The initial tension in a lashing after tensioning. ²Pre-tension is the force in a lashing resulting from initial tightening by the operator. PRIME MOVER - ¹A short wheel base truck used to tow a semi-trailer. ²A motor vehicle built to tow a semi-trailer. (It is called a “Tractor” in the United States) PRIVATE CARRIER - ¹Business which operates trucks primarily for the purpose of transporting its own products and raw materials. The principle business activity of a private carrier is not transportation. (See For-Hire Carrier) ²A company which maintains its own trucks to transport its own freight. PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVER - Different categories of drivers include over-the-road, line-haul and local. PROHIBITED ARTICLES - Articles which will not be handled. PROOF OF DELIVERY - Carrier establishes proof of delivery from delivery receipt copy of freight bill signed by consignee at time of delivery. This is legal proof of delivery. PROPELLER SHAFT - See Tailshaft. PROPORTIONAL RATE - A rate specifically published to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate. A rate from New York to Chicago published to apply only on traffic destined points beyond Chicago would be a proportional rate.
PRO RATE - To divide or distribute proportionally, such as license fee based on proportion of miles traveled in each state. PROTRUSIONS - A fitting such as 'bull bars', ‘roo-bars', nudge-bars, etc. and it does not include driving lights, fog lights, running lights, aerials/antennas etc. PSC (or PUC) - (Public Service Commission [or Public Utilities Commission]) The state body which regulates utilities and for-hire trucking operations within a state's boundaries. PSI (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH) - ¹In trucking, unit of measurement for tyre air pressure, air brake system pressure and turbocharger boost. ²Pounds per square inch, and used to measure tyre and air brake system pressure. See also, ‘Pounds Per Square Inch’. PTA - Projected Time of Availability, with reference to the driver. This information is utilized to determine when a driver needs to be planned for, and to ensure that there is enough freight for the driver to move. PTO - (Power Take Off) See Power Take Off. P/U - Common abbreviation for pickup truck. PU - Common abbreviation for pickup truck. PUBLICATION - Making public tariffs, circulars, bill instructions, guide books, territorial directories, classifications, exception sheets. This must be done in the manner required by the Interstate Commerce Act or state law. PULL THE PIN - Release the fifth wheel lock. PULL TRAILER - ¹Short, full trailer (supported by axles front and rear) with an extended tongue. ²A full trailer. It has at least two axles, and will attach with either a ball or a pintle hitch. See Pup Trailer. PULPWOOD - Logs (usually shorter and smaller in diameter) used for making pulp to manufacture paper. PULP WOOD BODY - Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of pulp wood. PUP - A short semi-trailer used in combination with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer. See also, Pup Trailer. PUP TRAILER - ¹A trailer having a single non-steering axle near the middle of the length of the load-carrying platform. ²A short semi-trailer used jointly with a
dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer. ³A short trailer or semi-trailer, usually between 26 and 32 feet long, with a single axle. (Also called a dog trailer – see Dog Trailer) 4A short semi-trailer used in combination with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer. Sometimes used to refer to a short semi-trailer not in twin combination. Sometimes a pull trailer is referred to as pup. See Pull Trailer. PURCHASED TRANSPORTATION - Payment of local charges to a connecting carrier, with whom we do not have occurrence of a joint route for delivering a shipment to a point we have rights to service, but which we give to the connecting carrier for our operating convenience. PUSHER AXLE - ¹A drive axle when located at the rear of a tandem axle group in which the other axle is unpowered. See also, Axle. ²Powered rear axle on a vehicle having a non-powered axle ahead of it. PUT ON THE AIR - Apply the brakes. PUT ON THE IRON - Put on tyre chains. PYROMETER or EGT GAUGE - A temperature gauge that measures the temperature of the engine exhaust gases.
- Q - QUAD-AXLE GROUP - A group of 4 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is over 3.2m, but not over 4.9m.
- R - RACKS - ¹Removable wood or metal wall sections (usually slatted) held in place on flatbeds normally by stake pockets. ²Removable wood or metal wall sections attachable to flatbed trailers to make sides for confining loads. RADIATOR SHUTTER - A device now rarely found in Australia. The shutters are thermostatically controlled, mounted on the radiator and resemble a Venetian blind. They control air flow to the radiator and are particularly effective in very cold climates. Mostly used on North American trucks. RAGS - Bad tyres. RAG TOP - Open top trailer using a tarpaulin for a covering. RAIL VEHICLE - A vehicle whose skeletal structure is fitted with stakes at the front and rear to contain logs loaded crosswise. RAILWAY CONTAINER - A cargo container that can be loaded or stacked on a railroad flat car. RAMBO - Someone getting mouthy on the CB. Usually hides behind the mike and doesn't have the balls to say where he is. RAMPS - Articulated or removable bridge-type structures used to load or unload lowbed or drop frame trailers. RANGE CHANGE - A set of transmission gears engaged by a lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever. Used to allow the normal transmission ratios to be repeated in another higher (or lower) range thus doubling the number of gear ratios available. Almost all heavy trucks use range change boxes. See also, Splitter. RANGE LEVER - The range lever selects LO or HI range (Up for HI Range/Down for LO Range). It is used once during an upshift sequence and once during a downshift sequence. Always preselect all range shifts when upshifting or downshifting. Preselection requires that the range lever is moved to the needed position before starting the shift. Preselected range shifts are completed automatically as the lever is moved through neutral and into the next gear. Preselecting all range shifts prevents damage to the transmission and provides for smoother shifts. RANGER TRANSPORTATION - A company that owner/operators and small fleets lease their equipment to. The company provides loads through Agents for owner/operators and small fleets to haul. The company also handles all the legal
requirements – logs, drug testing, safety, driver qualifications, awards, insurance, and so on. RANGE SELECTOR - See Range Lever. RANGE SHIFT - See Range Lever. RATCHET - See Turnbuckle. RATE - The charge for transporting freight. RATE BASIS - A formula containing the specific factors used in making a rate. RATED FREIGHT BILL - A freight bill showing quantities, price per unit, and total price. RATE SCALE - A table of rates graduated according to distance or zones. RAT HOLE SERVICE - Refers to drilling rigs. RATIO STEP - Amount of change between two gear ratios expressed as a percentage. Example: The ratio step from 1st gear to 2nd gear is 35%. RAV - See Restricted Access Vehicle. RAVE - ¹A rail or framework around the platform to increase load capacity. ²A rail or framework (permanent or removable) added to the sides of the loading platform to increase load capacity (greedy boards). RAV NOTICE - A class 1 notice, class 2 notice or class 3 notice. RAV PERMIT - A class 1 permit, class 2 permit or class 3 permit. REAL MILES - From the odometer, the real miles driven from shipper to consignee. (Not book miles) REAR FOG LIGHT - A light used on a vehicle to make it more easily visible from the rear in dense fog. REAR LOADER - A refuse truck that is loaded at the rear usually with some kind of compacting mechanism. REAR MARKERS (REFLECTOR PLATES) - Red and yellow plates which must be fitted to the rear of heavy vehicles to make them more visible when they are moving slowly or parked.
REAR OVERHANG - ¹Distance from the center of the rear axle to the end of frame. ²The distance between the rear overhang line and the rear of the vehicle.
Rear overhang and rear overhang line
Rear overhang and rear overhang line — vehicle with tri-axle group at rear
Rear overhang and rear overhang line — semi-trailer
RECAP - ¹Another term for a retreaded tyre. ²The retread portion of a rebuilt tyre.
RECIPROCITY - The granting of privileges by a state to vehicles or vehicle owners from another state in return for similar privileges. The privileges may be complete exemption from the payment of all fees and motor vehicle taxes or partial exemption. RECOOPER - Repair damaged cartons or containers. RED LABEL - A label required on shipments or articles of an inflammable character. RED LINE - Term referring to the halfway point in a trailer. The line is painted across the top inside ceiling of the trailer. REDUCTION - Used to indicate the slower output speed resulting from a ratio proportion (faster on reductions of less than 1); 1) single reduction: a single set of reducing gears in the rear axle; 2) double reduction: an additional gear-set in the rear axle to reduce output speed further. May or may not be used as a 2-speed rear axle. REEFER (REEFER TRAILER) - ¹A dry freight container which is insulated and fitted with a refrigeration unit. ²A refrigerated trailer with insulated walls and a self-powered refrigeration unit. Most commonly used for transporting food. ³A refrigerated trailer used for carrying refrigerated products. 4A refrigerated van used for cold goods. See also, Van. 5A box trailer with a heating/cooling unit (reefer) attached. Used for hauling produce, ice cream, etc. 6Refrigerated truck or trailer designed for hauling perishables. 7A refrigerated van type of trailer. It can both cool and heat a trailer. 8(Slang) A van style cargo body with a refrigeration unit. REFLECTOR PLATES - See Rear Markers. REFORMULATED GASOLINE - See RFG. REFRIGERATED FOODS - This cargo category is for cargoes carried in refrigerated cargo bodies. Ice is included in this category. Refrigerated foods must be both refrigerated and food for human consumption. REFRIGERATED VAN - A cargo body style typified by a totally enclosed box with a refrigeration unit. See also, Refrigerated Van Trailer. REFRIGERATED VAN TRAILER - (Reefer) A type of trailer: freight is transported in an enclosed refrigerated trailer (reefer) to maintain a specific temperature. See also, Reefer.
REFRIGERATION - The protection of perishable freight by ice or mechanical means. REFRIGERATION UNIT - A mechanical device designed to be mounted on a refrigerated trailer or container for the purpose of cooling the cargo area. See also, Reefer. REFUND - Repayment of excess freight charges. REFUSE - See Garbage/Refuse. REFUSE BODY - A cargo body designed for loading and hauling rubbish. REGISTRATION HOLDER - A holder placed on the front of the trailer to hold the trailer licensing information. REGULATED CARRIER - Those carriers transporting commodities for which operating authority from the ICC is required. REGULATED COMMODITIES - Those commodities which are transported under governmental regulation. REGULATED MOTOR CARRIER - A carrier subject to economic regulation by the Interstate Commerce Commission. RELAY (RELAY DRIVING) - Common practice in the less-than-truckload industry, in which one driver takes a truck for 8 to 10 hours, then turns the truck over to another driver, pony express style. REMOVABLE GOOSENECK - A gooseneck which can be separated from the trailer and reconnected, usually through the use of large hooks or removable pins. The motive force required to remove such goosenecks is usually obtained through the use of the tractor winch line or hydraulic cylinders.
REPARATION - Compensation for damage. RESONANCE ROLL - A condition in which the vehicle is induced to roll from side to side at its natural roll frequency, usually as a result of steering back and forth from one side to the other. Energy stored in the suspension builds up as it repeatedly transfers from one side to the other, increasing the roll each time until the vehicle may overturn. See also, Roll Frequency. RESTRAINED - An article that is not contained, but is prevented from tipping or shifting. RESTRICTED ACCESS VEHICLE (RAV) - A vehicle that alone, or together with any load, exceeds one or more of the following limits: a prescribed mass limit or one of the following dimension limits: a width of 2.5 m, a height of 4.3 m, a length of 12.5 m in the case of a motor vehicle that is not part of a combination, or 19 m in the case of a combination, or any other dimension limit specified in the regulations or the Vehicle Standards. RESTRICTED ARTICLES - Commodities that cannot be handled at all or may be handled under certain specific conditions. RETARDER - ¹See Speed Retarder. ²A device used to assist brakes in slowing the vehicle. The most common type of retarder on over-the-road trucks manipulates the engine's valves to create engine drag. (This type is commonly referred to as "Jake Brake" because the predominant manufacturer is Jacobs Vehicle Equipment Co.) Other types of retarders include exhaust retarders, transmission-mounted hydraulic retarders and axle-mounted electromagnetic retarders. ³An electro-magnetic device for slowing a vehicle down without using wheel brakes. RETRACTABLE AXLE - ¹An axle which can be raised when not needed. ²An axle that can be raised so that the tyres on the axle do not touch the ground. REV COUNTER - An instrument which tells how fast the motor is turning. Another word for tachometer. REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE - See RPM. REWORK A TRAILER - To move the freight around on a trailer in order to legalize the axle weights. RFG (REFORMULATED GASOLINE) - Gasoline blended with pollution reducing additives. RIDER POLICY - A policy the company might have that allows someone, not employed by the company, to ride along with you. Typically limited to certain
times of year (April to November) and limited to age of rider. The Policy might also stipulate the person must be an immediate family member only. RIDE SHOT GUN - Not driving; riding on right side of cab (left side of cab in Australia). RIG - ¹Usually means any combination of truck or prime mover and trailer(s). ²Truck, tractor semi-trailer, truck and full trailer, or other combinations. ³Slang term for a transport truck. RIGGERS BODY - Truck body similar to an oilfield body designed primarily for rigging work. RIGID VEHICLE - A vehicle without a trailer. See also, Straight Truck, Truck.
RINGFEDER - See Automatic Tow Coupling. RING ROAD - A circular route around a city. ROAD HOG - Motorist who takes more than his share of the highway. ROAD-MONEY - What we spend while on the road: food, smokes, books, etc. ROADRAILER - Semi-trailer specially designed to travel both on highway and on rails. Manufactured by Wabash Corp. ROADRANGER GEARBOX - A constant mesh gearbox, also known as a crash box. It does not have synchromesh so you have to double clutch every time you change gear. See Constant Mesh Transmission. ROAD TANK VEHICLE - A bulk road tanker that is designed for transporting dangerous goods such as: flammable liquids (petrol, kerosene, turpentine, flammable paints, etc.), corrosives (hydrochloric acid), flammable gases (LP Gas), and non-flammable non-toxic gases (CO2), and is suitable for this purpose.
ROAD TRAIN or ROADTRAIN - ¹Either a truck hauling two or more trailers, or a prime mover and semi-trailer hauling one or more trailers. (Note: This is not a B-Double, which consists of a prime mover and two semi-trailers.) ²A combination, except a B-double, consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least 2 trailers (counting as a single trailer and a converter dolly supporting a semi-trailer). ³A road train is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia, the United States, and Western Canada to move bulky loads efficiently. The term "road train" is most often used in Australia. In the U.S. and Canada the terms "triples", "Turnpike doubles" and "Rocky Mountain doubles" are commonly used for longer combination vehicles (LCVs). See also, 2AB-Quad, AAB-Quad, ABB-Quad, AB-Triple, BAB-Quad, BA-Triple, BB-Quad, B-Triple, Type 1 Road Train, Type 2 Road Train.
Western Star 2-trailer Road Train Western Star 2-trailer Road Train Livestock Road Train
KW 3-Trailer Road train Mack 3-trailer Road train
Kenworth Road Train Mack Road Train
Road Trains ROCK IT - To free vehicle from mud or snow by alternately driving forward and reverse. ROCKY MOUNTAIN DOUBLE - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling a 45 to 48 foot semi-trailer and a second shorter semi-trailer (usually 28 feet in length). ROH - Rear Overhang. ROLL and REST - When a long haul driver drives and stops at regular intervals to sleep.
ROLL FREQUENCY - The natural frequency at which a vehicle tends to roll from side to side on its suspension. See also, Resonance Roll. ROLLING RADIUS - Tyre dimension from centre of the axle to the ground; measured with tyre loaded to rated capacity. Used in calculating geared speed. ROLL-OFF CONTAINER - Typically an open top container designed for transporting solids in bulk, often used as refuse containers. The vehicles used for transporting roll-off containers have rails or a flatbed with a hydraulic hoist for loading and unloading these large containers. ROLLTOP - Trailer with a sliding roof to permit crane loading. ROOKIE - A new truck driver. He/she is considered to be a rookie until he/she stops acting like one. Sometimes this takes only a year or two, but some drivers never lose this tag. ROPE - Rope designed for use in transport (Transport Fiber Rope) is made from synthetic fiber. Rope made from natural fiber has lower strength than synthetic rope. All transport fiber rope with a diameter of at least 12 mm is color-coded for its lashing capacity. A rope with two black marker yarns has a lashing capacity of 100 kg and a rope with one yellow and one black marker yarn has a lashing capacity of 300 kg. (Note these are the strength of the rope, not the tension achieved when tightening.) Ropes should only be used for restraining relatively lightweight loads. See also ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’. ROPE HOOKS - Attachments fixed to the surrounds of the loading deck for securing of tarpaulin and tie-down ropes. ROPE RAIL or TIE RAIL - Usually made of pipe and fitted under the coaming rail. Used for tying ropes, chains, and tarps to secure loads. ROPE SINGLE HITCH and ROPE DOUBLE HITCH - Ropes are normally tensioned using a single or double ‘truckie’s hitch’. The double hitch gives about twice the tension of a single hitch. Each hitch has a multiplying effect like a ‘block and tackle’. However, most of the applied tension is lost, because of the friction of the rope as it passes over itself in the knot and slowly becomes locked in the knot.
Truckie’s Hitch (single and double hitch) ROUND TIMBER - Felled trees, logs. ROUTE - (a) The course or direction that a shipment moves; (b) To designate the course or direction a shipment shall move; (c) The carrier or carriers by which a shipment moves. RPM (REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE) - ¹Also referred to as revs per minute or revs. ²Measure of the speed at which a shaft spins. Most often used to describe engine crankshaft speed. Indicated by a tachometer. RUB RAIL - A rail along the side of a vehicle that protects the side of the vehicle from impacts. RUNAWAY LANE or RUNAWAY TRUCK RAMP - ¹Emergency bypath next to a steep downgrade that a heavy truck can steer into after losing braking power. Usually one to three lanes wide and several hundred feet long, the lane or ramp is a soft, gravel-filled pathway which helps to absorb the truck's forward momentum, bringing it to a safe stop. Depending on the surrounding terrain, the ramp may be level or run up or down hill. ²A safe emergency lane or ramp at the end of a steep downgrade that you can steer into if you lose brake power.
Runaway lane or ramp
RUNNING - A fairly regular term for driving. RV - In North American English the term recreational vehicle, and its acronym RV, are generally used to refer to an enclosed piece of equipment dually used as both a vehicle and a temporary travel home. They are also called motor home and motor caravan (or motorhome and motorcaravan). RVs are intended for everything from brief leisure activities such as vacations and camping, to full-time living, for which they are often parked in special trailer parks. (However, many trailer parks are reserved just for mobile homes, not to be confused with RVs/motorhomes.) RVs can also be rented in most major cities and tourist areas. Furthermore, they are also used as mobile offices. When used as mobile offices they often include customizations such as extra desk space, an upgraded electrical system, a generator, and satellite Internet. There are different classes of vehicles generally labeled as RVs. One such type is a fifth-wheel trailer, which is designed to be towed by a pickup or medium duty truck equipped with a special hitch called a fifth wheel coupling. Part of the trailer body extends over the truck bed, shortening the total length of vehicle plus trailer combined. Some larger fifth-wheel trailers, usually over 40 feet (12.2 m) in length and 18,000 pounds (8,200 kg) in weight, are pulled by small semi-trucks, such as a small Freightliner. See also, Fifth Wheel Coupling.
A modern fifth-wheel trailer with a single slide-out (type of RV)
- S - SADDLE TANK - ¹The fuel tank on a truck or tractor. ²Fuel storage area on a tractor. SCALE MASTER (CHICKEN COOP, SCALE, WEIGH MASTER, WEIGH STATION) - A scale is a place where the law makes sure you are not over gross weight or over axle weight. It is also called "checking your ground pressure". You can also have your truck inspected, your logbooks checked, and generally be harassed. A scale master is also a law enforcement official who runs the scale. SCALES - Provincial/state scales for determining the weights of trucks and the weight of each of their axles. SCATTERING TRAFFIC - To put on right and left indicators to make a turn. For example, you are turning left at a roundabout and you need to take up two lanes in order to compensate for the length of your trailer in the tightness of the turn: first, you put on your right indicator to take up half of the right hand lane, and then you put on your left indicator to take up half of the left hand lane; thus, you are scattering traffic from both of the lanes into the turn. SCISSORS DUMP - A dump truck with a special hydraulic system. SCISSORS LIFT - A cargo body which is used to lift materials to a higher surface, such as lifting shingles to a roof. SCOTCHES - See Chocks. SEAL - Device that is serially numbered and used to temporarily fasten trailer and truck doors so that unauthorized entry into the unit can be detected. SEAT-COVER - Any female in a passenger seat. SECTION MODULUS - A measure of the strength of frame side rails, determined by the cross-section area and shape of the side rails. Section modulus is not affected by the material from which the side rail is made, only by the shape and position of the rail. SECURED - Means by which cargo is contained or restrained. SECURING DEVICE - Any device specifically manufactured as a means to attach or secure cargo to a vehicle or trailer.
SEMI or SEMI-TRAILER - ¹Common term for an articulated vehicle (prime mover and semi-trailer). See Semi-Trailer. ²(See also Semi-trailer, Tractor-Semi-trailer, Truck) Semi-trailer, used loosely in reference to tractor and semi-trailer unit. SEMI-TRAILER - ¹A semi-trailer has one axle group at the rear and is designed so that the front is supported by the prime mover which is used to tow it. A full trailer has an axle group at both ends and can support itself. ²A trailer (including a pole-type trailer) that has — (a) one axle group or single axle to the rear; and (b) a means of attachment to a prime mover that results in some of the load being imposed on the prime mover. ³Truck trailer supported at the rear by its own wheels and at the front by a fifth wheel mounted to a tractor or dolly. 4Truck-trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon a truck-tractor. A substantial part of the weight of both trailer and load rests on the tractor. 5A trailer without a front axle. 6The front portion of a semi-trailer rests on the back of a tractor. The semi-trailer is coupled to the tractor by the fifth wheel on the tractor and the kingpin on the trailer. A semi-trailer has no front axle and cannot stand without support. Semi-trailers are pulled by tractors only. A trailer whose front half rests on the back of a tractor, coupled to the tractor by a fifth wheel.
Road train with two (2) semi-trailers and one (1) converter dolly SERVICE BRAKE - ¹The main brake system acting on all road wheels and controlled by a foot pedal. ²The brake normally used to decelerate the vehicle. SERVICE ROAD - A frontage road. SETBACK AXLE - Front steering axle moved rearward from the generally accepted standard position. Advantages: Shorter turning radius and more of a vehicle's weight shifted to front axle. SET IT DOWN - To stop quickly.
SHACKLE - ¹A metal coupling link closed by a bolt which can be used for attaching chain fittings. ²A metal coupling link closed by a bolt, which can be used for connecting chains to anchor points. The two principal shapes are "D" and "bow". ³A U-shaped metal coupling link closed by a bolt. SHAG - Small, city trailer. SHAKE THE LIGHTS - Blinking headlights as a warning signal. SHEEP HERDER - Driver with questionable ability. SHIFT - ¹A change in the longitudinal or lateral position or orientation of an article. ²To change gears, as when driving a motor vehicle. SHIFT BUTTON - The button on the side of the shift knob used to change gears. See also, Splitter Shift. SHIFTER - A mechanical device for engaging and disengaging gears (also called a gearshift, a gear lever, a gearstick). SHIFT LEVER - The lever that changes gears in a transmission. SHIPPER - (Pickup) ¹Where you pick up a load. ²The customer location in which a load is picked up from. SHIPPER’S LOAD and COUNT - Indicates that the contents of a truck were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verified by the transportation line. SHIPPER'S ORDER - The document authorizing release of a shipment (See Bill of Lading). SHIPPING ORDER - Instructions to carrier for transportation of a shipment. Usually it is a copy of the bill of lading. Used also as a record by the freight agent at origin. SHIPPING PAPERS - Papers used in connection with movement of freight. SHIPPING WEIGHT - "Dry" weight of a truck including all standard equipment, but excluding fuel and coolant. SHOOKS - Broken down cases (the amounts contained in boxes or other containers). See Cases.
SHORING BAR - ¹Adjustable metal beam used to restrain or segregate sections of load (also known as a Shoring Pole). ²Metal or wooden load-carrying beam or fabricated truss section used to restrain or transmit a load from one frame, column, post, wall or bearing point to another. It may be adjustable and also can be known as a shoring pole. ³A structural section placed transversely between the walls of a vehicle to prevent cargo from tipping or shifting. SHORING POLE - See Shoring Bar. SHORTAGE - When quantity actually received is less than that shown on the waybill. SHORT COMBINATION PRIME MOVER - A prime mover nominated to haul one semi trailer. SHORT COMBINATION TRUCK - A truck nominated to haul one trailer where, according to the nomination: (a) The combination has 6 axles or fewer; and (b) The maximum total mass that is legally allowable for the combination is 42.5 tonnes or less. SHORT TON - 2,000 pounds (also called a net ton). SHORTWOOD - All logs typically up to 4.9 m (16 feet) long. Such logs are often described as cut-up logs, cut-to-length logs, bolts, or pulpwood. Shortwood may be loaded lengthwise or crosswise, though that loaded crosswise is usually no more than 2.6 m (102 inches) long. SHOVELING - Improper loading of freight. SHRINK WRAPPING - See ‘Stretch and Shrink Wrapping’. SHUNT - To maneuver trailers or to do a local shuttle service. SICK HORSE - A tractor in poor mechanical condition, especially with low power. SIDE CURTAINS - A tarpaulin that encloses the side of a load. Usually attached to the gates. Can also be the curtains on the sides of a Tautliner type truck or trailer body. SIDED VEHICLE - A vehicle whose cargo compartment is enclosed on all four sides by walls of sufficient strength to contain cargo, where the walls may include latched openings for loading and unloading, and includes vans and dump bodies, and includes a sided intermodal container carried by a vehicle. SIDE GATES - See Gates.
SIDELIFTER/SIDELOADER - ¹Semi-trailer with hydraulic cranes mounted on tracks at both ends of the trailer allowing for the loading and unloading of different sized shipping containers without the need of a forklift or other container handling equipment. ²A high-lift industrial truck able to work in very narrow aisles and equipped to reach forward to pick up or deposit long, heavy loads (such as steel bars) or pallets. Also, sometimes used in reference to side reach vehicles like the Raymond Swing-Reach®. ³(Side Loader) A refuse truck which is loaded from the side. SINGLE AXLE - ¹An axle not forming part of an axle group. ²An axle (one axle) that is mounted independently of any other axle. SINGLE AXLE GROUP - A group of at least 2 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is under 1m. SINGLE AXLE WEIGHT - The total weight transmitted to the road by all wheels whose centers may be included between two parallel transverse vertical planes 40 inches apart, extending across the full width of the vehicle. The Federal single axle weight limit on the Interstate System is 20,000 pounds. SINGLE-DROP DECK - See Stepdeck. SINGLE DROP PLATFORM - See Single Drop Trailer. SINGLE DROP TRAILER - A type of flatbed trailer. The rear is closer to the ground than the front. Also called a single drop platform. See also, Stepdeck. SINGLE-SOURCE LEASING - Service in which companies can lease drivers and trucks from the same source, rather than having to procure them from different companies. SIX BANGER - Six-cylinder engine. SKELETAL or SKEL TRAILER - A trailer or semi-trailer that has no tray but has attachments fitted to the frame for the carrying of goods (e.g. twist locks for containers, or bolsters for logs or timber). SKID - ¹A platform or tray on which cargo is placed so that it can be handled as an article. (Same as “Pallet”) ²A wooden platform on which heavy articles or packaged goods are placed to permit handling equipment. See also, Pallet. SKID PLATE - A thick steel plate fixed to the underside of the front of a semi-trailer and incorporating the kingpin (and often a block to keep the skid plate from turning on the upper part of greasy plate and ballrace turntables). The front of the plate is usually curved upwards to enable the prime mover to slide more easily under the trailer during coupling.
SKINNIE AXLE - Six axle trailer. SKINS - Tyres. SLEEPER - ¹Sleeping compartment mounted behind a truck cab, sometimes attached to the cab or even designed to be an integral part of it. See Sleeper Box. ²Truck with a sleeping compartment in the cab. ³The area behind the driver's seat and the jump seat, where the bed (bunk), storage, and other stuff is. 4Truck cab with a sleeping compartment. SLEEPER BERTH - A cab with a bunk or sleeping compartment. SLEEPER BOX - A separate sleeping compartment fitted behind but with an opening into the truck cab. Bonnetted longhaul trucks most commonly have sleeper boxes but the trend is for integrated sleepers which cabover trucks have had for years. SLEEPER CAB - ¹A driving cabin that is fitted with one or two bunks. ²A truck tractor or truck cab incorporating a bed or bunk. SLEEPER TEAM - See Team. SLIDER - See Sliding Tandem. SLIDING FIFTH WHEEL - ¹Fifth wheel mounted to a mechanism that allows it to be moved back and forth for the purpose of adjusting the distribution of weight on the tractor's axles. Also provides the capability to vary vehicle combination lengths. ²A fifth wheel assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the truck tractor to obtain desired load distribution between tractor and trailer axles. ³A fifth wheel that can be moved forwards and backwards on the frame rails to put more or less weight on the steering axle. 4A fifth-wheel assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the tractor to adjust the load distribution on the tractor and the overall length of the rig. SLIDING MESH TRANSMISSION - A simple gearbox for engaging power takeoffs (PTOs). SLIDING TANDEM (SLIDER) - ¹Mechanism that allows a tandem axle suspension to be moved back and forth at the rear of a semi-trailer, for the purpose of adjusting the distribution of weight between the axles and fifth wheel. ²A two-axle assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the trailer body to obtain desired load distribution. ³A trailer tandem that has a sliding and locking apparatus for variable weight distribution.
SLING - A length of hemp-core rope, webbing or steel-wire rope with eyes formed at each end. SLIP-SEAT - Relay operation where drivers are changed periodically, but the truck continues from origin to destination. SLIP SEATING - Changing a driver’s truck each time he/she departs on a trip. SLIP-SHEETS - Specially cut pieces of cardboard that go between a stack of goods and the floor. Can be slipped on and off by certain types of forklifts to move loads around without manually handling them or putting them on pallets. SMOKE HIM - Pass another vehicle. SMOKER - Tractor emitting excessive smoke from exhaust. SMOKESTACK - Vertical exhaust pipe on side of cab. SNOTTER - See Strop. SNOW CHICKEN - A driver that hates driving in snow and ice. Usually will either park the truck or drive many miles off normal route to avoid the snow. SNOW SHOOTER - An insulated container that is fitted with port holes so that the contents can be snap frozen using liquid nitrogen. (Used for meat, vegetables, etc). It has no on-board refrigeration equipment. SOLIDS IN BULK - This cargo category is for commodities that are not packaged, and are generally carried loose. SOLO - A single driver in a truck. He/she must stop and rest for eight hours after each ten hour driving shift. SPACE CUSHION - An area around a vehicle which would allow a driver time to avoid an accident. SPACER - Material placed beneath an article or between tiers of articles. SPAR - See Transverse Beam. SPECIALIZED CARRIER - A trucking company franchised to transport articles which, because size, shape, weight, or other inherent characteristics, require special equipment for loading, unloading or transporting.
SPECIAL PURPOSE VEHICLE - A motor vehicle, other than a tow truck or an agricultural vehicle, built for a purpose other than carrying a load, except for water in the case of concrete pumps and fire trucks. SPECIFICATIONS - Descriptions of particulars or details. SPEEDABILITY - Top speed a vehicle can attain as determined by engine power, engine governed speed, gross weight, driveline efficiency, air resistance, grade and load. SPEED LIMITER - An engine management device that limits the top speed of a truck without limiting engine revs or power in the lower gears. SPEED RETARDER - A hydraulic or electric auxiliary brake fitted to the driveline which reduces the load on the service brakes. SPIDER - The cast spoke hub of a wheel upon which the rim is mounted. SPIGOT - The cylindrical end of a fitting which mates with a hole in another component forming a joint (connection, support). SPINDLE HOOK - A type of hook used for pulling a trailer. SPIN OUT - Lose traction on slippery roadway. SPLIT PICKUP or DELIVERY - An accessorial service of picking up or delivering portions of volume shipments at more than one place within origin or destination point boundaries. SPLITTER or SPLITTER BOX - A two speed, close ratio gear set operated by a lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever. A splitter provides a low and high range in each gear thus doubling the number of gears available. (For example, the upshift sequence for a 4-speed transmission with splitter would be: 1-Low - 1-High - 2-Low - 2-High - 3-Low - 3-High - 4-Low - 4-High.) See also, Range Change. SPLITTER BUTTON - See Splitter Shift. SPLITTER SHIFT - When in LO or HI range the ratios can be split by using the splitter button. The LO range "L" rearward/direct position provides for LO to 4th gear. The LO range "H" forward/overdrive position splits each of these gears giving 10 ratios in LO range. The HI range "L" rearward/direct position provides for 5th to 8th gear. The HI range "H" forward/overdrive position splits each of these gears providing 8 ratios in HI range. (18 progressive ratios can be obtained in this example – an 18 speed Roadranger transmission)
SPOKE WHEEL - See Cast Spoke Wheel. SPOT A TRAILER - To back a trailer into a loading or unloading spot or drop the trailer in a customer/company yard. SPOT MIRROR - Another type of mirror trucks use. There is always at least one on each side below the west coast mirror. These mirrors are round in shape, and 4-8 inches in diameter. They are usually convex in shape, and the convexity can vary, depending on where they are mounted. See also, West Coast Mirror. SPOTTER - ¹A terminal yard driver who parks vehicles brought in by regular drivers. It is also a supervisor who watches the activities of the driver on the road. See also, Yardbird. ²The person standing outside the truck to give the driver another set of eyes when the driver is making tight maneuvers or is backing up. SPOT THE BODY - Parking of a semi-trailer or trailer. SPREAD AXLE (SPREAD TANDEM) - ¹Tandem axle assembly spaced further apart than the standard spacing of 54 inches. The U.S. federal bridge formula favors trailer axles with an eight or nine foot spread by allowing higher weight than on tandems with standard spacing. ²A two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated by distances substantially greater than that in conventional assemblies. ³A two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated beyond the spacing of a normal tandem assembly in order to qualify for maximum axle loads allowed by regulations. 4Tandem trailer axle assemblies spaced further apart than the standard spacing. State and federal bridge laws favor trailer axles with a wider spread by allowing higher weight than on tandems with standard spacing. SPREADER - A transverse spar or frame used to support tarpaulins and side gates. SPREADER BAR - Connects sidegates at the top strengthening them and raising the cap tarp in the centre so that water runs off when the load height is lower than that of the gates. SPREADER CHAINS - Used to restrict and adjust the opening of tipper tailgates to allow a regulated flow of the load (e.g. gravel or sand) for spreading. SPREAD TANDEM - ¹A tandem axle group on a trailer having the two axles separated by a distance greater than 2 meters. No longer built in Australia. ²A two-axle assembly with the axles spaced to allow maximum axle loads permitted by existing regulations. Distance between centers of axles of a spread tandem has generally been over 50 inches. See Spread Axle. SPREAD TANDEM AXLE - See ‘Spread Axle (Spread Tandem’).
SPRING BRAKE - A brake which is mechanically applied by a spring and released by air pressure which compresses the spring. Because the brake automatically applies if air pressure is lost, it is ’fail-safe’. Spring brakes are used for parking and emergency braking on air braked vehicles. Also called a Maxi-brake. SQUEALER - Also known as "tattle tale" whose proper name is tachograph. A device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven, number of stops, speed and other factors during a trip. STABILIZED TURNTABLE - A greasy plate or ballrace turntable where its upper plate and the semi-trailer skid plate are prevented from turning by a block on the semi-trailer skid plate. The necessary rotation between semi-trailer and prime mover is made between the upper and lower parts of the turntable. STACK - ¹A single column of articles placed one above another. ²Exhaust pipe on diesel. STACK OF LOGS - Logs aligned parallel and heaped one upon others. STAGE A LOAD - When a shipper brings the freight out of a storage area in a warehouse to locations near a door in preparation for loading a truck. STAKE - ¹An upright metal rod or section (also called a Peg or Pin). ²A member mounted close to vertical on a vehicle frame or as part of a bunk that serves to immobilize cargo placed against it. (Same as “Standard”) STAKE BODY - ¹Truck or trailer platform body with readily removable stakes. The stakes may be joined by chains, slats or panels. ²A flatbed with sides or stakes to retain the load. STAKE POCKET - A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg, and may also be used as an anchor point. STANCHION - A large upright fixed to the side of a vehicle for sideways restraint. STANDARD - A member mounted close to vertical on a vehicle frame or as part of a bunk that serves to immobilize cargo placed against it. (Same as “Stake”) STANDARD RATE - A rate established for direct routes from one point to another. Rates via other routes between the same points are set in relation to the standard rate. STANDARD ROUTE - The carrier or carriers having a direct route between two points.
STATE TRUCKING ASSOCIATION - An independent and autonomous association representing all classes and types of truck operation in a state. American Trucking Associations, Inc. is a federation of these trucking associations. STEERABLE DOLLY - Used in transporting extremely long objects, some can be steered remotely from the cab. STEERING AXLE - ¹An axle through which directional control of the vehicle is applied. A steering axle may be powered on non-powered. A unit may have more than one steering axle. ²The front axle of a tractor. STEER TYRES (STEERS, THE STEERS) - The first or front set of tyres on a tractor. They must be new tyres only, recaps are not allowed. STEM WINDER - Hand-crank starter. STEP BUMPER - A bumper that can also function as a stepping platform either into or out of a cargo body, usually these bumpers are mounted relatively close to the ground. STEPDECK (SINGLE-DROP DECK) - ¹A trailer that has a main deck that is lower than the deck above the fifth wheel, but not as low as that of a double drop. The back of the deck is usually level with the top of the trailer tyres. See also, Stepdeck (Single Drop) Trailer. ²A two level deck trailer with the lower deck usually 1 foot below the upper deck.
STEP VAN - A lightweight delivery truck designed so the driver can step into and out of the cab as well as into the rear cargo area.
STEVEDORE - One who loads or unloads ships. STIFF BAR - A rigid bar with an eye at each end used to couple roadtrains for pushing or pulling when one is bogged. The bar is usually about 8 feet long so it can be carried crossways on the back of the prime mover. STILLAGE - A metal structure for containing individual items of load. STINGER FIFTH WHEEL - Seen most commonly as the connection point for auto-carriers, but are also seen on some logging rigs. The inverted fifth wheel is mounted behind the rear axles, at the very end of the tractor, less than a foot off the ground. STINGER-STEERED COMBINATION - A truck tractor semi-trailer wherein the fifth wheel is located on a drop frame located behind and below the rear-most axle of the power unit. STOCK CRATE - A truck or trailer body built for carrying livestock. Some States allow stock crates to be up to 4.6 meters high while other trailer types are limited to 4.3. Some states also allow ”volume loading” of stock crates where a trailer is built to a certain size and then is not required to weigh in. The size is computed to offer the right weight. This recognizes that it is often impossible to find weighbridges where stock is loaded. STORAGE IN TRANSIT - Temporary safekeeping of a shipment at a point between origin and destination. STOWAGE FREIGHT - Freight stored or packed as in a terminal or on board a truck. STRADDLE TRUCK - A high-lift truck with a wide enough baseleg opening (BLO) to straddle a pallet and engage the load. STRAIGHT TRUCK - ¹A truck with the body and engine mounted on the same chassis, as contrasted to a combination unit such as a tractor-semi-trailer. ²A vehicle with the cargo body and tractor mounted on the same chassis. ³A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis, rather than on a trailer towed by a vehicle. 4When a rigid truck or a truck and trailer are in one piece, and they cannot be unconnected. 5A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis, rather than on a trailer towed by the vehicle. Examples include refuse, tank, and dump trucks. Straight trucks may or may not pull trailers. 6This is a one unit vehicle capable of carrying cargo. Examples include refuse, tank, and dump trucks. Straight trucks may or may not pull trailers. See also, Rigid Motor Vehicle, Truck.
STRAPPING - ¹Strapping can be steel or plastic material and is used for unitizing loads into packs or bundles. Strapping can be highly pre-tensioned using manual or powered tensioners, making it very suitable as a tie-down lashing for heavy objects especially on container flats and pallets. ²A strip of material that may be used to unitize articles and is tensioned and clamped or crimped back upon itself. (Same as “Banding”) STRAPS - See ‘Pads, Straps, and Load Locks (Accessory Equipment)’. STRETCH and SHRINK WRAPPING - Stretch film wrapping and shrink wrapping can be used to unitize a load consisting of many small objects such as palletized loads. They are often not suitable for heavier loads or loads with sharp corners that can penetrate the wrapping. The use of handling equipment can damage the wrapping and reduce its effectiveness. STRIP HER - Unloading the trailer. STROKE - The distance traveled by a piston in a cylinder during ½ revolution of the crankshaft. STROP - A cradle made from flexible material to make it easy to load with a hoist or pulley. Also known as a snotter. STRUT - ¹A rigid support intended to bear loads along its length. ²A rigid member which can support loads in the direction of its length. STUB AXLE - A short axle that carries one of the front wheels and has limited angular movement about a kingpin. STUMP PULLER - A very low gear which is not used under normal circumstances. Also called a Bog Cog or Crawler. SUCKER BRAKES - Vacuum brakes. SUPER SINGLES - A wide profile wheel and tyre used on a steer axle or in place of a dual wheel assembly on trailers. Properly engineered super single installations on trailers allow wider spring centers and wheelbases for greater
stability which is especially important on naturally unstable vehicles like stock crates and tankers. There are also considerable tare weight advantages with super singles, especially when used with aluminium wheels. SURCHARGE - A charge above the usual or customary charge. SURTAX - An additional or extra tax. SUSPENSION SEAT - An air or spring suspended and dampened seat designed to reduce vibration and road shock. SUV – Sport/utility vehicle. SWAMPER - A helper who rides with driver. SWINDLE SHEET - Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) log. SWING GATE - The rear gate on a tipper when it has side hinges and swings open to the side for bulky objects that would hit a top hinged tailgate. Must be swung open and secured along the side before tipping or it will strike the ground. SWING-REACH® TRUCK (CSR - Counterbalanced Swing-Reach®) - A high-lift counterbalanced truck (equipped with a rotatable elevating mechanism) capable of transporting and tiering a load. It is able to traverse the load laterally for storage at right angles to the truck travel path. SWITCHING TRACTOR - See Yard Horse. SYNCHROMESH - A device in a manual transmission that allows two gears to mesh more smoothly. When a synchronizer gear matches the speed of the transmission main shaft to the speed of the gear being selected, they mesh smoothly and prevent grinding and clashing of gears. It was first introduced by Cadillac in 1928. See also, Synchromesh Gearbox, Synchromesh Transmission. SYNCHROMESH GEARBOX - ¹A synchromesh gearbox is the same as a car manual gearbox, you change gears while you have the clutch pushed to the floor. ²This type of gearbox works in much the same manner as those in most modern cars. They are easy to use, as the synchronizing of the gears is done by the gearbox. Be aware that damage can be caused by forcing gear changes before the engine and road speeds are matched. See also, Synchromesh, Synchromesh Transmission. (Compare with ‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) SYNCHROMESH TRANSMISSION - ¹A transmission in which the speeds of the gears are matched or ’synchronized’ by means of in-built synchronizing clutches before they are meshed. Easier to shift but is not as quick as a constant mesh transmission and it is necessary to use the clutch for every shift. (Compare with
‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) ²A transmission with mechanisms for matching up the gear speeds so that they can be shifted without clashing, eliminating the need for double clutching. See also, Synchromesh, Synchromesh Gearbox. SYNCHRONIZED TRANSMISSION - Transmission with built-in mechanisms to automatically "equalize" the speed of its gears to allow smooth shifting without the need to double-clutch. See also, Synchromesh, Synchromesh Transmission. (Compare with ‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) SYNCHRONOUS - The point at which the input gearing speed (engine speed) matches the output gearing speed (road speed) and a shift can occur without grinding. See also, Synchromesh, Synchromesh Transmission. SYSTEM OF VEHICLE CONTROL (SVC) - SVC is a systematic method of approaching all traffic situations taking into account the current road conditions and the correct use of vehicle controls to ensure the safe passage of the vehicle through any hazard. It is: (1) Plan your maneuver, observe the hazard and select the correct course. (2) Check surrounding traffic, look in mirrors and give appropriate signals to inform traffic in front and behind you to your intention to turn or stop. Scan the hazard zone (intersection). (3) Brake to the appropriate speed to negotiate the hazard. (Gears should not be used at this stage to slow the vehicle). (4) Select the appropriate gear to clear the hazard without a further gear change. (For example, you might go from 7th or 6th gear to 5th gear if the hazard is clear or to 2nd, 1st or LO gear if you need to stop). Check mirrors again before entering the hazard zone. (5) Be prepared to avoid any potentially dangerous situation that may have developed. (For example, give way to vehicle, which has right of way). (6) As you move out of the hazard, check your mirrors again to ensure that you are moving off adequately and not obstructing anyone else behind. Delay any power increase until steering is straight. In summary, SVC is: (1) Course; (2) Mirrors/signals; (3) Brakes; (4) Gears/mirrors; (5) Evasive Action; (6) Acceleration. Two other summations are: (a) (1) Get into correct POSITION on road; (2) SIGNAL your intension to turn or stop, and check mirrors; (3) Apply BRAKES and slow down to an appropriate speed; (4) Get into correct GEAR, and check mirrors before entering hazard zone; (5) GIVE WAY to all traffic that has right of way; (6) GO when it is safe to do so, checking mirrors as you go; or (b) (1) Apply BRAKES and slow down to an appropriate speed, and get into correct GEAR; (2) Get into correct POSITION on road and SIGNAL your intension to turn or stop, checking mirrors before entering hazard zone; (3) GIVE WAY to all traffic that has right of way and GO when it is safe to do so, checking mirrors as you go. (This latter scenario is particularly pertinent to trucks as they are bigger and heavier than cars; the SVC was originally devised for car control)
- T - TABLE TOP - Truck with a flat bed or tray body. TACHOGRAPH - ¹A trip recorder incorporating a clock, speedometer and often a rev counter that inscribes a record of a journey on a circular paper graph. The first tachograph was put on the market in Germany in1933 and their use is compulsory on heavy vehicles in Europe. The graph itself has not changed since 1933 but the machine was mechanical and is now electronic. ²A device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven, number of stops, speed, and other factors during a trip. TACHOMETER - ¹An instrument for measuring engine revolutions, a rev counter. ²A device inside the cab of a vehicle to show the engine’s RPM. TACK - Short for tachograph or tachometer. TAG AXLE - ¹The unpowered axle of a tandem axle group in which only the front axle is driven. ²A non-drive rear axle on a truck or tractor. (See Axle) TAG/TAGALONG TRAILERS - Usually single axle equipment like generators, cement mixers, or wood chippers. TAILBOARD ARTIST - One who thinks he is a perfect driver. TAILGATE - ¹The opening back of tipper trucks and trailers. Can be pivoted at the top so it opens at the bottom, or be hinged at the side for tipping bulky loads such as scrap metal or large rocks. Some tailgates can be adjusted for top and side pivoting. ²Back door of truck which hinges at the top or bottom. ³See also, Tailgating. TAILGATING - ¹Following the vehicle in front of you too closely. This is very dangerous. ²Driving too closely behind the vehicle ahead. TAILSHAFT - A shaft which transmits the drive from the transmission to the rear axle. (Also known as a Driveshaft or Propeller Shaft.) TANDEM - ¹An assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered. ²Semi-trailer or tractor with two rear axles. TANDEM AXLE - ¹(Tandems) Pair of axles and associated suspension usually located close together. (See Spread Axle) ²An assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered. ³A two-axle assembly having a means of distributing or transferring weight between the two axles. 4Two axles operated from a single suspension. 5Refers to a pair of axles at the rear of the power unit (tractor or
straight truck) or trailer. For power units, if described as a tandem, usually indicates the number of drive axles on the power unit. TANDEM AXLE GROUP - ¹A combination of two axles which are related to each other through a loadsharing system, with centers of axles not less than 1.0 meter apart and not more than 2.0 meters apart. ²A group of at least 2 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is at least 1m, but not over 2m. TANDEM AXLE WEIGHT - The total weight transmitted to the road by two or more consecutive axles whose centers may be included between parallel transverse vertical planes space more than 40 inches and not more than 96 inches apart, extending across the full width of the vehicle. The Federal tandem axle weight limit on the Interstate System is 34,000 pounds. TANDEM DRIVE - See Bogie Drive. TANDEMS - A group of two axles arranged one behind the other. See Tandem Axle. TANK BODY - Fully enclosed truck or tractor body designed to transport commodities, in bulk. TANK CONTAINER - A flat rack fitted with framework enclosing a tank used for the transport of liquid goods which usually has standard container locks. TANK-DRY BULK - See Tanker-dry Bulk. TANKER - ¹Used for hauling liquids like gasoline, milk, etc. ²A semi-trailer designed to transport liquids. ³Truck, semi-trailer, or trailer with a tank body for hauling liquids. 4An enclosed cargo body designed solely for the transportation of fluid or gaseous commodities in bulk. Not to be confused with trailers which are designed for carrying dry bulk products. TANKER-DRY BULK - Sometimes called air-can trailers. Used exclusively for hauling dry bulk material. Cargo is emptied pneumatically. TANK-LIQUID/GAS - A cargo body style characterized by tankers which can carry only liquids or gases in bulk. TANK TRAILER - Fully enclosed truck trailer designed solely for the transportation of commodities in bulk. TANK TRUCK - A tank truck (United States usage) or tanker lorry (United Kingdom usage) is a motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, dry bulk cargo or gases on roads. The largest such vehicles are similar to railroad tank
cars which are also designed to carry liquefied loads. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of liquids that can be transported. Tank trucks tend to be large; they may be insulated or non-insulated; pressurized or non-pressurized; and designed for single or multiple loads (often by means of internal divisions in their tank). Some are semi-trailer trucks. TANK TRUCK CARRIER - Any for-hire carrier holding itself out to serve the general public and authorized to carry petroleum, chemical, liquid or dry commodities in bulk by means of specialized tank truck units. TARE MASS - The mass of a vehicle without its load (i.e. when unloaded, without fuel, etc.) See also, Chassis Weight, Tare Weight. TARE WEIGHT - ¹(a) The weight of a container and the material used for packing; (b) As applied to a loaded truck, the weight of the truck exclusive of its contents. ²The weight of the empty truck or trailer, without its occupants or load. Also known as chassis weight. ³The curb weight plus the weight of the mounted body. Tare weight is also known as actual weight. 4The weight of a container and/or packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains. See also, Chassis Weight, Net, Tare Mass. TARIFF - A published schedule showing the rates, fares, charges, classification, rules, regulations, etc., applying to transportation and incidental services. TARP or TARPAULIN - ¹A covering, traditionally made of canvas, that protects loads from rain and dust. Commonly used with flat tops and trays but losing out to enclosed bodies because it takes too long and it’s too much work with most loads. ²A waterproof sheet used to cover cargo. ³A water resistant fabric cover used to protect the cargo on an open trailer. 4Tarpaulin cover for open top trailers. TARPING SHIPMENTS (ON OPEN-DECK TRAILERS) - Shipments transported on open-deck trailers that are covered with a tarp to limit exposure to weather such as rain. See also, ‘Tarp or Tarpaulin’. TATTLE TALE - (See also, Squealer) Tachograph. TAUTLINER - The first and still most common type of curtain sider in Australia. See Curtain Sider. TEAM (DRIVER TEAM, TEAM OF DRIVERS) - ¹Team of two drivers who alternative driving and resting. ²When two drivers alternate turns driving so that the shipment arrives much faster. ³Two drivers in one truck. One drives while the other sleeps. TELESCOPIC HOIST - A hydraulic hoist fitted to tippers.
TELMAR BRAKE - See Electric Retarder and Speed Retarder. TENSIONER - A device used to tighten a lashing (Winch, Dog, Hand Ratchet, etc). See also, In-line Tensioner, Rope, Truck Winch. TERMINAL - ¹A facility including building structures, and equipment for the storage transfer, handling, delivery and reception of vehicles and materials. ²A trucking company’s yard, where trucks and trailers can be serviced and parked. ³Any location where freight either originates, terminates, or is handled in the transportation process; or commercial motor carriers maintain operating facilities. TEU (TWENTY FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT) - Standardized unit for measuring container capacity on ships, railcars, etc. THIMBLE - A metal liner usually pear-shaped and concave on the outside. It is fitted into the eye of a rope to prevent chafing and to distribute the load. THIRD DIFFERENTIAL - See Inter-axle Differential. THIRD STRUCTURE TAX - ¹Registration fees and gasoline taxes are called the first two structures of highway user taxation. Any other type of tax is called a third structure tax. ²Any tax on road users other than registration fees or fuel taxes. THROTTLE (HAMMER, THE HAMMER) - ¹Another name for the accelerator pedal. Calling it the "gas pedal" isn't technically correct, because pressing the pedal directly increases the flow of air, not gasoline. Engines don't run on liquid gasoline, but rather, on a mixture of air and gasoline vapor. When you push the pedal, airflow increases, which also increases the amount of gasoline introduced into the system. ²What 4-wheelers call the "gas pedal". Trucks don't use gas. Phrases like, "Put the hammer down.", "Put the pedal to the metal.", "Hammer it!”, "Both feet on the floor.", "Gouge on it!” mean to give the engine full throttle. THROUGH RATE - A rate applicable for transportation all the way from point of origin to destination. A through rate may be either a joint rate or a combination of two or more rates. TIE-DOWN - ¹Tie-down is when the load is prevented from moving by friction only. Tie-down restraint is the most common form of load restraint and involves the use of lashings. The load is prevented from moving by friction between the load and the vehicle. The friction force prevents the load moving forward, rearward and sideways. The lashings are tensioned to clamp the load to the vehicle and to prevent the load from moving upwards. The friction force comes from both the weight of the load and the clamping force of the lashings. When the surfaces are slippery, the friction forces can be very low. Lashings that clamp the load onto the vehicle are called ‘tie-down lashings’.
Load restrained using tie-down lashings
Friction cannot be taken into account unless the tensioned lashings provide adequate clamping of the load on the deck. Unrestrained loads, even on high friction surfaces, can bounce when travelling over uneven road surfaces and then shift during changes in speed, direction or slope. ²A combination of securing devices which form an assembly that attaches cargo to, or restrains cargo on, a vehicle or trailer, and is attached to anchor point(s). Compare with Direct Restraint. See also, ‘Combined Tie-down and Direct Restraint’. (Tie-down is sometimes called indirect restraint) TIE-DOWN ASSEMBLY - (Same as “Tie-down”) TIE-DOWN FITTINGS - An anchor point designed to fasten or restrain a load. TIE-DOWN LASHINGS - See Tie-Down. TIED UP - When roadway is obstructed. TIER - One layer of articles that are stacked one upon another. TIE RAIL - A round rail which skirts the perimeter of the loading deck below the coaming rail. See Rope Rail. TILT - A cab which tilts up for maintenance. It does not mean the vehicle is necessarily COE. The engine cowls of some conventional power units tilt although the entire cab does not. TILT BODY - A flatbed for hauling equipment. Sometimes specialized dumps are called this. TILT CAB - ¹The cab on a cabover or forward control truck which is hinged so it can be tilted forward for access to the engine and transmission. ²A cab-over-engine truck or truck tractor cab designed to provide ready access to the engine.
³Vehicle designed with engine beneath cab and having provision for tilting the cab forward on a pivot near the front bumper to provide easy access to the engine. TILT TRAILER - This trailer is used for the loading and unloading of freight, fork lifts, containers or for rigging to ground level. The Tilt Trailer is also equipped with a 10-ton winch that can assist with loading or unloading. A Tilt Trailer can be used to deliver all terrain lifts, construction equipment, and other vehicles from point A to point B without the need for a crane to load or unload.
TIP - An article falls over. Tipping or shifting can be prevented by bracing the cargo. See also, Contained. TIPPER - ¹A truck or trailer which can discharge its load by tilting the cargo body. Also known as a tip-truck or tip-trailer. The Americans call it a dump truck. ²Rear/side tipper - specialized dump rig, usually. A roll-off tipper is a roll-off container carrying setup. TIRE - An American term for tyre. TL - (Truckload) The quantity of freight required to fill a trailer; usually more than 10,000 pounds. (See LTL) TL CARRIER - Trucking company which dedicates trailers to a single shipper's cargo, as opposed to an LTL (Less Than Truckload) carrier which transports the consolidated cargo of several shippers and makes multiple deliveries. (See LTL Carrier) TOFC (TRAILER ON FLATCAR) - [Trailer on (rail) flatcar] Method of moving cargo which involves transporting semi-trailers on railroad flat cars. (See Piggyback) TOLERANCE - Permissible variation. For example, some states allow a tolerance in their maximum truck weight limits. TOLL - A charge made for the use of a facility, such as a bridge or turnpike. TON-MILE - A unit of measure of transportation. The movement of one ton of freight one mile.
TON MILES TAX - A tax calculated by measuring the weight of each truck for each trip. The gross weight is assigned a tax rate which is multiplied by the miles of travel. TOOLING DOWN THE HIGHWAY - Driving vehicle along at normal speed. TORQUE - ¹The turning force or turning effort of a shaft. Engine torque is the turning force available at the crankshaft. ²The amount of twisting effort exerted at the crankshaft by an engine. The unit of measure is a pound-foot which represents a force of one pound acting at right angles at the end of an arm one foot long. 1) Gross torque: the maximum torque developed by an engine without allowing for the power absorbed by accessory units; 2) Net torque: the torque available at the flywheel after the power required by engine accessories has been provided. TOTER - A power unit designed to transport mobile homes.
TOW COUPLING OVERHANG - The horizontal distance from the centre of the axle group at the rear of the towing vehicle to the centre-line of the towing pivot. TOW DOLLY - See Dolly. TOWNIE - A "normal" person with a regular job is a townie. Someone who goes home every night. TOWNIE-JOB - A truck driver that gets a driving job that lets him go home every day. When he's off, he can go home. TOW TRUCK - A truck for towing damaged vehicles or vehicles that cannot run under their own power. TRACE - To check the movement of a shipment. TRACK - A set of plates on a tractor wheel that provide mobility for a tracked vehicle.
TRACTOR - (Truck Tractor) ¹American term for prime mover. ²A truck designed primarily to pull a semi-trailer by means of a fifth wheel mounted over the rear axle(s). Sometimes called a truck tractor or highway tractor to differentiate it from a farm tractor. ³A cab, the engine-powered vehicle used to pull a trailer. 4The non-cargo carrying power unit that operates in combination with a semi-trailer or trailer, except that a truck tractor and semi-trailer engaged in the transportation of automobiles may transport motor vehicles on part of the power unit. 5A vehicle designed for pulling loads greater than the weight actually applied to the vehicle. The trailer on which the load is carried is connected to the tractor via the fifth wheel. 6This is the truck only, without a trailer attached. It may be used to describe something on the truck, but not on the trailer. 7A tractor is a vehicle designed to pull semi-trailers and generally has no cargo capacity. It is used for pulling semi-trailers only. Unlike the straight truck which has a cargo body mounted to the truck frame, the tractor has a circular fifth wheel plate for coupling to a semi-trailer. This category includes gooseneck hitch tractors, even though they lack fifth wheels. This category includes auto carrier tractors with racks for carrying automobiles. This category also includes mobile home haulers described as tractors. (That is, with fifth wheels and/or ball hitches and lacking cargo bodies.) Tractors can carry motor vehicles in a saddlemount or piggyback fashion. TRACTOR-POLE TRAILER - A vehicle that carries logs lengthwise so that they form the body of the vehicle. The logs are supported by a bunk located on the rear of the tractor and another bunk on the skeletal trailer. The bunks may rotate about a vertical axis, and the trailer may have a fixed, scoping, or cabled reach, or other mechanical freedom, to allow it to turn. TRACTOR PROTECTION VALVE - A valve which automatically closes off the air supply to the trailer brakes when pressure drops to an unsafe level (e.g. when a trailer brake hose bursts or becomes disconnected). This ensures that the tractor (prime mover) brakes remain operational but also means that the trailer spring brakes (if so equipped) will come on due to lack of air. TRACTOR-SEMI-TRAILER - A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and a semi-trailer. TRACTOR TRAILER - A tractor and semi-trailer combination. TRAILER - ¹An unpowered vehicle built to be towed behind a motor vehicle. ²A vehicle without its own motive power that is built to be towed, or is towed, by a motor vehicle, but does not include a motor vehicle that is being towed. ³That part of the vehicle used to haul goods and hooked up to an engine-powered tractor. 4A vehicle designed without motive power, to be drawn by another vehicle. 5A motor vehicle with or without motive power, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by another motor vehicle.
TRAILER BLOCK - A block fitted behind the pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which ensures rotation occurs in the greasy plate and ball race turntable and not between prime mover and semi-trailer. The block must not be used with fixed turntables or they will break it off on the first turn. TRAILER BRAKE - See Trolley Brake, Trolley-valve. TRAILER COUPLING - The device which attaches a trailer to a towing vehicle. There are many different types. See automatic tow coupling, Bartlett hitch, Ringfeder and pintle hook. TRAILER DROPPING - See Dropping Trailers (For Loading or Unloading). TRAILER DRAWBAR - See Drawbar. TRAILER HITCH - See Trailer Coupling. TRAILER POOL - See Drop and Hook. TRAILER TYRES (TRAILERS) - The tyres on the trailer. They can be new or recap tyres. TRAILING AXLE - A rear axle. TRANSFER BOX - A secondary gearbox driven off the main gearbox and having one output shaft to the front to drive the front axle and one to the rear to drive the rear axle(s). It often has a low range for better off-road power and gradeability. TRANSFER DUMP - A common configuration in California; typified by a straight dump truck pulling a full dump trailer without hydraulics. The dump box of the trailer slides (transfers) into the empty dump bed of the power unit utilizing the hydraulics of the power unit to unload. TRANSMISSION - North American term for gearbox. TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER - A radiator used to cool transmission oil on many heavy duty vehicles. TRANSPONDER - A piece of equipment which, when set upon a specific radio frequency, emits a directional signal of its own and enables the receiver to track or monitor the truck's location. TRANSVERSE - (Same as “Lateral”) TRANSVERSE BEAM (SPAR) - A beam aligned across the minor span of an area rather than lengthways along the major span.
TREAD - Distance between the centers of tyres at the points where they contact the road surface. Duals are measured from the center of dual wheels. TRESTLE - See Cradle. TRI-AXLE - ¹Truck, tractor or trailer with three axles grouped together at the rear. (Also referred to as a tridem) ²Three axle tractor or trailer. ³Normally implies four total axles if used to refer to a straight truck. TRI-AXLE GROUP - ¹A group of 3 loadsharing axles with centers of the front and rear axles not less than 2.0 meters apart and not more than 3.2 meters apart. ²A group of at least 3 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is over 2m, but not over 3.2m. TRIDEM - Group of three axles on a truck, tractor or trailer. Tridems are most common on European semi-trailers. TRIP - A load from the start to the finish. TRIP LEASE - A one-trip-only lease. TRIP LEASING - Leasing a company's vehicle to another transportation provider for a single trip. TRIPLE BOTTOM - A combination of a prime mover, semi-trailer and two trailers. A three trailer roadtrain. Also called triples. TRIPLES - ¹A three trailer roadtrain. A road train or roadtrain is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia, the United States, and Western Canada to move bulky loads efficiently. The term "road train" is most often used in Australia. In the U.S. and Canada the terms "triples," "Turnpike doubles" and "Rocky Mountain doubles" are commonly used for longer combination vehicles (LCVs). A road train consists of a relatively conventional tractor unit, but instead of pulling one trailer or semi-trailer, the road train pulls two or more of them. See also, Triple Bottom. ²Triples (Trips, Set of trips) Typically a two axle (one drive axle) tractor with three 27 foot trailers. Each trailer usually has one axle. TRIPLE TRUCK - A truck-tractor which pulls 3 trailers. TRIP RECORDER (ON-BOARD COMPUTER) - Cab-mounted device which electronically or mechanically records data such as truck speed, engine rpm, idle time and other information useful to trucking management. TROLLEY BRAKE - A hand valve used to operate the trailer brakes independently of tractor brakes.
TROLLEY-VALVE (JOHNSON-STICK, JOHNSON-VALVE, TRAILER BRAKE) - A valve with a handle that is mounted to the steering column (or on the dashboard) that can be used to engage the trailer brakes by themselves. TRUCK - ¹A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis, rather than on a trailer towed by the vehicle. ²A motor vehicle designed to carry an entire load. It may consist of a chassis and body; a chassis, cab and body; or it may be of integral construction so that the body and chassis form a single unit. See also, Rigid Motor Vehicle, Straight Truck. ³A rigid motor vehicle that is principally constructed as a load carrying vehicle. Truck (type 1) means a truck that has: (a) 2 axles and an MRC not exceeding 12 tonnes; or (b) 3 axles and an MRC not exceeding 16.5 tonnes; or (c) 4 or more axles and an MRC not exceeding 20 tonnes. Truck (type 2) means a truck that has: (a) 2 axles and an MRC exceeding 12 tonnes; or (b) 3 axles and an MRC exceeding 16.5 tonnes; or (c) 4 or more axles and an MRC exceeding 20 tonnes. TRUCKER’S HITCH - See ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’. TRUCK GROSS - What amount the truck earns, after the company gets their cut of the gross. TRUCKIE’S HITCH - See ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’. TRUCK JOCKEY - Truck driver. TRUCKLOAD - ¹(a) Quantity of freight that will fill a truck; (b) Quantity of freight weighing the maximum legal amount for a particular type of truck; (c) When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. ²Quantity of freight required to fill a truck. When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. Usually in excess of 10,000 pounds. TRUCK MILE EARNINGS - Determined by dividing the gross freight revenue by total miles traveled. TRUCK STOP - A commercial facility that provides fuel, parking, and often food and other services to long-haul trucks. Truck stops are usually located on or near a busy road and consist (at the very least) of a diesel grade fueling station with bays wide and tall enough for modern tractor/trailer rigs, plus a large enough parking area to accommodate from five to over a hundred trucks and other heavy vehicles. TRUCK TRACTOR - A motor vehicle designed primarily for drawing truck trailers and semi-trailers. Constructed to carry part of the weight and load of a semi-trailer. See also, Prime Mover, Tractor.
TRUCK-TRACTOR SEMI-TRAILER-SEMI-TRAILER - The two trailing units are connected with a "B-train" assembly. The B-train assembly is a rigid frame extension attached to the rear frame of a first semi-trailer which allows for a fifth wheel connection point for the second semi-trailer. This combination has one less articulation point than the conventional "A dolly" connected truck-tractor semi-trailer-semi-trailer combination. TRUCK-TRAILER BOAT TRANSPORTER - A boat transporter combination consisting of a straight truck towing a trailer using typically a ball and socket connection. The trailer axle(s) is located substantially at the trailer center of gravity (rather than the rear of the trailer) but so as to maintain a downward force on the trailer tongue. TRUCK WINCH - ¹A device used for tensioning a lashing which is normally placed under the coaming rail and may be fixed in position using the tie-rail or slide on a track (also see Winch). ² Webbing straps are tensioned using either attached clip-on, sliding winches or in-line tensioners. Geared winches are also available. The attached ‘truck winches’ clip onto the tie-rails or slide into special tracks under the coaming rails.
TUBE TRAILER - A semi-trailer used to transport cryogenic gases. TUG - Slang term for prime mover, especially one used for local work or as a yard shunter. TUG TEST - See Fifth Wheel Coupling.
TURBOCHARGER or TURBO - A device in which a turbine wheel driven at 60,000 to 90,000 rpm by the exhaust gases drives an impeller to pump air into the cylinders under pressure thus increasing engine power and efficiency. TURN AROUND - ¹Truck run in which the driver returns to the origin point immediately after his vehicle is unloaded and re-loaded. ²A truck that leaves from and returns to the same terminal. TURNBUCKLE - ¹A device used to tension a rod or wire linkage or chains used in securing loads on trucks or trailers. Not as common as dogs for securing loads because turnbuckles take longer. ²A tensioner consisting of a threaded sleeve and two mating threaded ends. ³A type of coupling fitted between the ends of a lashing or between two lashings. Used primarily for adjusting or regulating the tension in lashings. It consists of a loop or sleeve with a screw thread on one end and a swivel at the other. Alternatively it has an internal screw thread at each end. 4Turnbuckles are screw tensioners operated by either a ratchet or sliding lever.
Turnbuckles have no kickback when released. Unlike dogs, very high tensions can always be achieved, even on short chains and without using handle extensions. If a turnbuckle does not rotate freely, it will cause the chain to twist and prevent it fully tightening. Compare with Over-centre Tensioners. TURNPIKE - A trailer combination utilizing a converter to connect and haul two 53 foot trailers with a single tractor. TURNPIKE DOUBLE - ¹A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and two trailers of at least 40' in length. ²A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor and two trailers of 45 to 48 feet. ³A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling two 48 to 53 foot semi-trailers.
TURNTABLE - ¹A device for coupling a prime mover to a semi-trailer. The three basic types are greasy plate, ball race and fixed. The top of the greasy plate and ball race types move with the trailer and are located by the kingpin and the trailer block. A fixed turntable requires the trailer skid plate to slide around the kingpin while resting on top of the turntable. ²A bearing built to carry vertical and horizontal loads, but does not allow quick separation of its upper and lower rotating elements, and that is used to connect and allow articulation between — (a) a prime mover and semi-trailer; (b) the steering axle or axle group of a dog trailer and the body of the trailer; or (c) a fifth wheel coupling and the vehicle to which it is mounted. ³A circular platform mounted under the front of a full trailer or a jeep dolly to which an axle or axles are attached, allowing the axles to pivot in a turning maneuver.
Turntable/Fifth Wheel TURNTABLE JAWS - The parts of the turntable that lock around the kingpin of the semi-trailer. TURRET - See Hoist Box. TWINS - (Twin Trailers) See Doubles. TWIN SCREW - A truck or tractor with two rear axles, both driven by the engine. TWIN-STEER AXLE GROUP - ¹A combination of two single tyred axles fitted to the front of a truck or prime mover and connected to the same steering mechanism, with centers of axles not less than 1.0 meter apart and not more than 2.0 meters apart. (The wheels of both axles turn when the steering wheel is turned.) ²A group of 2 axles — (a) with single tyres; (b) fitted to a motor vehicle and connected to the same steering mechanism; and (c) the horizontal distance between the centers of which is at least 1m, but not over 2m.
Twinsteer axle group
TWIN TRAILER - A short semi-trailer (under 29') designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length. See also, Doubles. TWIST LOCK - ¹A locking device with a rotating head which normally engages a corner casting on the load. ²A device welded to the frame of a rigid truck or a trailer and used to secure a freight container to the vehicle. One twist lock is used on each comer of the container. ³A locking device designed to fasten containers to the vehicle on which they are being transported. 4A device designed to support and fasten one corner of an intermodal container to a container chassis vehicle. TWO-SPEED AXLE - ¹A dual ratio drive axle in which high or low ratios can be engaged by a switch on the gear lever, thus doubling the total gear ratios available. ²A rear axle with two ratios and a mechanism for selecting one or the other ratio, usually available with a standard type transmission. A double reduction axle which does not have a mechanism for selecting ratios is not a 2-speed axle. TYPE 1 ROAD TRAIN - A road train that is not longer than 36.5m. Examples could include: (a) A rigid truck towing one trailer (total length exceeding 19m); (b) A prime mover towing two semi-trailers connected by a drawbar; (c) A B-triple, i.e. a prime mover towing 3 semi-trailers connected by turntable couplings; (d) An AB-triple, i.e. a prime mover towing a single semitrailer and a set of B-double trailers, connected by a converter dolly. (A longer AB-triple [as described above] or a rigid truck towing two semi-trailers connected by a drawbar, and both combinations having a maximum length of more than 36.5 meters, would both be classed as Type 2 road trains)
A typical conventional Type 1 Road Train TYPE 2 ROAD TRAIN - A Type 2 road train is a multi combination vehicle (other than a B-double) consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least 2 trailers. Maximum combination length is 53.5 meters. AAB Quad, BAB Quad and ABB Quad road trains are innovative and better performing road train vehicles using B-double trailers as part of the combination. A and B refer to the connections between the trailers in the combination – with an A connection being a drawbar and a B connection being a turntable.
A typical conventional Type 2 Road Train
TYRE - An Australian/British term for tire. TYRE-THUMPER - Anything used to thump the tyres, be it a hammer, a club, a short stick, or the sawn-off handle of a baseball bat. TYRE-THUMPING - You cannot tell if the drives or trailers are flat by looking at them. Since they're duals, one could have air and the other be flat. By hitting the tyres with a thumper, you can feel/hear if one is low or flat. Most drivers will notice if a tyre is 15lbs low or so. We do an air-pressure check (with a tyre gauge) weekly, but you thump the tyres whenever you stop.
- U - UFC - Uniform Freight Classification. ULEV - Ultra-low emissions vehicle. UNCLAIMED FREIGHT - Freight which has not been called for by the consignee or owner, or freight that cannot be delivered. UNDERBODY HOIST - A hoist used on tip-trucks or tip-trailers with the hydraulic ram mounted below the body and between the chassis rails. UNDERCHARGE - To charge less than the proper amount. UNDERRIDE - Occurs primarily in rear-end collisions when the striking vehicle is wedges under the rear of the vehicle being struck. UNDERRIDE GUARD - A rear impact guard installed at the rear or under the rear of the cargo body of a truck or trailer so that when the vehicle is struck from the rear, it can limit the distance that the striking vehicle's front end slides under the rear of the truck or trailer. Most semi-trailers have what are known as ICC bumpers, but a hydraulic liftgate at the rear of a box van can act as an underride guard. See ICC Bumper. UNIT - Tractor and trailer. UNITIZED LOAD - ¹A unitized load is a number of separate items bound together to form a single item of load. ²A number of articles grouped together with sufficient structural integrity that they can be handled, transported and secured as a single article. UNIT LOAD - Packages loaded on a pallet, in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit. UNIVERSAL JOINTS and SPLINES - Devices fitted to tail and jack shafts to allow for suspension movement, vehicle flexing and variations in alignment. UNLADEN MASS - The mass of the motor vehicle without any load, but including all tools, fixed cranes, oil and fuel in the tanks. The unladen mass of an articulated vehicle is the unladen mass of the prime mover only. UNLATCH - Release lock on fifth wheel to drop trailer.
UNLOADED MASS - The mass of the vehicle in running order, equipped with all standard equipment and with all fuel and other fluid reservoirs filled to nominal capacity, but unoccupied and without any other load. UPPER COUPLER - Load bearing surface on the underside of the front of a semi-trailer. It rests on the fifth wheel of a tractor or dolly and has a downward-protruding kingpin which is captured by the locking jaws of the fifth wheel. UTILITY TRAILER - Normally refers to light duty trailers, esp. flatbeds. Utility is also the name of a trailer manufacturer.
- V - VACUUM ASSIST POWER BRAKES - Standard type hydraulic brakes with a pressure assist cylinder having a vacuum chamber which when atmospheric pressure is allowed to one side of the piston or diaphragm, drives a plunger in the hydraulic system thereby increasing the effect of pedal pressure. VACUUM BRAKES - Vacuum-operated or vacuum-assisted brakes. VACUUM SERVO BRAKE - A braking system in which the engine vacuum provides power assistance, reducing driver effort in applying the brakes. VALUATION, ACTUAL - Actual value of goods required to be shown on bill of lading by shipper, when rate to be applied is dependent on that fact. VAN - ¹(Dry Van) A standard trailer or truck with all sides enclosed. ²A box-shaped trailer or semi-trailer used to carry goods. There is a differentiation between a dry van, which is used to carry most goods, and a refrigerated van (a reefer), which is used for cold goods. A railway car used to carry baggage is also called a van. ³Any of a number of types of trailers that have walls and a roof. A “dry box” is a standard van. See also, Dry Van, Reefer. 4A cargo body style with a totally enclosed cargo area. Included are beverage vans, or bay vans, and sealed shipping containers mounted on a special bodiless chassis. VANNING - A term for stowing cargo in a container. VAN TRAILER - See Box. VBR (VIOLATION OF THE BASIC RULE, SPEEDING) - A speeding ticket. VEHICLE - ¹A truck, truck tractor, trailer, or semi-trailer individually or in combination. ²A motor vehicle, trailer or combination, including — (a) the equipment fitted to, or forming part of, the vehicle; and (b) any substances that the vehicle is carrying that are essential for its operation. VEHICLE EXAMINER - A person authorized to examine and test motor vehicles. VIA - By way of. VIN (VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER) - Assigned by the manufacturer, this number is unique to each vehicle and appears on the vehicle's registration and title. VMRS (VEHICLE MAINTENANCE REPORTING STANDARDS) - Set of codes developed to facilitate computerized tracking of parts and labor used in
equipment repair. Established and maintained by the American Trucking Associations. VOID FILLER - Material used to fill a void between articles of cargo and the structure of the vehicle that has sufficient strength to prevent movement of the articles of cargo. VOITH BRAKE - See Hydraulic Retarder. VOLUME LOADER - A vehicle which is designed and registered to be loaded by volume rather than by mass. Load space limitation prevents overloading when loaded with the specified cargo (e.g. a Stock Truck). VOLUME RATE - A low rate offered to shippers who agree to ship a large quantity of freight.
- W - WAGON - Trailer. WALKING BEAM SUSPENSION - Type of truck and tractor rear suspension consisting of two beams, one at each side of the chassis, which pivot in the centre and connect at the front to one axle of a tandem and at the rear to the other axle. WALKING FLOOR - Also known as a "live bottom", a type of dump trailer with a conveyor belt or chain running down the center of the floor of the trailer to unload the cargo. WAREHOUSE - A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage of goods/cargo. WAREHOUSE RECEIPT - A receipt for goods placed in a warehouse (may be issued as a negotiable or non-negotiable document). WARNING LIGHT - A flashing red light that is a cautionary sign of danger. WARNING SIGN - A type of traffic sign that indicates a hazard ahead on the road. WATER-LEVEL - As in "make the trailer water-level". This means to distribute the weight evenly from the front to the back. WAXING - Wax is part of all diesel fuels but can block filters or even fuel lines in cold conditions. Australian refiners have winter blends with low wax levels to minimize the problem. WAY BILL - ¹Description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment. ²A list of goods sent by a common carrier with shipping directions. WEBBING - A strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibers often used in place of rope. Webbing assemblies comprise webbing, end fittings and tensioners. Tensioners can be either attached to the vehicle (truck winch) or ‘in-line’ (hand ratchet). The standard webbing sizes include 25, 35, 50, 75 and 100 mm widths. The lashing capacity (LC) is displayed on each assembly that complies with the relevant Australian Standard. The 50 mm size is the most common one for road transport and has a minimum lashing capacity of 2000 kg. Webbing assemblies that do not comply with the Australian Standard can have much lower ratings. If using these assemblies, be sure to find out their rating.
WEDGE - A piece of wood or metal, thick at one end and tapering to a thin edge at the other (also see Chocks). WEIGHT - Weight is the force exerted by gravity on a mass. (1 kilogram force is the weight of a mass of 1 kilogram.) WEIGHT-DISTANCE TAX - A tax basing the fee per mile on the registered gross weight of the vehicle. Total tax liability is calculated by multiplying this rate times miles traveled. WEIGHT SHEETS - List furnished by shippers to weighing bureaus itemizing articles in each consignment. WELL - The depression formed between two cylindrical articles when they are laid with their eyes horizontal and parallel against each other. WEST COAST MIRROR - Every truck has two of these. You might think of them as "side view mirrors". Trucks generally have more than one mirror on each side. A west coast mirror is rectangular in size, about 14 inches high and about 7 inches wide. WET GOODS - Liquids. WET TANK - The tank which receives air direct from the compressor. Most condensation occurs there and the wet tank should be drained as often as possible to protect the air system. WHAT’S YOUR 20? - (See 10-20) WHEELBASE - ¹The distance from the centre of the vehicle’s foremost axle to the rear overhang line. ²The distance from the center of the front wheel to that of the rear wheel in a motor vehicle, usually expressed in inches. ³The horizontal distance between the centerlines of the wheels of multi-axle vehicles or trailers along the length of the vehicle. 4A measurement in inches from the center of the front axle to the center between the two rear axles. 5For a straight truck or a truck tractor, the distance from center of front axle to center of rear axle, for a two axle vehicle, or front axle center to the midpoint between the rear tandem axle centers for a three axle vehicle. For a truck tractor and semi-trailer combination, wheelbase refers to from the center of the front tractor axle to the center of the rearmost trailer axle. WIDE SPREAD - Trailer axles which are more than 8 feet apart. WILLIE-WEAVER - A person who is driving while drunk or while falling asleep.
WIM (WEIGH-IN-MOTION) - Technology for determining a vehicle's weight without requiring it to come to a complete stop. WINCH - ¹A device for tensioning lashings via a rotating spool. ²A device for tensioning a webbing or wire rope tie-down that is fitted with means to lock the initial tension. WINCH RIG - Straight truck or tractor with a hoist. WINCH TRUCK - A winch is a powered spool wound with cable. Winches are used to lift or to pull heavy objects. Winches vary in size from those on the front of small vehicles to heavy equipment which may weigh tons. WIRE ROPE - Wire rope is used to tie down loads that are placed cross-wise on the deck. The rope is tensioned with a winch or turnbuckle. WOODCHUCK - Driver with low job seniority. WORK DIARY - Driver’s record of hours driven and rest periods taken. WORKING LOAD LIMIT (WLL) - The maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service, usually assigned by the manufacturer of the component. WRECKER - A Truck designed for hoisting and towing disabled vehicles. WRECKER BODY - Truck body designed primarily for transportation of disabled vehicles and equipped with a means for hoisting and towing such vehicle.
- X - No entries.
- Y - YARD - (The Yard) ¹A parking lot for trucks at a business. (Not a truck stop) ²A term used to reference a company’s terminal or customer’s property. YARDBIRD - (See also Spotter) A driver who connects and disconnects tractor and semi-trailer combinations and moves vehicles around the terminal yard. YARD GOAT - A two axle truck with a very short wheelbase, without a sleeper; designed solely to move trucks around in a yard; easy to get into and out of; with special equipment to make the job easier. YARD HORSE - A tractor for moving trailers short distances in a truck yard or terminal compound. Also called switching tractor, yard tractor, trailer spotter, yard dog, and linehauler. Equipment is manufactured and sold for such exclusively off-road use, but sometimes old, spare, or unroadworthy tractors are used. YARD JOCKEY - ¹A person who operates a yard tractor or yard mule. ²Operator of the yard or shunt truck. YARD MULE - Small tractor used to move semi-trailers around the terminal yard. YARD SHUNTER - An old, often unregistered prime mover used for shunting semi-trailers in a terminal or yard. YARD TRACTOR - ¹A special tractor used to move trailers around a terminal, warehouse, distribution centre, etc. ²A truck tractor used exclusively to move trailers around a motor or trailer yard. It is not used for over the road travel. YARD TRUCK - A small tractor confined to on site shuttling of trailers to and from loading docks.
- Z - ZEPHYR HAUL - A shipment of light weight cargo.