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Grab type ship unloader Grab type ship unloader M ~ c a t e t i dockside apparah~s used to unluatf coal, ores, phc~phates and other minerals. Grain or grain capacity '1i)tal cubic capacity of a ship's holds arrailable for the carriage of gr,liri or any othtsr frtv-flowing bulk cargo wliich is c-apablc of fillir~g the spacc brtrvcen the ship's frames. It is expressed in c-ubic feet or cubic mtxtrt.s. (Whew a cargo k solid and thercforc not capable of filling the spaces between the ship's franres, the cc~rrps~x>~iding capacity is known as the bale or bale capacity.) Grain silo Building used for the sturage of grain. It is often found at grain temiinals whew cxean vessels discharge. Silos are often towers, tall and cylindrical in shapc. Grainvoy Voyage charter-party used for shipments of grain. Grainvoybill Bill of lading intended to be used for shipments elf grain under the Grainvny charter-party. Grapple Attachment to a crane which consists of a pair of large pincers at the end of a wire Used for cargoes of logs, they grip the topmcfit logs of a strapped bundle for the purpclse of lifting. Also known as a log grapple. Graving dock Enclosed basin from which all the water is pumped to enable ships to be survcycull and rcpaircd while out of the water Also wfrrrcd to as a dry dock. Greaser Engine-n>onirating Great circle route Shortt5t route bet\vecn twcr [wints. C;.ri. General rate increase q.r? Gross register tonnage or gross registered tonnage Abbrev~ated to g r.t. ji)r ~i~fir11111~11, SPP Gross tonnage !dorcl. Gross terms Type of voyage charter in which the shipowrtier pays for Ic~ding and tlischdrging. Gross tonnage A figure rt.prt.sent~ng thtl total of all thc encloscd spaces ~thm a sh~p, arnved at by nledns of a formula wh~ch has as ~ t s bas14 the volume measured m nrb~c m e t r e Abbrrvtated tc) g t I tie grw-s tonnage has replaced the grclss reg~ster tonnage Guv Gross weight \%'eight of gor~is and their pack~ng Ground (to) 'li> tciuch tl~t. tw)ttom Grounding I)t.librr,~te cvntart bv a ship with the h t t o n ~ while the ship is rlloc)rt-d c)r ati(.hored as i~ result of the water level clropping. Groupage The grouptng together of several compatible cons~gnnlerlts Into a full container load. Also refcrrcxl to a3 const>lidatic>n. Groupage hill of lading Brll of lading, isstled by ii carrier to a forrvarding agcnt, onlrtitnrs known as a groupage agent or consolidator, which cove* consignments from various shippers for the -me destination which have h e n consc~lidated into one consignment by the tonvarding iigent. Each shipper receives a house bill of lading from the Innvarding agent cuvering his consignment. G.r.t. Gross r e g ~ t e r tnnnage or gross n-grstcrcd t~>tit~~~t> Lor dr'tjrtittcl?~. set. Gross tonnage ailozl~, Guillotine door Lhor found at the tvrn of *)me roll-on roll-off ships which is raiscd tvlicn a p n and lowered when in the closed position, mernbling in its configuriltic>ri the instrument of execution from which it gets its tinlne. It is found vn ships which have no ramp fitted and wh~ch thrrrfore rrcluirr a shore-baud link span. Accordingly, it provides a watertight harrier aga~nst the entry of sea water. Gun tackle Method of riwing a dcrrick using two blocks, the upper one fixed, the lower onc 'arr$ng tllc hcwk, with the nlpe or wire in two parts at the lower block. Thp gain iti Iwrver is n)ughly equivalent to the number clf parts of the n>p at the lowrr b1uc.k. In this rase, the pull is doubled. Tliis gain is tennet1 the purchase. The safe working load of the derrick shouG rrevrrthele.;~ nut be ewcmied. Gunny bag Hag or sack tnatie of cclarse fibre widely used fclr the carriage of' ct-rtain hulk cargcws such as sugar. Gunny matting Coarse fibre matt~ng, one crt thc many typcq of rri.ltcrr,ll used as dunnage in ~Ii~ps, mainly for thc wparatlntr atid ~vc~tect~on of cargoes Guy M'irc or rop fitted on citllrr siJr of i~ ship's derrick ant1 ustrl to control thc moving of tht derrick into thr~lesirrti position. Often, the guy 93

Dictionary of Shipping Terms

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Page 1: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Grab type ship unloader

Grab type ship unloader M ~ c a t e t i dockside apparah~s used to unluatf coal, ores, phc~phates and other minerals.

Grain or grain capacity '1i)tal cubic capacity of a ship's holds arrailable for the carriage of gr,liri or any othtsr frtv-flowing bulk cargo wliich is c-apablc o f fillir~g the spacc brtrvcen the ship's frames. It is expressed in c-ubic feet or cubic mtxtrt.s. (Whew a cargo k solid and thercforc not capable of filling the spaces between the ship's franres, the cc~rrps~x>~iding capacity is known as the bale or bale capacity.)

Grain silo Building used for the sturage of grain. It is often found at grain temiinals whew cxean vessels discharge. Silos are often towers, tall and cylindrical in shapc.

Grainvoy Voyage charter-party used for shipments of grain.

Grainvoybill Bill of lading intended to be used for shipments elf grain under the Grainvny charter-party.

Grapple Attachment to a crane which consists of a pair of large pincers at the end of a wire Used for cargoes of logs, they grip the topmcfit logs of a strapped bundle for the purpclse of lifting. Also known as a log grapple.

Graving dock Enclosed basin from which all the water is pumped to enable ships to be survcycull and rcpaircd while out of the water Also wfrrrcd to as a dry dock.

Greaser Engine-n>oni rating

Great circle route Shortt5t route bet\vecn twcr [wints.

C;.ri. General rate increase q.r?

Gross register tonnage or gross registered tonnage Abbrev~ated to g r.t. ji)r ~ i ~ f i r 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 1 , SPP Gross tonnage !dorcl.

Gross terms Type of voyage charter in which the shipowrtier pays for I c ~ d i n g and tlischdrging.

Gross tonnage A figure rt.prt.sent~ng thtl total of all thc encloscd spaces ~ t h m a s h ~ p , arnved at by nledns of a formula wh~ch has as ~ t s bas14 the volume measured m n r b ~ c m e t r e Abbrrvtated tc) g t I tie grw-s tonnage has replaced the grclss reg~ster tonnage


Gross weight \%'eight of g o r ~ i s and their pack~ng

Ground (to) 'li> tciuch tl~t. tw)ttom

Grounding I)t.librr,~te cvntart bv a ship with the h t t o n ~ while the ship is rlloc)rt-d c)r ati(.hored as i~ result of the water level clropping.

Groupage The grouptng together of several compatible cons~gnnlerlts Into a full container load. Also refcrrcxl to a3 const>lidatic>n.

Groupage hill of lading Brll of lading, isstled by ii carrier to a forrvarding agcnt, onl r t i tnrs known as a groupage agent or consolidator, which cove* consignments from various shippers for the -me destination which have h e n consc~lidated into one consignment by the tonvarding iigent. Each shipper receives a house bill of lading from the Innvarding agent cuvering his consignment.

G.r.t. Gross r e g ~ t e r tnnnage or gross n-grstcrcd t ~ > t i t ~ ~ ~ t > Lor dr'tjrtittcl?~. set. Gross tonnage ailozl~,

Guillotine door Lhor found at the t v r n of *)me roll-on roll-off ships which is raiscd tvlicn a p n and lowered when in the closed position, mernbling in its configuriltic>ri the instrument of execution from which it gets its tinlne. I t is found vn ships which have no ramp fitted and wh~ch thrrrfore rrcluirr a shore-baud link span. Accordingly, it provides a watertight harrier aga~nst the entry of sea water.

Gun tackle Method of r iwing a dcrrick using two blocks, the upper one fixed, the lower onc 'arr$ng tllc hcwk, with the nlpe or wire in two parts at the lower block. Thp gain i t i Iwrver is n)ughly equivalent to the number clf parts of the n > p at the lowrr b1uc.k. In this rase, the pull is doubled. Tliis gain is tennet1 the purchase. The safe working load of the derrick shouG rrevrrthele.;~ nut be ewcmied.

Gunny bag Hag or sack tnatie of cclarse fibre widely used fclr the carriage of' ct-rtain hulk cargcws such a s sugar.

Gunny matting Coarse fibre matt~ng, one c r t thc many typcq of rri.ltcrr,ll used as dunnage in ~ I i ~ p s , mainly for thc wparatlntr atid ~vc~ tec t~on of cargoes

Guy M'irc or r o p fitted on citllrr s i J r of i~ ship's derrick ant1 ustrl to control thc moving of th t derrick into thr~lesirr t i position. Often, the guy


Page 2: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Hatch coaming Ha.

is f e d through a block at the top of which is a single strand, known as a guy pennant, which leads to the derrick head.

Ha. Iiatch or hatchway q.s!

Hague Rules Kules governing the camage of goods by sea and idcnti- fying the rights and responsibilities of carriers and owners of cargo. 'Thew nrles were published in 1924 following an interrlatinnal convention and were suhstuluently given the force of law by many maritime nations.

Hague-Visby Rules Set of mles, anlending the Hague Hultrs (*r ulrorrt.), published in 1~68 and subsequently given the force uf law by many maritime nations.

Half despatch Term used in a voyage charter-party stipulating that despatch money, that is, the amount payable to the charterer, shipper or m-eiver, as the caw may be, by the shipowner for loading andior discharging in less than the time allowed in the chartcr-par?, is to be calclllated at half the agreed rate of demurrage. Abbreviated to h.d.

Half height container O p n topshipping container which has a standard length and width but only 4 feet 3 inches (about 1.3 metres) high, half the standard height. It is suitable fcir the carriage of dense cargoes, such as s c n p metal, steel bars or p i p s and stone, since these take up a relatively small spacv in relation to their weight. The half height container is also suitable for loading and discharging in premises with insufficient height to take a full height contamer. Two half heights (as they an- often referred to) occupy one cell in a containership. As with the full height open top, the half height is mvercd by a waterpnlof tarpaulin.

Half hire Provision in a time charter-party that half the amount of daily hire is payable under cvrtain drcumstanm. For example, if a ship is lost at sea, i t may br a g d that half hire i5 payable from the date rvhen the ship was last heard from until the calculated date of arrival at her destination.

Hamburg Rules Rules governing the rights and rcspo~isibilitii.s of carripr and cargo interests which may bc incorporated into a contract for the

camage of goods by sea either by agreement of the parties or statutorily. These rides were adopted by the United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods bv Sea in 1978.

Hand hook C ~ ~ r v t d piece of steel with a point, held in the hand by a docker and used to attach to sacks of cargo for the purpose of moving them h i m place to place, both on shore and in the hold of a ship. Also known as a stevedore's hook or docker's hook (as distinct from a cargo hook whrch is attached to a crane or denick).

Handymax Bulk carrier of about 2S,000 tonnes deadweight, so called k a u w it is suitable fur many different trades.

Handy-sized bulker Bulk carrier at the smaller end of the range of s i z e associated with this type of ship, typically up to .33/35,000 tonnes dead- weight. Within this category are ships which are intended to trade into the Great Lakes of North America; their dimensions are within the con- straints of the St. Lawrence Seaway which is the limiting factor in this trade.

Harbour tZ natural or .~rtificial shtltt-r for s h i p .

Harbour dues Charge levied against a shipvrvner or ship operator by a port authority fur the use of a harbour.

Hardtop container Shipping container having the same dimensions as a general purpose twenty-foot or forty-fwt container but which has a removable hard top. The roof m y be liftcd off by a fork-lift truck. This makcs it suitable ior heavy lifts which are easier to load fmm the top by mean.. of a 'rane.

Hatch Widely u s 4 short form for hatch cover q 1: Alxi fmjuently 11wd

tu mean hatchway q 1.. Abbreviated to ha

Hatch beam One of a set of steel sections stretching along the length of a hatchway on to wh~ch boards, known as hatch boards, are placed to close the hatchway. This arrangement is used on older vessels and has largelv Lwcn replaced by steel hatch covers. The beams on to which the rnds of the hatch boards rest arc known as king h?ams while thosc which support thc ccntrcs arc calltnl sistcr h a m s .

Hatch coaming Stwl surround to a hatcl~w~ly which rises vrrticallv fro~m the deck of qhip. Its functions .Inx to prrvcnt \v.ltcr fn>m cntt-r~n): th t


Page 3: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Heavy lift derrick - - -

hold and to lessen the r ~ s k of any person who may tw t.work~ng on the deck fall~ng thwl~gh tht- npe t~ hatchway Also reterrtd to ~ rmply as a cnamlng

between this charter-party and any contract which tlrc charterer may have with a thircl party to whom tit* sub-lets the ship.

Head charterer Charterer wht-rsc contract is dirty? with the shipirvlrcr in respect of a ship whlch is being chartered out and then sub-chart~rcd. kwrhap several times. The head charterer u thus clistinguished hvnl all the sub-chartcrcrs.

Hatch cover Means of closing the hatchway of a ship. 'Illerr art- vario~ls types, ior example wcwden boards laid acmss the hatchway o r steel sections which rciU to one t-nd or one side. They a re ~lesiglred tito Lw watert~glit so as to keep uut rain r r ~ ~ d sPils breaking over the ship. ilali.11 covers limy he on the weather deck and on the hveen deck. Also known A s i~ hatch. Scc also critr.les urlrlPr Rolling, Folding Piggy-back, Stacking Liftaway nnli Sliding.

Header bar Cross-bar situated over the doors of a n open top shipping container which forms part nf the end frame. When Ic~ditrg or unloadirrg is it1 progress, the header bar may be swtlng out of the way or completely removed, depending on the particular ~lesigrr.

Hatch cover ramp Type of internal ramp in a rull-on rr~ll-off ship which forms part of the main deck .lnd can prov~de a watertight d t ~ k closure.

Heating coil System crf stcrl tubing fitted ir r thc tanks of a tankcr which, by means of steam, maintains viscous cargtws, such as hihimrrr or heavy oil, in a liquid state and capilhlc of being pumptd out. The arrangement of the h~b ing is designed to give a heating surfact. at a rate measurcd in square feet t o tlrc tan of cargu or square metres to ttr i - tonne, the exact rate depending on the particular s h i p

Hatch list I Iold by holil list of all the bills of lading. together with brief details of the gncds on hoard a ship

Hatch opening Setn Hatchway !1c7lnrci

Hatchway Opening in the d c ~ k of a ship through which cargo is loadcd itrto, or d~schargrd from, the hvl~i . I t is c-losd off by nieans ot a hatch covrr cvhich may he of various kinds. The number af hatches may correspond exactly to'the nnnrht~r of holds although a ship may havr two hatches serving one hold, dividing the hold either along itslength or its width. I-~>ading hatches and dischargitig h,ltches arc to be found in bulk cot\- tainers: loading hatches are openings in the rrn>f of thc container thmugh which the cargo is loaded bv gravity; discharge hatches arc o p e n i ~ ~ g s in the door or front end of the cotrtaincr through which the c a r p is unloaded when the container is t i p p d A ha~chway is sometimes referred to as a hatch or hatch opening.

Heave (to) 'fo bring a ship to .I stop.

Heavy lift Getrerally, a lift which requires special liiting equipment hy virtur of its weight. \.Yhctl carried by a h ipping line, a heavy lift may be described as any lift which exceeds a specific weight as stated in the line's tariff and which is normally the si~bject cii a heavy lift additional charge.

Heavy lift additional Extra charge applied by a shippirrg line or set by '1 liner conference on klralf of its m r m b r s , on lifts exceeding a weight specifi~d in ~ t s tariff, oftcn five tcinnes. Also referred to as a heavy lift strrc hargc.

H.c. High cube. Sct. High cube (general purpose) container. Heavy lift crane blcibile crane des ipn~d to lift unusually hcavy loads eve11 UP to several hurrdred tnnnes in orre lift. Often a ship may have only one srlch lift to undertake a ~ r d the crane is brought in specially while the shore crarr6.s or the ship's own lifting gear handle the other cargo. A heavy lift crane may bc on tracks or flo'lting.

Head (of a shipping container) 'I hr c ~ t d of a container which is opposite. the rlcw)rs

Head (of a ship) Uows or forward part oi a ship. A ship is said to kn, r4c)wn by the head ~f her draught forward is deeper than her ~iratlght aft.

Heavy lift derrick Ship's clt.rrick ilsecl for liftirlg urrusually heavy loads. Traditionally capable of handling lifts u p to, typicallv, 1100 tonnes. nrodtrn hcavy lift derr:c.ks are capabltl of lifting several ht~ridrcd tonnes. They arc also known as iunrbo derricks.

Head charter or head charter-party Contract for the clrartcr of a s h ~ p bct~veen her owner and a charterer. This term is useJ tci distinguish


Page 4: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Heavy lift ship nowmfJx,xRL,w(x,--ntntotf!tf!tf!tf!totototototo

Heavy lift ship Ship designed to lift and carry exceptionally h e a ~ y Icwds such as railway locomvtives. There are thwe basic methcxis of Ir~ditrg and di.scharging such cargoes: lift-on lift-off by means of a hea\-y lift derrick fixed to the deck of a ship; float-in float-out whereby the ship is partially submerged during loading and discharging; roll-un roll-off whereby the cargo is wheeled on and off the ship.

Heavy lift surcharge See Heavy lift additional uborle.

Heavy weather Severe weather giving r i se to the possibility of damage to a cargo at sea. If a ship encounters heavy weather, her master may note protest q.1: on anival at the next [wrt uf call, which may be a necessity in order to avoid liability for damage tv cargo.

Heel (to) Said of a ship, to lean tu one side temporarily.

H.f.0. Heavy fuel oil.

High cube (general purpose) container Forty-foot container which, at 9' 6" high, is taller than the normal container. It is suitable for light, vol- uminous cargoes or cargoes whlch wuuld othemise be overheight. l'hc words high cube are often abbreviated to h.c

High cube reefer Variation of the refrigerated container which has a higher cubic capacity than thc standard size reefer container and thus car1 carry a greater volunrt. of cargo. The extra capacity is achieved either by increasing the height of the container or by designing i t so that the space takcn by the clip-on diesel generator is over and ahwe the standard dimensicrns of the container. See olso Refrigerated container.

Hire or hire money Money paid by a charterer to a shipowner for the hire of a ship taken on time charter. I t may he expresed, for example, as an amount per day or per deadweight tcontrr per month. I lire is payable, by agreement, at regular intervals such as nrorrthly or semi-monthly, normally in advance. It is important that hire money is paid on time since othenvise the shipowner has the right to withdraw the ship from the service of the charterer.

Hire statement Written statement of the amount of hire r1lont.y payable by a t in~e chartewr to a shipowner, showing the number of days which have elapsed since the commencemcrlt of thr charter or since the last statement. Deductions may bc made for itwm c!isburstui by the charterer on behalf of the shipowner. such as cash advanced tto the master; claims

Hooded coil camer wmflMMwM?~!fl!?~!#~!fl!?~~~!t~~t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~!t~rt~rt~rt~rt~rt~ft~!t~!ttrt~r

against the sh~powner and off h ~ r v periods are a1.w often deducted. The first and last statements detail thequantity of bunkerson hoard at the time of delivery and redelivery rvspctively of the ship, and corresponding adjustments made to the amounts of the rvmittances to take acmunt of the p u r c h a . ~ of bunkers on b a r d on delivery by the charterer and the subsequent sale of bunkers on board on redelivery to the shipwner.

Ho. Hold q.1,.

Hog (to) Said uf a ship, that the ends are depressed b l o w the level of the runtre. This bending of the ship's plating is caused by the effect of waves on the ship when at sea or by the uneven distribution of weight along her length. It may result in damage ur distortion to the hull.

Hoistable car deck Deck on a ship on which vehicles are stowed when k i n g carried between ports. This type of deck is stowcd under the deck- head when not being used and l o w e d on wires into its operational position. In some bulk carriers, hoistable decks are lowered from under the wing tanks and cent re pontoons lifted into position fmm their stowage position on deck.

Hold Space below the deck of a ship, used to carry cargo. If a ship has more than one hold, they are numbered c o n w c ~ t i v ~ l v from one upwards starting with the forward-most; this is done for the purposes of identifying the holds and locating cargo stowed in them. Abbreviated to ho.

Hold cleaning Making a hold clean after one cargo has been discharged and before the next one is loaded. This work is normally camed out by the crew of the ship and is one example of customary assistance given by .I rnaster and crew to a time charterer.

Home port Place from where a ship is operattd

Home trade ship or home trader Ship which is t3ngagccl in home trade v0yagt.s the scope of which varirs frc~m country to country but which grnerally consists of n country's coastline and those of twighkwuring coastlines which enable the ship to stay close to land. Such ships are permitted to track with ftwcr crew than a foreign-going ship.

Homogeneous cargo Fntirr cargo which is of one kind

Hooded coil camer Shipping container, consisting of a flat bed and a cover wl1ic11 is supported by a framework, ust-d to carry steel coils. It has

Page 5: Dictionary of Shipping Terms


a wcll into rvhich the coils are placed and may have a fixed end. The ~vell largely pwcrmts movement of the cails ~vhic,h therefnre require minimal securing.

Hook Cunrecl piece of strrl, fixed to the end of the ropc of a crane or derrick, to which the ro lm, slings or other lifting acicssorirs placed around g w d s are attaclicd for the purpose of lifting. Varidtio~is in the design exist, for example to help prevent the hook snagging or catching on anything while it is being raised, or to stop the load from slipping. Also knowti as a cargo honk. Alm refcrrcd to as ship's hook, particularly in the expression 'ex skip's hook', although this often denotes a 1c.xation specified in the ~ l e s contract.

Hopper Container with a funnel at ~ t s base, or an angltxi zonstn~ction, to permit feeding by gravity of a free-tlow~ng cc~mnicrilitv such as grain into another container belo\*?. For example, it mav br rc~ric*t.nient ti) discharge sugar in bulk by means of a grab which deposits its load ~ n t u a cistern- like hopper frorn which it IS fed by gravity o n to a hori~untal cnnvevor.

Hopper barge or hoppered barge Barge ustd it1 dredging operations: mud and sand are transferred to it fmnl a drcxlger and taken away to be discharged at sea through an opcning in the bottom of the barge.

Hopper cars Ra~lway cars with hoppered h d i e s capablc of dlu tiarglng free-flowing cargtx- thn)ugh a funnel to a tip

Hoppered holds Holds f i~und in bulk carriers; these have the n ~ t a ~ + , a y comers found in some hoppers behind which are htqq>rrrtl tanks used for hillast or for stability \+,hen carrying certain cargcws.

Hose test (to) Ib test a hatch cover for watertightness by spraying water with a hose.

House bill of lading Bill of lading ~ssucd by a fvrwarding agent to a shipper covering a consignment ruh~ch the fc~rwarciing agent has groukwd with consignments from other s h i p p r s to the same destination. The ionvarding agent receives one grrtupge bill of lading from the carrier which covrrs all the cunsignmenk.

House flag Ship's flag bearing the emblem of the shi~x?wtier or shipping line. Sonic time charter-parties allorv the c l ~ a r t r ~ r to fly his house flag during the period of the charter.


Ice class ship --

House to house Saicl o f a scnTlce or Irright rate prorp~deci by 'I container shipping line \+?hewhy g m ~ d s are lnadtd into a shipping container at the s h i p ~ ~ r ' s premises and not unloaded until they amve at the consignee's premises. Also referrtul tti as door to doclr.

Hovercraft Fast-~novlng craft wh~cli travels along a few feet above the surface of the sea by means of a cush~on of alr forced duwnwards T h e e craft are deslgned to carry cornmerclal vehicles as well ~1s cars and foot ~ l a q ~ n g e r s

H.p. i lorst power.

H.s.s. I leavy grain, sorghum and soya

Husbandry hlaintcnance and m p i r oi a ship.

H.w. High water.

H.w.0.n.t. I-Iigh watrr ordinary nedy tide.

H.w.0.s.t. High water ordinary spring tides.

Hyg~oscopic cargo Cargo which 1s capable of ,~bsorbing molsturr, for example from the atmospherr, arid can accoriimglv suffcr a change of weight d u r ~ n g an cxcan ps,sagt3

I.A.C.S. International Association of ClassiCicatinn Societies q . / l

1.a.f. inflation adjustnletit factor r 7 . ~ ~

1.b.c. liner Rag placed inside nil intt~rmnliate bulk carrier to facilitatr nS- use.

1.c.d. Inland containrr depot.

Ice class ship Ship which has heen ~ i ~ i t ~ ~ h l y strengthent-d in accordance


Page 6: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Independent line Ice clause .-.

~p . .

the cawo. 'l'hcre arc some countrivs in which this clause may not 1~ ~v i th the n ~ l e s of a ship classification society, lor ~\.i\~igiition in ice con- ditions vf a part~cuiar scvrrity.

Idle Siiid of riluipnicnt or oi a ship for which there is no work for a partir.tllar twxiod of time.

Ice clause Clause in a bill of lading vr charter-party which wts orl t the options available to the partic5 to t11r c.ontract oi carriage ill the t-vrnt that navigation is prevented or temp7rarily delayed by severe ice cnnditiurrs. The &c,riling of the clause and the options vary according to the irrdi- vidual wntract: a nwstcar nlay have the right to divert thr <hip to the nearest safe port to discharge cargo clestincxl for .In ice-hound port. liqually, a chartcmr may have the option of kcvpi~lg a atlip waiting for Ice conditions to rrn payment of demurrage.

1.f.o. Interrnc4ic~tto fuel oil.

1.g.s. Inert ga5 syslcrn i 1 . x

Imbalance of trade D~fference bettvwrl tlw quant~ty of cargo b h ~ p l v d from one end of ~1 trailt, route, or the revenue der~\l td thcrclrom, and the quantih of cargo cir rr\,errutS from the other end Ice-bound (1 Said of a port which is inaccessible to s h ~ p p ~ n g bc~..lust. of

severe ice condihons. Provision is usually made in a bill of lading vr charter-party for the course of iictioti or options available to the jldrtles to the contract of carriagt? in the event that the port of Io~dit lg or discharging is ice-bound.

Immediate rebate Discount on the freight rate offered by a liner COII-

ference to a shipper w h o has a loyalty contract with that conference. The require the shippar ti1 ship a11 his cargcler; in thc ships of member

lines of the conference. Ice-bound ( 2 ) Said of a ship wlrich is unable to leave a port or place k a u s e cof severe ice conditic)ns. I.M.O. Intt~rnation~l Maritime Orp>nisation 11.1'.

Ice-breaker Slilp rvhosr t l r l l l IS s p ~ l a l l y strengthrncrrl to etiable her tco crush Ice using her own welght In order tn rn.lke 4 passage sufficient for other s l i~ tx to navigate

Import entry Declaration to the Customs authorrt~es of goods bclng imported tci a\st3ss whether any dutlrs or tau-s arv payaDle

Incorporation (of a surcharge) -1 h r bu~ldlng in tco a fre~ght r'itc o f part or all of a surcharge such as the currt-nw adjustment factor or bunker surcharge

Icebreaker assistance The making o f a passageor channel through iir by an ic~-breaker, enabling ships to reach open water or lighter ice corlditions where they are able to navigntt safely. Set* CJ~P(I Ice-breaker i~b17~*~.

Incotems Rules governing thr interpretation of trrnls used in inter- national trade, published by the International Chamber of Commerce. Against raih nf the ternls of sale, such as f.o.b., c.i.f, and delivcrtd, are defintd the duties of buyer and sellpr. 'l'hese rules are incorporatt-d into a c~intract of sale by agreement uf the two parties.

Ice-breaking bulk carrier Bulk carrier suitably strengthened to enable her to navigate in conditions of ice, particularly In thc orr tradr carried on in the Canadian Arctic.

Icestrengthened ship Ship whew hull is strengthened to enable her to navigate in ice conditions: the shell plating is thicker and the Sows reiniorc~d.

Indemnity Compensation offered h y ant. party to another for tllc consc- quences ot i,~rrying out, or omitting to carry out, a certain act. An indcm- nl& is ttsually given in writing but is unenforcrablc in a court of law if the act for which it is given is intended to defraud an innocent third party. Identity of carrier clause C1au.w in a bill of lading which s t ~ p u l a t t ~ who

the carrier is, that is, the party wsy?onsible for the care of the under the terms of the contr.11-t of carriage. This is normally the shipowtirr since the party issuing the bill of lading may have chartered the ship and may not be responsible for the navigation of the ship nor ior the handling of

Independent line Shipping line rvhic.h opcrates on a rciute stnr\:c.il by a liner confewncc but which is not il rnpnit~xr o f that conferetrce. Also referred to as '1 rri)tl cii~iference line ur an outsider.


Page 7: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Indicative seal -. - - - -

Indicative geal Type of seal ,I ;. on the doors of a s h l p p ~ n ~ ccrnt,ll~rt.r, intt~ndrrl to shosv, when mlssing or daniagcd, that un~~uthcrr~st.rl act ebs lldc h t rn made tc? a 5hlpplng cc'ntallier Scc Strip seal

Inducement M~nlrnum quantlh. of cargo rty~llrtxi d S ~ I ~ I - I I I ~ I11ie t o niakt. ~t rvorthwh~le to call at a particular p o ~ t !or Ioad ln~ or dlst harpnp such a Largo 1s called an inducement cargo

Inert gas system System of preventing .any t.aplos~~rri in the cargo tanks uf a tanker by replacilrg thr cargo, as i t is pumpe~l uut, by an inert gas, often the exhaust tscirn the shiyr'5 engine. Ahbrei:iatd to i.g.s.

Inflatable dunnage Inflated bags used to fill g . 1 ~ ~ hp twt~ t i gclurls when stowed In ra11 cars, trucks, shlpplng co~i la~nrrs or 111 s h ~ p s rhrv are n nreans of load bracing ol cush~on~ng, tht3 ptlrposc bellig to prevent the 5h1ftlng of gncxls In a contallicr, for t-t,lnrplr, they rlm pns~tloned across the length or ~vldth and then tntlattd tcr brace the load against the walls or ends of the contamer

Inflation adjustment factor E ~ t r a chi~rgr applied by a shipping line or set by a liner confercncc on hctrdlf of i t s mrmhers to cover costs affected by inflation 111 the country of shijvnt-nt. Al7brev1ateci to 1.a f

infrastructure (of a port) Equipn~elit and si~rvicrs (11 a port

Inherent vice Natural failing of a tlrcdnct which leads to damage when it is subjccttd to irrtairi conditions. An example is the su~c~ptihil i ty ot' s o ~ n c fcx~cis tu perish. Camers and insurance undenvritcrs ,Ire 11ot nor- rnally liable for damage caused in t h ~ ~ way

Institute Warranty Limits Gcngraph~cal ]inlit< \.\.ittiin which a ship niay navigate without incurring any .ldrlitiotral ilrsur,ance preniit~nl. Abbrew- ated to 1.iY.L

Insufficient packing Failurt. i r f tlir packing to prvttu-t the goods while in tmnsit. 'Tlic 1.arrit.r and irrsurance underwriters may be relieved of ,jny liahilitv for dalrli~gr to cargo caused by ilisufficiencv of packing.

Insulated container Shipping container ~vlric-tr 1.; lirled, normally with plywcx)d, so as tn niinimise tlic cfftx-Is of cti,irrpe.; i r r tt.rrlyvriiture on the cargo and to reduce cnndcnsation. I'l:is ctvrtaitier is suiti~hle tor perishable goods and other cargtn-s whir-h r rq~i iw protection from temperature changes u.ilhclut tht. l?tr't-s\ity ot refrigrratic.in. The inside dimensicln of

1 (W

Internal ramp J/XXY%//X////////////////////////////////ffp/////

an ~nslll,lttd cocta~ner are less than those of a general ~ U ~ ~ X ) E C cctlntalner becawe o f tht- I~rung In trades svhrw there 15 an ~mbalancc 111 one d~rec- tlon of c,Irgo rrqulnng ~nsulaterl C O I ~ I ~ I I I C ~ ~ , these may lw used on the return leg to ( ~irr\ ' clcan general cave

Intaken weight i\ctual weight of c.,lrgcl Ioacled on bcmrd n ship

Intankhill R ~ l l ( i f I.ldlng used for sh~prr~t.r>ts ti rider tanker vci~a~rchar ter - parties

Intelligent clamp T v p ot cli~mp truck fitted with a computer, ~iesigntd to sense the optimum pressure rrtvdcd to 11ft reels it p.ipt3r SL' as tv a\r~i<I slippage irr squtu-zing.

lntercluh Agreement ,\greement t ~ t w c c n a lr~lmber of nrdpw protection and ~ndernlilty clr~tls OII the methtd of ,~pl~cirlionlng ltablltty for l c ~ s and d,ltirage to cargci carried In sIilps charteretl u11dt.r a Nesv Yiirk I'rixluce I:xt hd~ige charter-prtv

Interconsec Drlcummt. published bv the Int~rnational Assoc-iatioti 01

Intlt-pt-ndent Tanker Osvrrc-rs ilntertanko), corrtaining clause.; ustd frrr ron.;rc~utiv~ v<lyagw undtst a tanker charter-pi~rtv.

Interim voyage L'oyagc undertaken by a ship hetween the tinie she is I cliartert~i for a s~wc.ific voyage a n ~ i tiit. t imr she pcrfornis i t .

Intermediate bulk carrier H,lp, or r lg~d receptac le, placed ~ n s l ~ i e d ~ ~ l y ~ t \ g contalrirrs I t is used for the carrlagt- of bulk prcidl~ctq or Ilqulds Its 11sr niahes ~t po+stblr to , ~ v o ~ d using specral equipment stlctr a5 t'lnkconta~ners nr bulk contalnrrs

Intcrmodal tariff -Idriff of freight rat* cli a shipping line cir l i ~ ~ e r con- frrcnce ctn,erinl; inlalid ns well as cw.rat1 I ~ g s .

Interniodal transport Carnaqe of a constgnment ot gciot1s usuig mure than onp tliode of transyrrrt, such as rall and stXa

Internal ramp Ramp insidt- 'I roll-on roll-tiff *hip which connt)~ts o ~ r t ? deck with anc,thcr. These are cif t\vo hasic types: fixed and movable. Fist-tl

I r a m F niay be curved or straight. l'lie cunres at top and bottom prrvrrrt the underside of \lc-hicles tot1r:hirrg the grvun~i. X,l(-~vahle ramps all(11v \.t.liiclcs to be r l r o \ : t d from one t1t.c-k to a choice of dr iks as reqr~iretl. Slo!virrg ramp? c..lrr Lw wcured in tht, t-lc.vateti puritiol~ 10 a l l o ~ ~re~1tt.r


Page 8: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

International Association of Classification Societies -

headrr~im tor larger vehic.Irs. Karnpc; cat1 also ;?rovide a watt~rtight d1.c-k c l o s ~ ~ r e when forming part of the main r1vc.k; thest. art3 known ils liatc-11 cover ramps.

International Association of Classification Societies Associat1c11i of maior classitii~atit~ri stx~it~tit~s \ Y I ~ ( ~ pririiipdl airli is tlii? iniprove~~ient (11 staridarcis of s ~ f r t v at SEA. i\bhrlwi.ltcd to 1.A.C.S.

International Load Line Certificate Certificate tvhjch pivt.s details of a ship's freeboards and states that the ship has k n surveyed and the appropriate Itxld lint3 n~arkcd on her srdes. This certificate is issued either by il fio\rt7rtirl\t~iit d ~ p a r t r l i ~ n t or, i f authorised hy that dcpartmcnt, a classification society. A s rqui rcd by the Intt~r~iaticrn~il Con\;'ntion on Load ILinrs, the ship is surveyed yrriodically and t t i ~ crrtific'itc reritw~xl.

International Load Line Exemption Certificate Crertificatc cxcrlipting a ship from tlie wrluiwmmts of thr Interriatic~nal C'otivcrition on lxxld [.in=. Ari cxrnil~tititi rtiav b t gi\rt-tl tc ) il ship riot ntrrrnally involvtrl in intrrnational voyage but \vtiich is to undertake a single strch vvyiljie.

International Maritime Organization Agency of the United Nations, based in London, England, concerneci with safety at =a. Its work inrlttdes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of ships, load lines and the safe carriage of grain. Abbreviated to I.M.O. I t was previously rxi l l td the Inter-Governmental Maritime Cunsultative Chganisatiori (I.M.C.C).).

International Tonnage Certificate Crrt~ticatc tssucd to a shlpobvner by a govrnirnent department in t11~ rasp 11f a shlp whose gross and net ton- nages have k t 1 deter~li ir id 111 acctrrdatlce w 1tli the Inte~nat~irnal Con- vrnt~on of Tonnage hteasurertient at Stup4 I hc cvrtrf~cate states the grosq and nt3t tonnage4 tagetht~r wrtlr dt-tarls of tlw s p ~ c c s attributed to each

Intertanko Assc~iaticin of independent tiltiker orvntm whose aims are to represent the viesvs vf its menihers irrtt~rri,iticirially and wliost- work includes the production uf a number vf stantlard d c x ~ ~ m r n t s , stlih a s the Intertankvoy charter-party. Ik h ~ l l name is the International As.iuriatio~~ trf Independent Tanker Owners.

lntertankvoy Iarrkt-r vnyagc charter-party, puhllshed bv the i\ssocrat~on of Itrdrpt~ticit~iit 'Tailk~r Ow~lers (Intertanko)

Inward I<t>latln): 10 tlic ar r~val of a shlp at a port For example, an inward cargo is orre which is arriving at a port for d l s c h a r g ~ ~ ~ g there A ship's

inward charges arc thost- incurmi in entenng a port, such as inward pilotage

Iron and steel terminal Terininal i t i a ;lort llrdlcated to tlie handling and storage of inln and steel pmdurts. '1'Iirr;e prculucts are of many typc.s having different handling and stnrage ri-cittirements. There arc long pmd- rlcts (strch a s 217 metre univers.d bt3anis or 30 metre rails), p n ~ l u c t s which are both long and wide (sue-ti as plates) and coils oi different sizcs arid weights. Increasingly, sttvl i s required to be kept in underrover strirage befort- lwing shipy>ed or distributed, hut some prodrlcts may be left out in the upen. Terminals are nomially pquippt%d with cranes capable of litting heavy pieces or bundles.

1.T.I;. International Transport CVorkrrs' Federation. Trade union, onc of whose objects has been the sc t t i l l~ ot stati~lards cif employment for nirr- chant seamen. Many prospectivr tirtrr <.tiarterers make it a stipulatit>n of the charter that the shipowner nirrt.; the requirements of the I.T.F.

Itinerary List of all tlic pxts ilt which a ship calls on a particul.~r \lr)yiigr to lcud and dixhargc cargo, often including the estin~att?d arrival anti sailing dates at each prltt. When incorporated into a srt of instnlctions to the mastcr oi a ship fur his next voyage, the itinrrary niay include ports ~vhcn ' it is intended to take on bunkcrs.

I.W.L. Institute \'$'arrant)' I iniits q . r t

Jerque note lhcurnent given by the Custnrns atrtIi11rities certifying that the inwarti clearance formalities ior a ship have k n cvmpleteci.

Jetsam Cargo jettisoned from a ship, that is, thrown overboard in ordcr to lighten the ship, and washed aslion..

Jettison The tlirowlng ovrrtxrard of cargo to 11ghtt-n a ship as to s'9c.e the ship, hCr crrw arid remarnlng cargo f m ~ n a per11 1'111s a( t ~ o n 1 s often allowed as a grnpral ,iverage sacrifice

Jettison (to) To throw cargo overbc.,ard to lighten a ship so as to s iv r tlir ship, her 1-rcw d i d r~rliait~irlg cargo frc~ni a peril. c c also Jettidon i l l l t r i ~ .

Page 9: Dictionary of Shipping Terms






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Page 10: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Laker Bulk carrier stwcially dcsigncd to trade in the North American Great Lakes system. Lakersare nornially geared and pascss irrr unusually large number of hatches. Some lakers never lcavc thc L a k e and itrdtwd a few are too large to negotiate the St. L.~wwrrce !+away's Iwks. Others trade worldwide to avoid being laid up in the I.akrs during the winter. They are used to carry iron ore from the St. lswrence and from ore terminals within the h k e s to s t t ~ l mills in the U.S. mid-Wrest and grain from the ivestt.r~r lakes to the St. Lawrence.

Lamcon Voyage charter- party, published by the Baltic and International \laritinie Conference (BIMCO), used for shipments of iron orp from Liberia.

Lamconbill Rill of lading intended to be used for shipmr~rts of ircln clre frcim I .iberia under the Lamcon charter-party.

Landbridge L e g of a voyage overland which joins two wtwn Itxgs, par- ticularly involving shipping containers. I t is designed to save time and applies in the case of shipping lines wh~ch offer it as part of thpir contract of carriage. An example is the landbridge joining !tic .Atlantic and I'acific weans.

Landing charges Charges for putting cargo. which is being ~lischarged tmni a ship, on to tlrc quay.

Landing storage and delivery Charge, borne by cargo interests at sonic discharge ports, for putting the cargo on to the quay, taking it into storagp and subsequently delivering ex store on to the coiisi~nee's veliiclcs. Abbreviated to 1,s. & d

Lane metre Unit by means of which the dccks on a n)-ru strip are me;+ sured. The numhcr of lane nietrcs rvhiih a ro-rc~ ship has is a way uf describing the capacity of tlic ship, for example when comparing her with anothcr ship. Abbwviattd tv 1.m. The total number of lane metres comprise thc totdl lane length.

1,ASH Lighter aboard ship. X LASH ship is a barge-carrying ship. Barges are loaded with cargo at a variety of places and brought to tlrc nicrthrr ship, as she is known, for tlie ocean crossing. See (11~0 Barge-carrying ship.

Lash (to) To hold goods in poslt~on bv tlic uste of, for r* , l t~ r~~ l r , \VIW-,

ropes, chams or straps See nlsn Lashings l ~ ~ ~ l r ~ u l


Lashing point l'oint on the deck of a ship, on a vehicle vr inside a shipping contamer to which w i r e , chains, mlws or s t r a p a w attached which arc u s 4 to hold goods m position.

Lashings Ikvices, often wires, chains, m p 5 clr straps, used to secure a cargo on a ship, t n ~ c k or railway car, or inside a shipping cuntainer. Mrhe~i carried cvn the deck of a ship, the cc~ntainrrs themselves are lashed. The lashings are attached to fittings on or in the vehicle or on the ship and often stretched tight by rneans o f tensioners. The purpose of lashing c-argo is to prc\re~it i t fnlnr mu\ting during transit which cotlld result in loss or darnapt?.

Latitude D~stance North or South of the Fcluator, expressed In dcgrw3, minutes and seconds

Lay up (to) To cease tradi~;g a ship temporarily during a period whPn there is a surplus of ships in relation tu the level of available cargot-. Srr. ialsi> Lay-up P~.loitt

Lay-by berth Part of a port where a ship which 1s arvaiting a I c ~ d i n g ur discharging Lwrth nia y rrrocvr.

Laycan Str. Laydays can cell in^.

Laydays Llays allowed by the shipt~wncr to the voyage charterer or bill of lading holder in rvliich to Icu~l aritl/or discharge the cargu. St.(# also Laytime b~9larit

Laydays cancelling I'rricxl during which the shitmwncr must tender notice of rpadines to the charterer that the ship has arrived at the port of loading and is ready to Icvaci. This period is exprcsscd as two dates, for example laydays 25 March cancelling 2 April or, when abbreviated to I.lycarr, laycan 25 MC1rch/2 April. Thp ch.lrtrrer is not obliged to com- trrrnce loading until the first o i thcsc dates i f the ship arrives earlier a~-,d rriay have the option of caticcllin~ the charter if the ship arrives after tht. second of tlie dates, known as the cirncrlling date. Ahhreviated to laycnn or l /c.

Laytinie Iirnt~ allo\ved hv the sh~powner to the voy,rge charterer or bill 01 ladrng tic~lcier in which to load and/ or iilrcliargt. the cargo It is elfre- S W ~ A tii~rnberclf days o r lioufi or as a n u n i h r of tcinnes per day There I \ ~rtrr~nally a prctvlsion 111 the charter plrty for the cc~rnmencenient of Iayt~me, tvh~ch 1s often at a ccrtaln Ircrur atter notlre of reacitness has lwcn

Page 11: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

l.aytime saved - -- -- -

tendered by the master, a prcnisiorr for periods when liryt~mc does not count, for instance during bad cathe her, week-ends or I~olidays and '1

~.vovisic~n fur lavtlme being exctudcd, when ~iemlrrrage or darnages for detentiun tlccci~nc pyable, or not hcing fully i~stzl, ~ \ ' t r t . ~ \ despatch may be payable.

Iaytime wved Charter-party tern1 used to define one mcthcxl hy which despatch money is calculated, that is, by deducting laytimc used frvm Iaytime allowed. I f , ior example, a charter-party provides fclr six laydays for loading and ttir charterer uses 2f clays, hc is entitlei to 3i days' despati.11 tilone! Also retetred to as working time savd S w All time saved for 17fl I ~ / ! c T ~ : ~ I ~ J ~ Y tnt~!/to~i il( ~ ~ ~ l c t i l ( ~ t ~ ~ ? , y t/i'~{f(~!(./! l n ~ l ~ f t * ~ ~ .

Lay-up Tenipnrary cessation r ? f trading of a ship by a shipmclwner dunrig a peritd il\v~cl~ thew is a surpltls o f ships in relatinti to the level of available cargocs. This surplu.;, known as over-tonnaging, hiis the effect of depressing frright rates to the erterrt that some ship)wnrrs no longer find it ect~nomic~~l to trade their s h i p , prcfcrring to lay thtntn up until t h ~ r is a reversal in the trend. During Iay-tt~l. the daily running rcjst elf the ship is greatly reduced. 'l'ar\krrs whlch have btwn Iilid up k a u s e of the su~-plus of ships arc sometimes t 1 4 tcor storage of oil so as to reduce thc losses suffered tlrrciugli not trading.

L.b.p. I etigth between perpendiculars q . r l

L'c ( I ) Layc,~~i. Tclr iit.firlrtrct~~, w.t. Imydays cancelling

Wc (2) Letter ot c rcdit

L.c.1. Less than container load q 1%

L.c.l./f.c.l. Sre rortit'y Less than container load

L.c.1.ll.c.l. SPL' I ~ ? I L / ~ T Less than container load

Leg (of a voyage) One of a n u m h r of elements into ~vhich a voyage of a ship is t7rcikt.11 doxvn. Generally. thts is from one port o f call to the nrxl hut may lw try con\,enient sut\ di\:isic,n to enablt> a stlipowner or slriy opratclr 10 ~\raluate the overall pr~>fitahilit)i ot tht* aliip cir voyage. Tht> legs of a \royirgr 'ire also taken intci .iccount when assthssing the quantity

of buriker.; rt~prired, sir1c.c ir strip tndy consulnc lrss w l ~ c n in ballast than \olrrrr Ioadcd.

I.ength between perpendiculars Li-tlgtl~ (if A 411p I I I ~ ~ I S U I C ~ at .I certa111 Ir\ el betwwrr two pt.rpt~rrdtcul.~ts 1 hc nicthocl of ialculatlng 1111s dlstance v m r s ace orrlln~; tu the prirticular class~l~iatlon qnc~etv but, t)picallv, IS

fronr tlrr torenlost poitrt ( i t thc slilp t o Ihc ,~ltcrnitrst point or to thc after s ~ d e c)f the n ~ ~ l t l e r post, r~ i r~isur id at ~ I I C 4111p s SUII I I I~ '~ 1cnad IIIIC .Atrbre\.lated to I h p

Length overall htaxln~um Icngth between the extreme ends, fvrrvard atrd ~ t t , e f t '1 ~ l l i p T h ~ s measurement 1s often rtquired to detern~me, for ~*xa~~r l l l r , wht.tlr~r 'I sl11p rriti 11~~ot1.1te n part~cular lock o r whether she can tv at ( onrrritdattd at a spXi ~t tc Iwrtli ~\bhrcvlatecll to I o a Also knclrvn '1s t l r t . t , r~ l l It-~rptt~

Less than container load C'clnsijinnicnt of cargo ivliicli is insufficient to t i l l '3 shippitrg c i~rr t~l i~~cr . I t is grnuy-red with other co~isignments tor the same destination in a cuntilirirr at ii 1-orlt,~~rrrr irr.igl~t station. ?\bhrr\.iated to 1.c.l.

L.c.l.!f.c.l. Term L I W ~ to descrille a cc~trtairrer freight ratr whtwby the carrier is responsible for the packing of the container, and the rllipjlrr irr rtyt-ivcr, ;IS thtx case may be, is rcskxi~~sihle for the unpacking. L.c.l./l.c.l. 'Term t ~ a d t o drwrikw a iotit.ii~icr frcight rate whereby the carrier is responaiblt. for the pac:kiti): iirid utrlr'ickit\g of thc co~i ta~nrr .

Letter of indemnity Written statement in which one party unilertakes to conilicnsatc another for the costs and consequence of carrying orrt a ct~rt'lin act. For txaniplc. a shipper whc) has heen delayed in sending an originill hilt of Ii~dirrg to thc rcccivcr niny instruct the niaster of the ship (ir the sliipo\vnt~r to ~EI',~SC thr gcmrls to a nan~mi thlrd party without prrdurtion crf an original bill ol ladi~ig. The Illaster or (~~.u-~ier, if they agree, may requirr a letter of irrdt-nltrity f r u n ~ thc shipper for the consequences of complying shoulil it tutrr out thilt thi, n'initd party is not entitled to takrcleli\.ery t i f thegc1c)~ls. It shucllil tx-rrott~l th,it, is^ rulc, any such It,ttcr which seeks to indemnify i~gainst an ~1.t \v.trii.li IS irrtt~idcd to dl-fraud ,111 i n n ( ~ e n t third party is unenftirceablr in a wurt ot I.I\v.

Lien The r ~ g h t Lo retain col~trol of the proper-\- cit another until a drsht relat~ne, to 11 ha5 been pald

Lien clai~se Clause In a q.xiynKr chi~rter-party wlric-lr t.r~tltlc..; ttic .;lrip- tnzrncr to cxcrcisc a lien 011 the cargo, that ir, to retain t.or1trol t i t thc ~.lrgct

Page 12: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

until any freight, dcadfreight or demurrage which is owing is paid. This provision is often incorporated into the cesser clause which seeks to relieve the charterer of all responsibility under the charter-party once the cargo has k n shipped.

L.i.f.0. Liner in free out q.zt

Lift (1 Weight of an individual piece of cargo lifted by a crane or derrick.

Lift (2) Weight of cargo '.lp.~ble of being carried by a ship, often baseti on a specific draught.

Lift (to) (cargo) Said of a $hip, to load a particular weight of cargo, often based on a spec~fic draught.

Lift (to) (bunkers) To take hunkers O n h a r d .

Lift crane Name given to a crane u m i with a hook to lift g ~ x d s 011 and off ships by contrast with other methods of loatling ant1 disch'~rginp,, namely, drag linr, grab and magnet.

Lift subjects (to) As a shipbroker, to remove any or all conditic)ns, as the case may he, the existence of which generally precludes thc charter of a ship frum being agrfcd.

Lift truck satellite I'allet truck which is attached to a fork-lift truck and operated fmm there by remote contrul. It goes into a shipping container for thc p u r p of loading, unloading and molving palletiscd g d s while the fork-lift truck rrmains outside the container.

Lift-away hatch cover Hatch cover consisting of a single slab which is lifted off when access to the hold is required. It may be liftrrl by short. cranes or ship's gear and s t a C k d with others out of the wav until the hatch is to be closed. This type of hatch cover is typically found on cellular containerships but is alx) fittetf tc) ttiulti-purpxw? and heavy lift ships. This hatch cover is alsc) termed a pinttwn hatch cover.

Lift-on lift-off System of Ic~aJing and c!isr.h,~rgi~lg whereby cargo is lifted ctn and off a ship by the use of cranes. It is rrorrt~ally said of shipping c-cnitair~ers. Ahbrcviated to 10-lo.

Light displacement tt'elght of a ship's hull, rndchlnt.ry, tyuipment and spires. This is ofterr thc basis on which ships are paid for when purchased

Liner in free O u t

for scrappltig The difference between the loadtd d~spla~enrent and l~ght d~sylacrmrnt 1s the ship's deadweight

Light dues Charge, levied against a ship, which contribrltes tto theupkeep tit a c~jutitry's lighthuuses.

Lighten (to) X) remove cargo from a shlp in ordpr to reduce her draught. 'This operation may be carr~ed out to cnablr a ship to clear a bar or sand- bank or to enter a port whrrr t l ~ c depth of water is otherwise insufficient.

Lighter Type of barge used to carrv to a port part of the cargo ot an ocean shlp Thrs oprattcon 1s carr~ecl out, for example, whcn the draught of the shp IS too d c ~ p t o reatti the port, sufficient cargo Lwing d ~ s c h a r g d to 11ghtcrs to rcduce the draught

Lighterage ( 1 1 'I'he use of lighters or very often for the prlrpcne of carrying cargv discharged from an ocean ship in order tv lighten her and reduce her draught.

Lighterage (2) Monetary charge tor thtl use of lighters o r barges for the carriage of cargo

Limber board Removable board which is lifted to inspect a bilge

Limitation of liability hlaximum sum of r~ici t i ry pdyable by a carrier to a shipper or hill of lading holdcr for any darnage or loss to the cargo for which the carrier is liable under the contract of carriage. The basis of tht. limitation may b per piece ur package or per tonne or per containt~r acc~)rdirrg to the particular contract. The amount of the liluitation is deter- m i n d by agreement of the two parties or hy law.

Line Abbreviation for shipping Irne, a company \vlliih operates a ship or ships on a regular basis between advcrtisd ports anti offefi space for goods in return for freight basccl on a tariff of rate3.

Liner or liner ship Cargo-carrying ship wtrich is operated between scheduled, ndvertiscd p o r t s (of loading arrc! discharge on a regular basis.

Liner bill of lading Hi l l ot lacling ccvntaining the terms and cnn~litinns oi carriage of a shippiti!: litre.

Liner in free out C)u~lific.dtio~~ to r l frriplit rate denoting that it IS inclusive o f the sea carrrage ,111d the C U S ~ of loading. I t excludes the cost of dis-


Page 13: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

cliarg~ng which is flavablc by the shi~~pt l r or rwelver, as the cilsc I I W ~

lw. There may be ii laytime and <iemurragt. arrangement it t the port of discharging since tht.tdrripr has nci contnll ovrr the discharging Abbrevi- i~tt-d to 1.i.i.o.

Liner service Servi<t> pnwided by a shipping conlpan!. \vheret>y cargo- carrying ships are opcmted b e k e e n sc.treduld, advertised ports of Icwdi~rg iind discharging ern a regular basis. The irright rates wh~ch art3 charged arc based on the shipping company's tariff or. li the company is a member of A liner ccinference, tiit. tariff of that ~.c~~iiertm-c.

Liner terms Qu~liflcation to a freight r'ite which signifies that i t consists of the C K P ~ I I ci~rri~lgc ,lnd the cost 0: cargo handling at the Icr,rding and discharging ~iorts accod~ng to thr c ustc~nl of those port*. 'l'his varies widely frcim ~,ountry to country and, within clruntrirs, frorrr plrt to p v t : in some ports, the freight excludes all cargo handling costs whilr in otlrcrs the cost of handling twtwcen the hold arrd the sh~p ' s rail cir quay is included. Abbreviattd to 1.t.

I.iner waybill @cwument, i~sued by a shipping lint, to a shipper, which serves a4 receipt for the pclcids and evidence uf the ccrntr.lct of carriage. In these rtxspci-ts it resembles a bill oi lading but, unlikt* a l l i l l a t lading, ~t is not a document (if title; 11 bears the natlrt. of the consignee who has only to ideritify himself in order to takc delivery cit the c'rrgrl. k-cause it is nc~t negcitiablt>, thC liner waybill i5 nc)t acceptable t ~ i banks ,IS collateral secur- ity. The purpose r > f the liner \vavbill is to avoid the ~leldys to ships rid cargoes tvhiclr occur when hilb crf lirding are late in arriving at the discharge port Thr liner waybill is also wfrrrcd to as a sea waytrill or an tn.tSan waybill or simply e waybill

Linertime Deep sea tlmr ihClrtrr-party, publishtuj l y the Baltic and Inter- naticinal Mirriti~uc Conference (HI\lCO), used ivhc.11 strips are ch,lrterc.ci for liner opt~rirtion

Link span 5urface which torrns a shore-bawl inti,rit~cc with ships, enabling vt-hicks tobedriven otr '11td offshlps s t~ch '14 n)ll-cr~l roll-off ships which have no r~rmys. I t is specially constnicted to mtu.t grclgr~phical constra~nts in a port and the physic,ll requirements suctr ~ r s 1 1 1 t h ! y p of slri1.r which \v1l1 be rlvitig 11. I t may be fixed or float~ng depencii~it: OII the rrartici~lar site. As ~vrll .rs ro.lci vehicle, paswigcrs and. It-s cor~r~rl(inly, rail c-ars use link sp;lr~s as .I link bt.t\\.een *hip and shore.

Liquid natural gas carrier or liquefied natural gas carrier Shi;, ~irsi)::lt-cf

to carry natrlral gas (nleth.rnc). The gas is held in a liquid state I>!' presurts . ~ n d refrigt.raticin. The c-arp-carryin): capability c:onslsts of s p ~ i a l tanks whose upptor sections of1t.11 prutnltfv above d t ~ k helght it1 ~lonied clr cylindrical forni. Abbreviated to 1.n g. &-'~rricr. .4lso known as A mcthane carrier

Liquid petroleum gas carrier or liquefied petroleum gas carrier Ship designed to carry liquid petroleum gas, such as 1.rutane or propane. Thesix , ~ r c carried in special tanks under prrssure and at \'cry low tt~~~lper,lhlres. 'The tanks are oftm rectangular in section and may be flanked by wing c)r Iioppw tanks uwd t c j carry \v.rtcr ballast. Abbreviateci to 1.p g. ci~rricr.

, List (to) Saiil c r i a s h ~ p , tci Ivan over tci onc side

Litigation clause Clausc in a bill o f lading or charter-party which stipu- lates that any dispute between thv prrtles arisi~lg from thtt contract tw resolved in '3 court of law, ;IS c>ppost.d to nrbitratic)~~. I t also specifies which country has jrlri.dicticin, that is, the authority tv aciniinister jr~stice Also krlown as the jrlrisdicticln r lause

Livestock carrier Ship r ~ s r d tor the ,..irrlage of li\:cstock, ~riainly sherl,. Many are c~rrrv~rted from nil tankers a ~ i d drl/ cargo s h i p , altliclugh a few !rave been purlx-r-built, S l r ip tvhich have bevn convertmi have essent~allv c,nly had livcstc3ck deck< added; t 1 r i - s ~ consist of weather- prcitccted pelis in which tlrc livestr>ck art- carried .Also knowrr as a sheep c-clrrier.

L.1.a. Long It~rrpth additicrnal 1 j . i :

Lloyd's Agents h*leniht.rs c>f a ~vnrld-wide network cif agcr1.t~ of Lloyd's of Laondon, l o c , ~ t d at must of the larpr p r t s and many r)f the smalltbr onrs. Their functions are to report tci L.loycl's on shippi~ig mcivtSnrcnts ancl casualties and to car? out suneys on behalf cif insurance undcn\.rrter; o r cargci rtc't-ivi*rs.

Lloyd's Register of Shipping British ship c~lassificaticin soiietv. For 1/lc7 i~ctriti~r~rs c f r r slrltr clar.~~fi,.i~trotr ccliirtv, w t p Classification society.

L.nr. Lane mc.1t-v~ 1 7 . : :

L.n.8. I irlu~d natural p s or 1icl11i.tic.d natl~r,~l gas St-t. Liquid natural gas carrier


Page 14: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

- Lap; carrier

Load Quantity or nature of what 1s being carrlcd This term nnrn~allv refers to transport by truck

Load (to) TI) plii~*t* goods in a ship

Load displacement 5rr. Loaded displacement.

Load line One of the lines painted on th t sidrs of a ship ~vhich show thc maxinium dcpths to which t l~r ship tnav he inrtnt.rsrd tvhctr arriving ilt, sailing through or putting to st.il i r i the different hviid l i t r t * /crrrrs. 1-he positioning of th tw lirrt-s is deterrtiind by the nlles agrred at the Inter- national Conference nn Load Lines which have krtr ratifitd by many nlariti~tre countries. I.ciad lines are also markel on the w.~lls cif shipping containers antl warehuusm: to shvw the maximum height to which gucnis rnay t ~ e stacked. Alxv spelled loadline or Ir~ad-line.

Load line mark Ring painted on the sides of a ship anlidships bisected by a hurizontal line which is level with the ship's summer load line.

Load line zone Geographical area, defined by the International Cnn- ference on Load Lines, where a ship's hull tnay bp immerscd n o dt-t-p-r than the appropriate load line. There are five t y t w of zone: tropical, summer, winter, seasonal h-opical and seasonal winter. The first t h m types are pernianent, that is, the one appropriate load llne applies all year round. The last hvo being seasonal, the corrcstwnding load lines apply at certain periods nnly, depending on the particular zone. for the re3t of the year, the sumnier load line applies.

Load ready Said oi the date on which a ship is ready to load cargo.

Loaded displacement or load displacement Weight of a ship's hull, machinery equipment, spares, cargo, bunkers, fresh water and crew when the ship IS imn~ersed to her summer load line. The difference between the loaded displacement and the llght displacement is the ship's deadweight.

Loaded leg Sub-division of a ship's voyage during which thC ship is carrying a cargo. I t is uscful for a shipowner or ship operator to brcak a voyage down ~ n t o legs, lx>tt,th loadrd and ballast, in order to cletcrn~inc the profitahilits o f the itoyagr and to asst~ss rtqclirt>tnt>tits for bunkcrs, si~rrt> a ship may consume mow when loadmi.


Loading broker Cunipany ~rliich r e p r c w ~ ~ t s a shilying line at the port of loading. It.; clilt~es are tc1 advertise the line's sailings, tcv obtain cargnes and co-orditiate thetr delivery to the ship and t o sign hills of lading on hchalf of tlie rriaster.

Loading hatch Hatch otwtilng found In the roof of n bulk coritd~trrr through wlitch thc c.iry,c) IS Ic~aded by g r f i - ~ t ~ Bulk co~rt~~irjc~rs norrnallv have thrcc such I i a t~h t~s

Loading rights .Authorisdtiun granted by all the rnenlhcr lint-s of il lirrt~r coniemncc to pc~rtictllar member line to Inad cargo otr ,I rt.gtll~r basis at a ccrtaitl in-rrt. c.chilstline cir country, as the msc nlay tw.

Loadline or load-line Altt*rtrati\.e spellings ic1r lnad line. L l r Lfcfi~titt~?tt,

spr. Load line i l b ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ .

Locating cone Device for positiotiitig orie shipping container on lop of another using the corncr (astings. 7his is necessary nn shikw I~avitlg tlo cell gu~dcs .

Lock Spacc in a river or cannl enclosed at the sides by walls atill at t~ac.h rnd by gatt5, into which ships and other craft enter in order to be tloateci up or down to a ditferent level or tcr gain ilccess tci, or to leave, an e n c l o d dock. Ships enter a lock through orre gate after which it i s c l t d . Suificitvit water is a l lowd in or out, as the case may be, thmugh sluicr gatw, to bring the Ievcl within the lock equal to the level on th? other side of the lock: M'hen this is achieved, the second lock gate is v ~ w n t d antl the ship is ahle to leave

Lock thmugh (to) To take a ship through a lock.

Log (book) Book i t i which are m o r d d daily all events relating ttr the voyageof a ship, such as her ~y~si t ivn and speed and detailsof the wratlrer.

Log abstract Extract ol a slrlp's log hiok For example, abstracts wh~ch gtve detatls of the shtp's speed and the weather c o n d ~ t ~ o n s encountprcd at sea arta nnr~nallv ava~lable tu a tune charterer so that thc sh~p 's prr- fc>r~i\ancr mav be accurately calculated and conipclrt~d wtth any warranty t r i the c-hartrr-party

Log camer Slup tit-tgned to carry whole cargoes nt logs Htr-ause of the storvajir factcx of t h ~ s conimnd~ty, such sI11p5 need a h~g l i c,ut~~c capacrty


Page 15: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

La3 grab -- -

Logs tend ti1 damage the cart-\.lllg s111~%, $0 tilt-n* ~ * ? r ~ l \ rlrt. ri~irni~lly L7as1c and cheap

Log grab Attachment to a crane 1~1th two 'arms' wh~cll, \vhrn brought together, enccimpass almost completely a hundlc of l o p rnatrlinp ~t to t ~ e I t f t ec i

I.og grapple Attachment to a crane whlch conslrts o i a pair ( i t large pincers at the end of a wtre Thc%e grip thc toptlrost logs o t a strappel! bundle of logs for the purposc of I~tttrig

Lo-lo Abbrt-viattul tortn vf litt-on lift-off r t

Long length additional Extra charge set by l~ne r conferences on behalf o f thtair mt.rnbers or applied by shipping lines on cargo excccdin# a lcligll~ specifid in their tariff, often 40 feet or 12 nictrrs. 'This t>xtra chaqt, ir. normally expres.wd as an amount of motrtay per tonnr for each unit of length, for example each foot or part of il fmwt iri rxcess uf the specified length. c2bhrcviat~d to l.1.a.

Long ton 2,241 Ihs. I

Longitude LXistance East or \Vest of the Greenwich rnvridian, 11lcasurt.d in degrees, minutes and seco~ids.

Longitudinal bulkhead Vertical separation in a ship which ntns elther along her entire length, such as the bulkhead which separates sidc tanks kcim centre tanks in a tanker, or along parts of the length, as with a crntrc- line bulkhead in a dry cargo ship ~vliich does not continue undtsr thc hatchways; this type of bulkhead is constructed to providc additionill longiturlinal strength.

Longshoreman Dock worker. Thk term is used particularly in the 1Jnitcd I States of America. I

Loose Satd of a consig~ltlicnt which cc>nsists nf sitifile piecr5 trot brlrrdletl together.

I.ost or not lost Term which may be used in contracts of carriage in ~vliich the freight IS prepaid: often. freight is not returnable whether thc ship and /o r the cargo are lost cir not once having commcnccxi tlic voyage. hlan!; chartcr-part~cs provide that brokerage coniniissiori is payable rvht-thrr tht. ship is lost cir 11ot.

Lumber load line -

Low loader R i ~ d trailer used fur tiit. tliiwement of exceptivrrally large and heavy pieces of cargo.

Lower hold Area of a ship's hold utrdt>rneath the tween deck

Lower tween deck Space for c-arryirlg cargo ill a ship which has a lo~ver tiold and an u p p r hold. It is s ih l a td immediately ahrive the 1owt.r hold of a ship and below the deck which divides the u p p r hold.

Loyalty contract Contract hetween a liner conference and a shipper it1

which the s h i p p r undertakes to ship his cargoes in tllc ships cit member lines of that conference in return for a level of service and a discount. ktiown as a contractor's rebate, or a s p ~ i a l freight rate.

L.p.8. Liquid petroleum gas or liquefied petroleum pas. Srr, Liquid pet- rc~lrum gas carrier.

L.p.g./ammonia carrier Dual-purpcm tatikrr which is fully refrigeratd and designed tci cilrrv .ininionia m liquid f(irill or liquefied ptrolerlrir gas. Cargo is carried it1 rririgcrated tanks which arc kept separate from the ship's hull by an insulating harrier so as to help maintain the low tcnipcra ture.

L.s. Lump stlnl, as In lump 3um charter ~7.i).

L.s. & d. Landing, storage and delitvery c r . l !

L.L. (1) Long tun 4.z:

L.1. (2) Liner terms r l . ? !

Luffing The vertical movetncnt of the jib of a crane. In some cases, the ivholc of the jib is luffed, while in c-thcrs only a small yart of the jib at the top is n>c>vcd vertically. A luffing crane is a crane \vh<)se jih can be mcnred at diifcrcnt angles to the htrri/.olrtal.

Lumber load line One cif the lines pil tntd on the sides of a qhip which sli<i\\rs thv rrlaxiniunl depths to which that ship's I ~ ~ r l l may be irnn~crw4 when arriving at, .;,riling tlin,ugh or putting to sca tn the different Itidd line zones with a deck cargo of timber. The p n i t i o ~ ~ i n g of these linrs is dptcrmined by the nllrs agrccd at the lnterndtional Conterence on LLMLI I.irrt3s which have been ratifitd hy inany maritime co~~ntr ics . i\lw known as tilt. tinltwr load llne

Page 16: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Lunip sum charter Lhy,lgr chdrtcr ior ~vl i ic , l i tht. fr(.ight is p.1y.lkdt- '1s '1

lump sun1 rather than per tatlilc crr otlicr unit of carp,rr. '[he cihiplruric.r guaranttm to lift a certain quantity cri carg(r but t h ~ ihartcr1.r p lys tlic sailie anlount tor frcbight irrcynvttvr of t l i t qu,~ritity Io.ldt.rl.

I..w.o.n.t. I ~ l w water ordinary neap tides

L.w.o.s.t. Low water ordinary spring tides

MarGregor hatch Proprietary hatch cover tvidely used on dry rar.go s h i p These are a means of closil~g hatihtvays, dtld I ~ I ' I ~ C I I ~ ~ t f i - 1 ~twtic.rti+ which arc desigtrtzj aird o~wratell in different ways depending on the type vf ship. Far :t~rricl~rs c.rarriplt.r;, w e Folding hatch covel; Liftaway hatch cover, Piggy-hack hatch cover, Rolling hatch cover, Sliding hatch cover arl~f Stacking hatch cover.

Mafi flat o r Mafi trailer or Mafi I'roprirtdry name for a type of rcill trailer I?. L'.

Magnet I)e\ricr attached to a crane which is used fur lifting scrap iron

Maiden voyage First voyage of a ship.

Main deck 13eck riia stlip frvrri which the herhiarc4 is deterininecl.

Main port I'ort which handles a sipificant proportion of a country's seaborne trade. I t 1s norniallv onr ~vhich can acco1ni11odatc a largc nu111bt~r id ships atid which has a wide range of b'ilitis. Fur liner ships, it is a port c r ~ l l d at regularly.

hlaintain class (to) Said of a ship, to pass the surveys ~ ~ l i i c h are carriel out periodically by the ship's classificat~nn society to determ~ne whether

1 22

Mate's receipt --

she is fit to continue trading arcorcling tr) the w ~ i r t y ' s ru1t-s

Make good as general average (to) To CO~I~I )PI IS~I~C A carp,o owner lor loss or claina~e tc) c a r ~ o C ~ I I > C . C ~ t l ~ A ):t*nerrll avPrrlKP s.icriIIce

Malt terminal Terminal in a port dedicated to the handling and storage ol ~nalt, a product of barley use1 in brewing beer This type of terminal i.; similar to onc handling grain but has spcialised silo equipment beral~se rrl thc wnsiti\iity of this c~n i~ i iod i tv to crushing. Distribution is effected iy chute for lorries, h~rgt*s or outward-bound ships. There may also be a bagging plant. Malt is also carried in gt-trrral p u r ~ w ~ t ~ contninrrs fittml with liner bags.

Manifest k n i m e n t containing a full list vf a shlp's cargv, extra(-tcd from the hills of lading. A copy, known as the out\oar~i manifest, is lodgrd with the Customs authorities at the port of loading. A further copy known as the inward manifest, is similarly I ~ i g e c ~ at the discharge port, with one copy going to the ship's agent so that the ~ ~ n l a i d i n g of the ship may be p1.lntit-d ill ddvancc-.

Maritime declaration of health Statement signcvl by the master of a ship that healtll cotiditions on board hls ship are gcxd. This statement is submitted on arrival at a port to the health authorities who will then grant free pratiquc.

Maritime lien Clainl gain st a ship enforc-1 by means of her seizurv, arising fnttti ric>n-paynicLrrt of, for tbxamplc, salvage charges or costs in rclntinri t o a c-ollision.

Marks and numbers Markings drst~nct~vely d~splaved on g c d s be~ng shtpprl , or oti thcir p c k a g ~ n g , for eaqc of ~dent~fication These include the port or plact- of d'st~nat~on and a p ~ c h g e number, d there is more than 0 1 1 ~ ~

hlaster Commander of a mcrchnnt ship, A master foreign-going is a person who is officially qualified to command a foreign-going ship. A master's certificate is the officjal qtralilication enabling a person to command a merchant ship.

Mate's receipt Receipt, made out by the tirst offic.er, stati~rg the quantity and conditioii of gcicids lo7adei on bnani the ship. This dsc'tlnlrtit is given to the shipper and later exchanged for the bill of lading.


Page 17: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Mauritanore Voyage charter-party, published by the Baltic and Inter- natic>nal Maritime conference (RlhfCO), used for sh ip l~~en t s of iron ore fn1111 Mauritani.3. The full name of this chclrtcr-party is the General Ore Charter-party Mauritanian Terms.

M.d.0. Marine diesel oil

Mean draught Average of the draughts fonvard and aft of a ship

Measure or measurement Size of a piece of cargo or a consignment. expressed in nlbic met- or cubic feet, determined by taking tht> (often extreme) length, width and height of the piece or consignment. Abbrtbvi- ated to M.

O n the measure or on the measurement Said of a freight rate which is pilyable on the basis of the crlbic rnt.nsnmmcnt o i a cargo, generally twr cubic metre.

Measurement (of a ship) Calrulativn o f a ship's nyister tonnage

Measurement cargo Cargo one tonne crt wti~ch rncasurcs more than one cubic metre. Freight for measurement cargo is normally i.r'~vablc on the basis of its cuhic measurement, that IS. pcr cubic nretre

Measurement rated cargo Cargo whose freight is payable on the basis of its cubic measuremetrt, by mcans of a rate per cubic metre. Mt?asurement rated cargoes are gent-rally those which measure nlvrr than one cubic metre to one tonne.

Measurement rules Kulw of a llner conference ioncrrritllg thc method of determining the c-ub~c n~casurcn~ent of a plece of cargo rtr a consignment consisting of mcire than one plcce Generallv, a meaw~~- tncn t l q bawd on the extreme length width arid hclght of each piece (lr package with pmvlslons for cargo* 411pped in, for example, bags clr drums

Mechanical ventilation System of v~ntllating the holds of a ship whereby ventilators on deck arp closed off and .lir is circulated meill- anically through the tiolds, Lwing dried, if neces-wry, by dl-humidifying equipment. This method of vcntllating is useful when tht. outside air contains a high level crf Irutnidity which rvould cause c-orrdctrsatioi~ claniage to the cargcr i f ~nt rcnlurd into the holds. This systrrn is also krrown as forced ventilation.

Methane camer ~~B~~t~tB~NNI!N~IiT1iTIiIIfllfllfllfllfllfllfllfllfllfllf~!fl!tf!tf!~f!tf!tf!tf!tf!tfTtfTtf~tf#'

Medcon Voyagc charter-party u d for shipments of ma1 from the East coast of the united Kingdom. It was devised by the Chamber of Shipping c ~ f thc Unitcri Kingdom.

Member line Shipping line which i.; a n ~ c ~ n b ~ r of a liner conference ant1 subpst to the terms of membership which include charging its shippers only those freight rates agreed by the i o n f ~ ~ t r c c , loading and discharging only at thtse ports al lc~ated by the confewncc to each line and. in the case of some cc>nferences, pooling of carg0t.s and revenues amongst the lintr.

Memorandum of agreement IVritten contract for the purchase nt a s h ~ p I t contams a descrlptlon uf the s h ~ p , the nanic3s of the parties, the purchase price and tcrlns of p ~ ~ m e n t , the date anti place ot dellvery of the s h p to ttr i . purrlrawr and .3II the other terms and conc!~ t~o~~\ o f the contract

Merchant 'Iiirni nftt-n uscd in liner hills of lading to describe, as the case may be, the ?hipper, n-ct-ivcr or consignee, hill of lading holdt-r o r the agent uf any of tht.sta.

Merchant haulage lrllarid trdrlspolt of shipping contamers prr)vldt)+l by the s h ~ p p r or rewlver ot gauds rather than bv the ocean camer

Merchant marine 1\11 the shlps of a country engaged in the carriage of ~ C K K ~ S .

Merseycon Voyage charter-party used for shipn~ents of coal from the Mersey area of the United Kingdorn. It was devised by the Chamber of Shipp~ng of the United Kingdutlr.

Metacentre Point where a vertici~l line passing thmugh a ship's centre of buoyancy when she is upright mwts il vcrticd liile passing through her new centre of buoyancy when she is heeling.

Metacentric height Distance betrueen a ship's cpntrc of gravity and her rirt~taccntre. The distance is critical since. if it is ttw small, the ship becomes unstable, having a tmdt-ncy to rnll slowly. Such a ship is said to lw tender. If the metacentric height is tc~o lilrgt-. thc ship tends to roll quickly. In this casc, she is said to be stiff The metacentric height is known as the g.m. whtw p, is thc centre of gravity and m is the ~ne ta~rn tn - .

Methane carrier Vfisel de igned to carry mettiar~e (liqueficri natural gas). The gas is held in a liquid state hy pressure and rrfrigeration. The

1 25

Page 18: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

cargcwcarrying capability consists ~f special tanks whosc upper sections often prc~trude above deck height in donlcsil or cylindrical form. Also known as a liquefied nah~ral gas carrier I1.rr.g. carrier) o r liquid p ~ s carrier

Metric tonne l ,m kilc~grammes

M.h.w.n. Mean high water nt3ays

M.h.w.s. Mean high water springs

Min. Minimum.

Mini-bulker Vessel of about 3,000 tonnes deadweight which has the cc>rlstnlr-tional f m t u r t ~ o f a bulk carricr, having a single deck, hoppered holds and upper wing tanks, but which is smaller. As with the larger bulk carriers, the mini-bulker may be geared ur gearless. Equally, slw niay havc hatch covers capable c ~ f taking timber deck cargo or shipping containers.

Minlmax h l i~~ imuni /n~ax i~~ ium. When qualifying the contractual rluan- titv in a voyagi> charter. this tcrnm signifies that freight is payable on that prrciw yuantitv, no niorv and no Icss.

Misdeliver (to) S a d of a carrier, to deliver cargo to the wrung consigntv.

Misdelivery Deliverv of cargo by the carrier to thc wrong consignee

Misdescribe (to) Ti, provide incorrect information, as a shipowner. con- cerning a ship or, as a shipper or charterer, concerning a cargo For furtl~r-r dt- f in~t iov, sct. Misdescription b l o r c c

Misdescription Incorrect information concerning a ship given by the shipowner to a charterer or concerriing cargo given by a charterer or shipper to a shipowner or shipping line. This rnay gi\'e rise to a claim for extra costs cir damages or, in some c a m , cancellation vf ttlc cantract of i.arriagc.

Miss the cancelling date (to) S a d of a $ h ~ p , to tall t o hr avallahle to the rhartcrer at the agreed place bv the last date, knowrr as thr canccll~ng date, stlpulattd 111 the contract T h ~ s may glt'e the chartewr the tight to cancel the charter

Mixed cargn Trw or more prcxIiict~i camixl nn 1.c-mrd onp ship.


Mtrw nr Iwu in t)wnrrFl; option

Mixing of cargo I'lacing rif gucds, fur exitrrrple in a ship, in such a way that they require sorting tlrfore twing deli\:ered.

hl.1.w.n. \,lean Iorv water nraps

hl.1.w.s. X,lciln low water springs.

Mobile crane Gcncral pilrposc crant rayahlt. of twng ~ r ~ c i \ f t ~ I tmnl 13lace to plart-, tor example frvnr cine part of a purt to arwther It may be on wheels or mounted on c~awlers and t l w i for lift~ng, grabbing or drag l ~ n e work Some t y p e are capable of hftmg unusually heavy loads, such cranm are often h i d by the day to load or d~scharge a small nunilwr of lifts tcx, h c a ~ for shore cranes or sh~p 's gear

Mobile unloader 'Type of ship unloader \vtiich is wheeled and capable of k i n g moved aruund a port wherever needed. It is typically used in ports where there is no dedicated termjnal with its own fixed equipment. It allows flexibility but is slower i\lso called portable unloader SCF ~ I S O Unloader.

Mol. %,lore or less.

Molchop. X4ow or less in chartcrcr's option c 7 . z ~

Mole 1,fasclnry structure prc~jecting vutwarris trvm the shore, designtul to protect the entrance to a port

Moloo. Slorc or less in owner's option q rl.

Moor (to) To attach a ship to the shore by means of m p s .

More in disnute if on board to be delivered Notation appearing on a . . . , bill of lading when the shipper is in disagreement with the ship as to the nu111Lx.r of nitcts or nackaers tallied on hoard.

More or less in charterer's option (lption allowed to a voyage cliartert-r tu Icwl up to a certain clt~antity, normally expressed as a percentage or a number of tonnes, over clr under a quantity spxif ia i in the contract of camage. Tlus option may Lw sought if the charterer is not certain of the exact quantity which will bc available at the time of loading. Abbreviated t o n~ol'hop.

More or less in owner's option Option ailoivcd In a shi~wwner t o carry

Page 19: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Mother ship - /////ffff*'fPf/f///////////////YYYYY/Y/////

u p to a certaln quant~ty normally expressed as A prcentage or a nu111bt.r of tonnes, ovrr crr ~ lnde r a quant~ty s p c c ~ l ~ t d In the voyage charter 1'111s o p t ~ o n may sought t f the sh~powncr ts net crrtaln what the shlp's cargo capacltv w ~ l l be. taklng ~ n t o cons ide ra t~o~~ bunkers, stores and fresh watrr, or ~f he wants flex~b~lity to adjust the shtp's trlm Abbreviated to mirloo

Mother ship Ship which performs the n ~ a i l ~ tx-can leg of a voyage, lwing fed by smaller ships ur barges. In particular. this tern1 is ustd when referring to a brgr-carrying ship.

Moulded breadth Xlaximum hrt-adth of a ship, measurtd frum the insides of her platmg.

Moulded depth Vertical distarice from the keel to the ulyermost deck, taketi inside the ship's plating. Also, when a particular ~lezlr is specitied, the moulded depth is the vertical d~staiice to that c k k . Also referred to as the depth moulded.

hllr hlate's rcceipt r1.n

M.s. Motor ship.

Mt. Empty. Aflus abhrev~ahon is mcxt often used to rcft-r to shipping containers.

M.t. Metric ton q.(r

Llultidrck ship Ship w-~th s v c m ! r k k s or Ievds, mnst w i l t 4 tn cab-rytn~ ~ ~ n w a ! carRn. T h ~ c is be~-aus~p ~ m e r a l carqa carnpricvs manv corn- ir~nclitrcs, w m e hcav~cr + I ~ a t i ofhcrr;, all packed In ~ ~ a r i i t u s rvava and often b w lined for a nl~lnbrr t-rC LIi<t'ttrrrgc p~irts: I~avinq ~ r v ~ r s l r k k ~ ma'mles ~ ~ 7 % ~ C I k s t ~ ~ ~ r d In I;utXil a :vitv that lht=v cfls r ~ t l t clsrnage eail~li othm, [~actInilfirlr. bv cnmprwsivn. and sn !hat tliry ;lro i~1<1w pas~ly J C C C ~ P I ~ ~ C

rt)r i3isrhnrgine.

Multi-purpose cargo ship Ship capable a( carrying several types of cargo, either in combination with each other or as full cargoes. There are several different multi-purpose ships, s11ch as ore!bulk/'tril carrier.; or hargc,/container s h i p .

Multi-purpose crane Docks~ilt, crane capable o i handltng a wlttle var~ety of cargcws, such as general cdrgo, bagged or pallrtlsed gcrods, heat); ldts, bulk cargoes or contatnen I t is able to do so b y varying the 11ft1ng

Neap tide / Y Y Y Y Y Y / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / L / / / / / / / / / / / Y

attachments accord~t~g to the product Such attachnrrnts tnclude grab, htwk and spreader

Multi-purpose terminal Tprrnirial in n port capable of handling and storing a wide variety of products whether in cases. on pallets, in bags or looseand unprc>tected. Sucl~ tt-rnrinals are normally equipped with cranes which may have the capacity to lift unusually heavy Itwds. There is normally covewd storage for cargiws that cannot hc left out in the o p n . Some multi-purpose tcrnmirials have rrjll-on/roll-off fac-ilitiei.

Mumapati t Voyage charter-party publishecl by tht. Shipchartering Coordinating Bureau, hloscow, usxi for shipnwnts of apatite ore and apatite concentrates from Murmansk.

Mumapalitbill Blll of Iadlng Intended to be ustd for shipments of apatite orc and apatite concentrates fmm hfr~rrnansk under the Mur- niapat~t charter-party

N.a.a.b.s.a. Not always afloat hut safe aground ~ 7 . 7 ~ .

Nanyozai \byage charter-party, published hy the Japan Shipping Exchangr, ustd for shipments of logs

Narrow the laycan (to) To mluce the nunilwr of days betwren the first of the laydays arrd the last. A shipowner may offt-r his ship to a prospective charterer with a large spread of dates in order ti7 niinirnive the risk of the ship arriving after the cancelling date which lnay give the charterer the option o f cancrlling the charter. The pmspective charterer may ask tllc shiprwner to n a m w the laycxn becai~se of berth or labour availability or k a u s e of cargo dellvery rquirements.

Nautical mile Distance equal to h,(.MO fwt.

Neap tide Tide whose range betwtwn high and lo\\* water is at its lowpst.


Page 20: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Neaped Said of a sliip which is unable to leave a prrt or place k a u s e of a neap tlde.

Negligence clause "lar~sr in a bill of lading or rliarter-party which seeks to relieve the shipowner or carrier of liabilitv for losses caused by the negligence of his servants or agents.

Net Device used for holding cargo whilc i t is k i n g lifted on and off a ship. It consists of a mesh made of rope or wire surrounded by a thicker rope or wire. used for lifting cargo. It has an eye at each end of iour comers f o r lifting with a hook. Only catgo which is not easily susccptiblr to damage can be lifted in t h s way. ALso known as a cargo net.

Net register tonnage or net registered tonnage Abbrevlatcd to r1.r t. Str Net tonnage

Net terms Typeof vnyagc charter in whichcargo interests pay for lcmding and discharging.

Net ton Ton of 2,0(M) Ibs. Also referred to as a short ton

Net tonnage I\ figure representing the total of aU the enclosed spi~cw within a ship available for cargo, a r r i v d at by means of a formula which has as its basis the volurnc tneasmrd in cubic metres. Abbreviated tc~ n.t. 'The net tannage has rc-p1acc.d the net register tonnage.

Net weight Ct'eight of the goods only, not including their packaging

New Jamn clause Protective clause inserted into a charter-party or bill of lading which provitfes that the shipowner is entitled to recover in general avcrage rven when the loss is caust-i by negligent navigation. The ncrd for s11r.h a clause arises frnni tht. drzision of an American 1-ourt that, while Arntvican law exempted a shipowner him liability for Ims or damage to cargr) mrllting from negligent navigation, this did not entitlr the shipxv~icr tci wcover in general average for such a loss.

New York Produce Exchange charter-party f:c)rm of time charter-party approvtxi by the New kbrk Produce Exchange. Abbreviated to S.Y.l'.E.

Newbuilding S h ~ p whtch ha\ been newlv bullt Llntll nanwl, the 5h1p is normallv referred to t7v '1 (sh~p)yarrl n u n i k r

Newsprint Papw used tor newspapers It is transpirtrd In the form of

paper rolls and tvptrally handled in ports and terni~nals using fork-lift trucks equiyp~xl with paper clan~ps.

Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Japancsr c h ~ p classlficatton sc~c~etv Ahbrevtated tn N K K For thc dt-firlrtln~r of17 qlrlp I.~RCSI~L-IIIICIII ~ ( W I P ~ V , .stsr Classification society

Nipponore Voyage charter-party puhlisl~cd by the Japan Shipping Exchange, u s 4 lor shipments of ore.

N.K.K. Nippn k~li: Kyokal-lapati~s~ ship ~Inssihcat~nu ~cxiet).. Srp ,?\si Classificatiun society

Nn run. no pay P~m~ic'ton in a alragc ngmpment that salvage mnnq 1s nut paynhlc unlsss thv rrvpcrty ic sa:rwi i r i rtccodanrr wirh t11at b g w e r n ~ 1 1 1 .

N.0.e. Not vttienvlse enunicratrd q . 1 ~

Nomenclature S v ~ t t ~ m of naming as. for example, the Brussels Tarlff Somenclaturc, a classlficat~on of a11 conlmod~t le camed ~ntcrnat~onallv

Nominate a ship (to) To designate a specific ship for a particular vovage. To be nominated Said in respect of a voyage for which a specific ship has yet to bc designated by the shipowner crr shipping line. APL>rrviateri to t.b.n.

Nomination Designatiun of a specific ship for a particular voyage hy a shipowner or shipping line.

Non-conference line Shipping line which clrwrates on a route senred by ,I liner conference but which is not a nicmbcr of that alnferencc. Als43 n-ft~mci to as an indepcnd~nt line or an outsider.

Non-contractor Person or company not having a loyalty contract with a particular lincr conference and not, thcwfore, entitled to a contr.lctorfr rebate on thr frcight.

Non-delivery Shortagp o f cargo at its destination.

Non-hygroscopic cargo Cargo whlch d r w not absorb mo~sturr. for exaniplp frotn the atmmphere. and dews not suffer a changc [ i f tve~ght

Page 21: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Non-negotiable bill of lading -- : ; ; ! : ; ! ; ? P X x 4 : ; ; : ; 1

during an mean passage. It drws, however, offer cclridensing surfaces and is therefore susceptible to damage from corrdensatiun.

Non-negotiable bill of lading Bill of lading which is not a signed, orig- inal bill of lading arid which is thereforc riot iapable of being used to transfer title in the goods descrihxi in it.

Non-reversible laytime Term used In a voyagr charter-party to s~gntfy that the t~nieal lowd to the charterer for loadu~g is to be treated separatelv from the t~llie allowed for d~scharg~tig for the purpose ot calcul~tlng dcniurrclgto or ~iespatch

Non-shipment Failurp of goods tu Lw loaded on hoard a particular ship.

Non-vessel owning common carrier or non-vessel operating common carrier Pcrson ur company, often a forwarding agent, \\rho d w s ~ w t uwn or cywrate the carrying ship but who contracts with a shipping line for the carriage of the goods of t h i d parties to whom he normally issues a hoi~re bill of lading. Ahhreviated to n.v.0.c.c. Smietirnes termed a non- vessel owning carrier, ahhrr\?iated to n.vo.c. or n.tv.cl.

N.0.r. Notice of readiness j.tr

Norgrain Voyage charter-party uwd for shipments of grain from the United States of America and fn)m Canada. Issucd by the Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A.), its full name is the North American Grain Charterparty.

N.O.S. Not othenv~se spesitied. For dcfitritiotr, .srr Not otlienvise enn- merated.

Not always afloat but safe aground Provision in a charter-party that the chartertrr has the right to order the ship to a port rvhrrr she may touch tlie bottom in safety Abhnwiateci tu n.a.a.h.s.a.

Not otherwise enumerated Category in the freight tariff ot a shipping line or liner co11fermc.e which covers coninrodities not specifically d m - r i b d t~lsewhert. in the tariff. Ahbrt-viattlrl to n.0.e. Also refernxi to ils not otherwise specified (abbrrviatrd to n.o s .) .

Note protest (to) As tnastrr of a shlp, to niake a dtvI,~rat~o~r before notary public or] drrlval In port that tlrc shtp has encountered clr- cunistanct.; twvvni! h ~ s control, such as h t 'd~v wriither, wh~cli may h ~ v c

causrd damage to the s h ~ p or her rargo. It may be necessary for the master to niakr this declaration, for cxample, to avoid liab~lity for damage ti) cargo

Notice of readiness Provision in a voyage charter that the slii~wwner or master must advisr the charterer when the ship has arrived and is ready to load or discharge for laytime to start rourrting. The clause containing this provision often ktipi~lates the particular hours and days when this notice may be tendered and how soon .iftrrwads laytinic cc>ninienrus. Abhreviatrd t o r1.v.r.

Notice of redelivery Written notice givt>tr by the time charterer to the s h ~ p w n c r giving the date when the ship is to be returned to the ship- owner at the end of the period of the charter. Charter-parties often stipu- late that several such notices be given at agrt-4 intervals as the date of redelivery approaches.

Notify party Party, whose name and addriss ' i ~ y ~ a r in a bill of lading, wtro is to be notifit4 by tlie shipping company or it3 agent of the arrival o f the goods at the discharge pclrt. The notify partv is often an agent for the rewiver of the gtxds who arranges for their clearance and transport to the reccivcr's premises. There is ncirrnally a bcni on the bill c ~ f larling into wliicli tht* details of the notify partv are inserted.

N.r.t. Ntat register tonnage o r nct rrgisterrcl tonnagr. I nr tit:frtritiotr, wt- Net tonnage.

Nubaltwood ( 1 ) \!<byage charter-partv, ~)uhlished by the Chanikr of Shipping of the United Kingcioni, used for shipments of tiniht-r from tlie Baltic and Norway to the United Kingiio~n and the Republic- of Irelantl.

Nubaltwood (2) B~ll 0 1 latllng ~ntend-i to bc rlwl for sh~pments ol t~mber from the Balt~c. ,mil Nonvay to thc L!ri~tcrl K~ngdom and thc Republic of Ireland u~ider the Nubaltwooci i hartrr-party

Nuvoy General purp-e voyage charter-partv, published by the British Chamber of fic~reign Trade.

Nuvoyhill B~ll 111 lading tite ended to be uscd for 5hipments under [lit. Nuvny chartcr- party.

Page 22: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

N.v.o. Non-vessel owning cnmrr. C;?r riqfTrritrnn, .cc7r* Non-vessel owning 1 common camer.

N.v.o.c. Kon-vessel cn\rning camer. l'cv ~irfir~itiotr. st7e Non-vessel owning common carrier. I N.v.0.c.c. Won-vessel owning comnion carrier y.z!

N.Y.P.E. (clp) New kivk Produce Exchange charter-party q.r!

0.b.o. C)rei'buik,ioil carrier (7.2: I I

Ocean waybill Dwurnent, issued hy a shipping line to a shipper, which scnres as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract of carriage. 111 these respects it resembles a bill ot lading but, unlike a bill of lading, it is not a dmunient uf title; it bears the name of the ccinsigncc rvlir) has only

i to identify himself in order to take delivery of the cargo. Btr-ause it is not negotiable, the liner waybill is not acceptable to banks as collateral secur- ity. The purpose ni the liner waybill is to avoid the delays to ships and cargoes which occur when bills of lading arc late in arriving at the I, discharge port. 'The Liner waybill is also referr& to as a liner waybill ur a I

sea waybill or simply a wayhill. I

Off hire Said of a ship on time charter for which h ~ r e money has tem- porarily ceased to pilid by the cliartt-rrr, for examplt. because o f a breakdown of the ship or her equipmt-nt. Leased shipping cwntaincrs may also k taken off Irire.

Off hire (to) To place a ship or a piece of equipment, such as a container, I (off hire y . I : I Off hire survey Inspection carried out at the time a ship is rtrtlelivered I hy a tirnt*charterer to a shipowner at the end of the jwriod of the chartrr. Thc inspection is carried out to detcr~nitir whether the ship is in the sarlrtl condition, wear a ~ i d tear excepted, CIS on delivery. Thc quantity of hunkers is ascertained for c~~mpar isc~n with the amounts spc~ i f i~c i in the cliartt-r- party. By agrecmrnt, the ship is inspected by one surveyor only or one surveycir for each of the hvo partim. Which party pays for the survcy and

whether the time taken counts for the puryxtse of calculating hire money are matters agrrc~i in the charter-pi~rty.

Offer firni (to) To make an offer r%rhiclr is not conditicmal in any way and is binding on the party making it,. provided that i t is accepted in full and within any time Limit spxifi td it\ it.

Official number Number allvciltrcl to a ship by the author~tics 171 a country when the ship is registered, for the purpose of id~ntification.

0.h.b.c. C)pn hatch hitlk L-arricr y . ~ .

Oil barge R~ver bargr d c ~ t p n t d f~i r the c~lrrlage of 011 cargoes

Oil port Port whose 1tia11i or c1111y l y ~ > t $ o f ~.argo handleti IS 011, often w ~ t h deep water jett~c? to accc~rrrtn~itl,~te large (111 tankerr. and 5~1th storage tanks and ~-fint-r~t.s

Oil tanker Ship designed for the carriage of oil m bulk, her cargo spa<-e consisting of several, or indeed ninny, tanks. Size and capacity range from the ultra large crude carrier (u.1.c.c.) at' ovcr half a nrillion tonnes deadweight to the small coastal tanker. Tanktm load their cargo by grav~ty from the shore or by shorc t ~ ~ n i p s and discharge using their own pumps.

Oil terminal lcrnltnal at a port whose maln or cmly type of cargo handltd 1s 011. It often has deep water berths to accomniodatt. large otl tankers ant1 ma\ have large storage tanks and refiner~cs

OiVbulWore camer See Orelbulk/oil carrier.

On hire survey Inspection carrird out at the. tinre a ship is tlelivered by a s h ~ p w n c r tn a time chnrtcrtv at the beginning of the pericd of the charter. This inspt*ctiorl is carried r)rlt to determine the condition of thc ship \\rliich tnay sutwequently be cvmpared with her co~idition at thp ctld of the charter. 'The quantity of bunkers is asertaincxl for comparison with the amounts specified in the charter-party. By agreement, tht. stlip is i n s p d e d by one surveyor onlv or onc surveyor fur r i~ch of the two parties. Cllhich party p,ivs for tlrc survt-y and \\~hetlier the time taken counts for tht. purptwc of r.illc-ulating hire money are mattem agreed in the charter-party.

On-carriage ('.lrridgtv of cargo beyond tile port or place where it is dis- chargtzl frr>rri a st*a-going or ocean-going s h ~ p , by another nieans oi

1 3.i

Page 23: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

transport such at. truck, train or barge. This muvemcnt is nftm sub- cnntr.lcted by tht. ocean carrier to ,ltiother corrlpany and it IS ~rnportant for thc shipfw~r or r ece i \~ r to ~letcrtnine \vhicti carrier is responsible for any Ions clr danl'ljir.

On-carrier Person or company who contract5 to transport Cargo frnni the port or place of d~schargc of a sea-~101ng or ocean-golng qhtp to another, often llrland, dc5tinatlon bv a diffcrrrit means of transport such as tntck, tram trr barge

On-cany (to) Tci carry cargo from the port c1r pI.?lt. of dtscharge of a stv-going or crean-going shtp tc) anothcr, often tnland, dcctitiat~on by ,I d~fferent tntBans nf tr~lnspcirt such as truck, tram or barge

One safe berth St,t, Safe berth

One safe port See Safe port

One-way pallet Tyiw of pallet In \\.htcIi the aywrtures 111tc*nd&i 11) t ~ k e the folks of a ftlrk-ltft truck are s~tuateti on one edge olilv <cat-a1~1, Pallet, Two-way pallet uri l l Four-way pallet

On-forwarding Thc arranging of on-carriage of g c ~ ~ i s bcvotid the ~ w r t of discharge of a ship to their final dertinaticin.

0.0. In ow~rer 's option. Spt, ~~rrrlt*r Owner.

Open Said of a ship whiih is available as fnlm a spct-ifird datc i ~ t a particular place to steam to anothrr port, II ntyessary, to load hrr next cargo, having dischargtd the last one.

Open conference L1nt3r r.vniercn<e wh~cl? does not rrcluire 11s member l l ~ i r s to votr on the adnrts~ton of ,I new n~tltnber SL*L*~IIW Conference

Open hatch bulk rarrier Ibpe of hulk carrirr whose h'1t~t1 openings corrc3pond in si7e to thc floor ot' the holds. I'his allows the cra:Iis to pnsttion r-arg~) far +tc)wagt2 directl!r into its location tc~r 1111. \:oy,~gc. r ~ r r t l enablt.4 i t to ht? l i f t & out \\~itho~rt iirst 'ne~ng mc~vecf sidcrz.lys. n t s 1-on- figur'rticrr~ speeds up cargo handling and rcduc.es daniagt-. Such vrsht.ls

i~rr widely used ftlr the carriage of reels of paper. Abbre\:intrd to o.h.b.c.

Open ratc I:n*i~lit rate rityotiatrcl t ~ v a rtiiiqwr or freight f(1rwarift-r with a slrilqrinp line or lirrrr c.orift-re~~c~r for shipping in rxcws o f a minimum ajirctvl qui~ntity id cargo c l t i any one ship. I t is lo\ver thi~tl the ~~uhlishecl tariff riltr arrd generally apldirs to shipments of one c.o~nmoditv firm cine

port of 11,atiing to one Fort of clischarging.

Open rated cargo C'argcl which is the subject of an open rate. St-t* olvl Open Rate ollc!vt-

Open roadstead Expanst. of watcr sttuatcci off a ptr t whcrc shtps an. ablr ti, atlchtrr wfclv but whlch ts ncrt ~~~~~~~~~~~d

Open shelter-deck ship or open shelter-decker Slic.lti~-dcck stlip wliow> tonti.lgc- opening is kept pxrnlat~cntly open. 'I ' lii~ typ3 of ship was drsignrd such that ht.r wgistiercd tantlilge ~vould not include tht. shelter- deck space althoir~h thiq sp.11-r is cd[,,~hli* of t.,lrryi~lg c-ilrKn. .Stpt, ~llrcl Shelter-deck ship.

Open side container Shipping cclntainer whose side is c lpn to glve unrestricted access for Inadtng or dtschargmg. The side of the container has rt-nioval.rlc 5tcrl prillt.s or gates i ~ n d niiiy havr drop dowti dtwlrs covering the lower part. The ~ i d e is covered by a tarpaulin or tdt in transit This type c,f container has t\vo 11%- for ventilation when carrying certain

perishable gouds and tor Ithxiing and discharging at premises where side access is prcfrrrcul. The o ~ i - t i sidid co~ltaincr is alscr ktio\vn as a yroduct~ iarricr. Whet1 provided hy an tccan ci~rrirr, this tvpc of containcr is sometimes the sublcct ol JII additional chargc irn the freight ratc.

Open toy container l 'ypv of shipplng containcr which has an cipc~r tor) covt.rt.ti IIV '1 tr~r1.railli~r itlstc\il~i (if tlw solid roof fc'u~~ti 011 gi*~~c.ral iwrix)stn ctl~ltair~ers. 'Tliis is tu e~ la l~ le c~IrKcwt.s to tw carriel in corrtaitiers, and hence on cclntainerships, which cannot easily tre Iciaded through enti tioc~rs and need to ht. loadetl frclm the tclp. Timbrr and s c ~ a p metal are sc~rnetimes shipped m this way. Cargoes which are tcw high for general p~irpose containers can also be shipped in open top containers, or open tops as they arc ottcn called. These containers nnrn~ally have end cliiors to give tlc\ihility to lcradirlg .lnd ciisclrargin): trtwrations. Whrn prii\?idcd by at1 twc.catl carripr, this tvpil ( 1 1 cc,lltdini~ is ~o l l l t t i t x \ i~~ tl\ca s~tbjt~ct of ,111 ,~dditiotial c-hnrgc (in thi. frrtght ~ . < ~ t c .

Opun/clased shelter-deck ship or oper1:closed shelter-decker 5ht4Lrr-


Page 24: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Opening of navigation -

deck s h ~ p whrch may tw operated w ~ t h the tcinnage openlrrg kept opPn or cealrd up, ciependmg on the trade In whlch she 1s ernplnyed T h ~ s tvpe of s h l ~ was des~gne~ i to have gredtcr flex~hll~ty ot use a4 ellher an open shelter-dtvkcr or a f i ~ l l v c~lclc,\e~l twwn decker 5t.e a / > # , Shelter-decker

Opening of navigation Date when an area or waterway is o p r r l d la sh~pping. This follo\*ss a priciti when niivi~ation is ~?rohlh~ted, c.iftcn hecause o f severe ice ctrnditions during rvinttsr.

Operate a ship (to) 'lh run a ship. There artb t\zrc> principal a s p t s cd uprat ing a sl~ip: technical and commercial. Techrrical operaticur inclrrdes n rwing and supplying the ship, keepirrg her machincr)i and equipment in wc~rking order and stowing cargoes saft-ly and eff'ic:~t-ntly Comttrrrcial operation is concertic-d more with booking cargoes, negotiating frright rates and bunker prices and appcr~nting ship's agents at the port3 c r f call.

Optional cargo Cargo wh~ch 1s d~st lnmi for orre of the \Il~p'q d ~ s c - h a r ~ ~ ports, the exact one not being knvwn when the g o d s are ltwdcvl I t mrlst therefurr bc stowed In such a pos~tlc~n that ~t can be remo\ txi at anv of '1

number of 9 - l ~ t e d ports, known as optional ports, wrthout d~st i r rh~ng other cargo

Orders S t o f instructions given or sent by the shipo\vrrt>r or ship cqrerator to the master of a ship collcernirlg the next voyage. These instructions include the rralncs of the intended prrts of loadirrg, hu~lkeririg and dis- charging together with the names, addresses, tele~rhone numtlcrs and cable addresses uf tht. ship's agents at each port, details of the cargo, '1 schedule of bunkers npcded for the voyage and the required notices of expected arrival. When the next voyage is not known, a ship is said !c> LW awaiting orders and the master may bc insh~c-tcd to anchor where he is or to steam in the direction of the area where the shipowr~cr expvcts to find a cargo.

Ore carrier Large ship, generally gearless and w:th large hatchwdys, designed to be used for the carriage of various types oi ore. Because of the high derrsity of ore, circ carrlers have a relativrly high ct81rtrc of gravity tri prevent them being stiff when at sea, that is, mlling heavily svith pcfisihlc stresr to the hull. This high ct-ntre c ~ f gravity is ijc.l\icved h\. having relatively small cargo holds (smi~ll Lm-ailse the cargc, takcs u p relatively little space) built over deep dotlblc-hittonis.

Ore&ulk/oil camrr I.arge multi-purpnse t.lr~p d e s ~ ~ n t l l to carry c~irsiors c~ther of vre or other hulk commodtties o r 011 *<1 a s to rtxjure the timc the

1 38

Outreach - -

ship would tw in ballast if rrstricted to one type of cc~mrnodity. The cargo is loaded into central holds and. i f clil, into side tanks a s well. Abbreviated to o.h.o. This type of ship is wmetinitBs referred to as a brrlk!c~il carrier or an i>il,,'bulk/orr carrier

Orecon Ciiyagi- charter-party, puhl~sht-d by the Raltlc and Intrrtratlonal Mantime C'otlfi~n.nie (BIMCCI), 11sed tor sltipments of ow from %an- dinavia to I'oland.

Oreioil carrier Ship designed to carry either ore or oil in hulk, the p u r p s c bring to reduce the time-the ship wciulrl spt*ntl i r r ballast. Ore is carr id only in the central holds whrrcas oil is carried in wirrp, tanks and in the central holds as well, if requirrd. Oftt~n abbreviated to o i o .

Ore pellet carrier Bulk carrier rlsrd principally for the ci~rri,tgc of iron ore which has t>t>t-n proccssrul into pt-lit-ts. 'This type of cargo is pn)ne to spontaneous combustion and so the ship rrtust bc cquippeci with s l ~ i t a h l ~ fire-fighting ~1ui1>1trcnt.

(Iriginal bill of lading B~ll of ladrng wh~clr b r a n tile orrglnal s~gna t t~ r r of ttrt. master of a s h ~ p or h15 agcnt I t 1s exchanged for the gocxls at the place 01 dt3slln.lhon of the corltrdcl 01 carnage Stst, u1.o Rill of lading

0.s.b. One safe berth. 5 1 ~ Safe berth.

0.s.d. C ) ~ V I I shelter-deck strip r1.z:

0.9. & d. report or 0.s.d. report Over, chort and darnage r c p r t Fo? tirfirzrf r c ~ r r . st.^ Cluttum report.

0.s.p. Cjne s ~ f c port. Sets Safe port.

Out of gauge S a d of cargo whost>d~men~ions evcerti an)' of the evternal dlmenslons of thp container In \vli~rh. nr on wh~ch, ~t 1s carried t1bhrcv1- aled to o u g.

Outport Port which 1s s t~rvtd infrequently vr by transhipment by a sh ip - ping iinc or hy the memtvr lint% of a liner confrwrjc.e. I'hc iWight to sktch ports \~r~nrtinres attracts a surcliar~e kncwn as '111 outport additional.

Outreach bla\~murn tllstanc.t. t o which lo~ad~ng or discharging equ~p-

Page 25: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

merit can extend cluhwards. 'Shere are various points from \vhich this distance may be measuue~l, for example from the quay wall or fendering, or thc Inndside end of the jib of a shore cranc. Also known as the reach. Tlit. outreach can also descritw the distance bctwcen s h ~ p and shore which a ramp w n bridgta.

Outsider Shipping line which operates clrr a route served by a liner cnnferrtlic but which is not a mrmber of that conference. Also referred to as a non-confermc.c line or an indrpendent line.

Out tum (to) %id of cargo, to be discharged f run~ a ship. This tern] is nomlally qualified by thr condition or quantity of the cargo, that is, whether it is damaged or whether the quantity is greater or less than the quantity on tlrc ship's maniicst.

Outturn report Mrrltten statement hy a strvedorlng cwnpany In tihlch the condlt~on vf cargo d~sch~irged h m a ship is noted along wlth any discrepancies in the quantlty compared wrth the shlp's rlranifest Also referred to a s an ovcr, short and damage mpcrrt

Outturn weight Weight of a cargo ascertained when it is discliargt.il from a ship. Freight on bulk c~lrpoes IS sc~rnrrinres payablt* on the basis uf t h ~ s weight.

Outward Term relating to thr d c p r t u r e of a ship from a port. For example, an outward cargo is one which has been loaded at the port in question and dmtlnecf h ~ r atlother p r t . A ship's outward charges are those incurred in leaving a port, such as outward pilotage.

I Over, short and damage report for iit'f ttrlior~, SFP Outturn report. 1 Ahbrevi '~td to o.?;. Xr cl.


Overage Cargo dischawed in excess of the clr~antit); on the ship's niani- ft-st.

Overall length blasi~rrunr length twtween the cxtreme ends. fonvarrl and aft, of a ship. This mt~asuremmt is often rrcluircd to determine, for rxample, whether a ship can negotiatt. a partinllilr lock clr wh~tlrcr she can hc acconlrnodated at a specific hrrth. Also known as the, Irngth o v r r ~ l l .

Overcarriage T ~ I V carnage of cargo beycrrld the port for which i t \\,as intended.



Over-clamp (to) To squwzc a paper reel too hanl with a c l a n ~ ~ truck, thus ovalising it ancl causirrg pn-,blen~s for its evenhral end use.

Over-consumption The use of t tur gmat an anicji~nt of furl pt-r day over n period of time by a ship. I f the ship is nn tinre charter and thr charter- party contains a guaranteed maximum daily consumption, over-con- sumption would give rise to a claim by the time charterer against the shi~x'wrier for the excess cost of bunkers.

Overheight cargo C'argc-, in an open top shipping cm~ltainer which is lrigher than the top rails ot tht. c-ontainer. Such cargo is of1t.n difficult to accnmmmiate in a contairiershil> as i t cannot be o v e n t o w d . r 2 ~ a type of out nf gauge cargo, it normally attraits an extra charge on the freight

Overlanded cargo or overlanding C'argcr which has been dischargrd at a port for which it was not intended acctrrding to the ship's manifest. The strip's agcnt, on behalf of the shipowner or c.arritxr, tries, by means of t h ~ shipping marks em the cargo and by contacting the ship's agents at tlrr other discharge ports on t l r r ship's ~ t~nerary , to identify the correct des- tination In many instances. cargo which cannot be identified and dis- poscci of within a certain period of tinw m.ly h auctioned by the port authority.

Overload (to) Tu load a ship or vehicle \with gclcwls whose wciglit i s in cxcess of that which the ship or vt-hicle is permitted by law to carry.

Overside discharge 'Thc removal of gmlcn1s tmtn a ship directly on to barges using the ship's cranes or derricks. Mrhrn instructed tc~ clrliver cargo in this way, shipping linw often insert a clauw in the hill of lading lo the effect that this will be ca r r id out provided that sufficient barges are .~vailable. This is to ensure that thcrr is no delay in the di.wharging of the ship.

Overstow (to) 'Ih stow one item of cargo oti top of another in a ship. It is important fur ;I cargo superintendent to know whether a particular prcrtuct may be ovt-rsto\*.ecl by another. rrr at all, taking into consider a t ' on the safety of the cargo arrd of the ship I V ~ P I I <at st-a.

Overtin~e I'erlod clutslde norrt~~il work~ng hour4 1% ht.11 work, ~f r rc l t~~rnl . IS avdtlable at an e t h a cost I t ts or'trn agree1 in chclrtcr-partm that thc exl8t crt ovtv11111e IS payable by thr p r t v who ortlrr. ~t Abbreviatrri to o l t

Page 26: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Overtonnaging Situation where there are tcw, many sh1p4 generally, or In ,I particular tradr, for the level of available cargoes.

Owner Widely used short form for shipowner. In owner's option Term in a charter-party which stipulates that the shipowner has a choice in specific circ~unstances. For exanlplc, in a voyage charter, the owner may have the option of specifying t l~e exact quantity of cargo tu be loadmi.

Owner's agents Ship's agent norrunatrd by, and paid by, the shipowner in acc~rdarmc~ with the charter-party

Owner's broker Shipbroker ~ 1 1 0 acts on ht.half of a shipownpr in the negotiations leading to the chartering out of that owner's ship.

F m - . w m w f ~ : ~ - p i h p h - w ~ it:.vSrJk€ ~:b.w@;~.th+.:*@:d.&ge::h:*~~.bf:.b . . .

or damage to cargo. This amount is dcterminrd by hgreement of {he parties ur by law.

Packaged timber Method of presentation of timber for shipnicnt whereby it is strapped into Iargc, uniform blocks capable of being handled and lifted quickly and economically into and out of mcdern timber car- riers. This replaces the traditional practice of handling timtwr one piece at a time.

Packing list Ihcument detailing the contents of a case or crate, or iternis- ing a c~msignnrt?nt


Pallet camer Ship d~sijiilcxi to carry shipping containers and pallrtistd g m i s . Although the ship is cilpahle of carrying general cargo, the interior of the ship generally c-arrirs paper prociusts on pallets. These arr Iruderi through a side door, takrn hy pallet lift to thc appropriate level and thence by fork-lift truck to the dt-ind pwitions. The c'nntainers are carr id on deck

Pallet elevator Lifting device ilt the side of a pallet ship for taking pallets in3m the quay to the level irl the strip where they rvill be stowed anci vice vewa. Palletised g c d s are brought alongside by fork-lift truck and placed on to the elevator. This is raised or lowered to the apprrtpriate 1t.vt.l where small pallet trucks t a k ~ thC pallrts and stow them. Also known as a pallet lift.

Pallet rules Rules of '1 lincr cnnfemnce governing cargoes shipped on pallets. These nil- ir~cludt. the n~ethod of assesing freight, the c'cttl-

ference's recp~irements as to the nature of the pallet and the wav in which goods should bt. packed on it and secured to it.

Pallet ship Shrp sperrally constructed with s~rie ports and s ~ ~ i e hatches equipped wlth pallet elevaton ((also known as pallet lifts) Such shlps ~yc.cial~se In c a q l n g pallet~setl gcitds and p.lpt>r rolls For the rtlrtlrcd c ~ f Irrrrdlr7rg. st^ lJallot elevator ~ l w z v

Pallet truck Small tn1r.k usmi tv load pallets into shipping containers and to u~rl~xlild them. I t is either normally operatd or p ) ~ l c r e J by electric motor. like a fork-lift truck, it is equipped with fctrks which arc insertel-1 into clr under the pallet. Typical capacity is between 1 and 2 tonnrs. Also known as a pallet transporter.

Palletised Said of ~ o d s loaded on to pallets. t * r d lao Pallet abotv.

Palletwide container Cotitainrr, at 2.50 metres, wider than the standard shipping container which is 2-44 nmetm wide. I t is designed to carry an optimum number of pallets. principally the europallet which is 1.20 m c t ~ w wide. A standard palletwide ~ c ~ l t i ~ i n ~ r will not fit into the cells uf cctntainerships and PO is unsuitable for trades where sl~ipping is restricte~i to cellular ships. 11 mcxlification to the design to get n)und this problem resulted in the cellular palletwide container

Panamar Bulk ~>arric.r ~~hosedimensin~isenable her to transit the I'anama Canal where lock width is the limiting factor. Veswls of hO,(WlO to 70,(KK) tonne deadwrigtit fall into this sategny althougli ships o f twcn larger

Page 27: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Pandi club - . - -

'apacity have bwn built which are smdl rnough in size for thc Canal transit.

Pandi club Protection ancl indemn~ty club q . r !

Panstone Vc~yagr charter-party, ptlb11sht.d by the Chamber ot Sh1pp111g of thc United Kingdorl~, urn1 for sh~pments o f stone

Paper clamp Attachment to a fork-lift tnlck dtxdicatcd to the handling ot' pi>pt>r rolls. The two arms move ~nwards tcr grasp the roll before lifting. The must recent models are able to control the pressure exerted on the roll ele-ctranicnlly according tu the quality of the paper '111d the weight of the rc111. This is to avoid damaging the roll by squeezing i t ten? hard.

Paperlcontainer camer Ship designed to carry shipping containers and paper, the latter normally in the form of rolls. She has b o x - s l ~ ~ p t d holds suitable for the stutvage of containers, a dehumidifying system to rrnrove rrroisture from the holds, slrlce dry conditions art? t~cxcssary r);,heri carrying p a p r . 'l'hc mlls aw loatled through doors in the side of the ship.

Paragraph ship Cargo-carrvit~g ship so called k a i 1 . w the regulations of various countries concerning tlrta constructicln, eciuipmcnt and manning of ships contain separate sections, or paragraphs, for ships of different gruss tonnages. A paragraph ship is a ship whose g m s tomage is just below a certain figure which, if it had been exceeded, would have entailed more stringent requirements and il higher running cost.

Paramount clause Clause in a bill of lading or charter-party which stipu- lates that the contract of carriage is governed by the Hague Rules or the tiape-Visby Rules or the erractnicnt of these rules in the country having jurisdiction over the contract.

Parcel (1) A package.

Parcel tanker Type of chemical tanker capable uf carrying a number and variety of bulk liquids at the sar~rt* t i~ne. This invol\lt*s having a large nutnlwr of segregated cargo tanks, often cuatcd or constntcted of stainless steel to ensure that the quality of the cargo is maintained, ils well a s a cc~m~>lt-x system of pipes to avoid contanrirr~tion. The typts of cargoes likely to be carried include coconut oil and palm oil, inorganic ilcids and c ~ ~ l e d semi-gases.

Part cargo Goods which d o not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but wlicxe quantity is sufficient to be carried on charter tt*rtlrs.

I'art charter I hc charteril~g of a s h ~ p to carry a quantity c)f g c ~ u i ~ i w h ~ c h rcprcsents only a ptrt of the cargo

Particular average Marinc insurance term denoting a partial lors.

Pascenger/train/vehicle carrier Vessel having, typically, three decks on to \vhicti vt.hiclt-s, both cars ilnd trucks, are carried and having rail 011

several tracks allowing rail \s7agvns to be trarrsporttx. The vessel has overnight accammcdation for passengers anti nray wrll have enter- tainment and shopping facilities on h a r d . The vehiclr clecks arc inter- connected by internal ramps.

Passengerlvehicle feny \'essel des~gned to carry passengers Iwitli or without cars) and iotnmercial vchic1t.s with their drivers, usually on short sea crossings. \ft-hic1t.s arc drivt.11 on and off the shlp on ramps anti spend the voyage on special decks, with pri\,ate c-am normally kept separate from ccjmmercial vehicles.

Peak tank Small tank situated at the extreme fonvard cnd (fore peak tank) or after end (aft p a k tank or after peak tank) of a ship. It norn~ally holiis water ballast and is tlstxi in this way to assist in the trim c ~ f the ship, that is, the relativnship between the draught fonvad anci the draught aft.

Pedestal crane or pedestal mounted crane Crane with a morlrrting con- sisting of a fixed pedestal or cylindrical column. Found on oil and natural gas platforms, this mout~titrg is also u . d for deck cranes on s h i p : the pedestal can support vne and ~ u n r e t i n r ~ s two (twin) cranes.

Performance claim Claim made by a time ch.~rttxrcr against a shipowner when the ship has been unable to achieve tlir speed agreed in the charter- party or has consumed tcw much hlel or tloth.

Performance clause Clause In a tlnlr zhartcr party w h ~ c h stipulates that, should the slup be unable to ach~eve the r ~ g r ~ ~ d s p d or should she ccmsunie too much fuel, the charterer 1s mt~tlrci to nr-over from the shlp>\s.ner the cost o f time lost and extra fuel, normallv hv mcans of a deduction Imnr h ~ m nlonev

Perishable goods C~LXKIS, notably f ~ ~ ~ l s h ~ f f s , which are lialdc lo dmay if tlrc conditic~tis \rtithitr th t ship or shipping container in which tht-y arc

Page 28: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Permanent dunnage --

t>t*ing carried arr not strictly controlled or. in some cases, if the voyage timc~is undllly cstended. I'rrishable goc~ l s rtquire either rpfrigeration or vt.ritilatinn or both.

Permanent dunnage Strips of timber fixed to the frames of a shiy, often horizontally but sometimes vertically, to keep cargo away from the sides of the ship, to avoid h t h damage and condensation. Also knorvn as cargo battens ant1 bpar ceiling.

P.f.t. Per freight ton. Fclr iiefi~riiic*u, w e Freight ton

Phosphoric acid carrier Tanker designed to carry phosphoric- acid. a substance used for fcrtilisers. The cargo tanks i1rtb required to be of a high grade stainless steel which has a resistance tu pitting. The heating coils needed for this ciirgo need to ht. cormsion-resistat~t. There is $3 ~imi to keep this cargo circulating as a sedinlent is otherwise created.

P. & i. bunker deviation clause Clause in a <barter-party glrrlng the yhqnnvner the rtght to devlate from the contract+-d mute for the p u r p s e of taking on fuel

P. & i. club Pmtection and indenlriity club 17 1:

Piece weight Weight of each piece or package t)f '1 cons~gnment.

Pier Structure at which ships T$I\ berth, built at riglit angles to the shore.

Pier to house Said of a freight rate or serviw provided by a containt-r shipping line whereby gucnis art. received itittr the care of tllc line at the port krminal in the country of fxpiirt and cit.iivt-red to the consignee's premist3.

Pier to pier Said of a freight rate or st.rvicp prmlded by a container shipping line whereby goods aan. received intv the care of thc line at the port trrtninal in the country of export and deli\fcrrd to the cct~isignee at the port tcrminal in thi- country of tiretinatinn.

Piggy-back The c.lrriage of nmd trailers on special rail wagons. Thr tractclr may remain with the trailcr or mas hr drtached ant1 not carrlrtl, acccirding to the liart~cular svstt-n~. The trai1t.r is ~nacccitr~p~lniccl. Rail rvagon5 may be flat trr may have '1 \\.ell into \vtiic.h the trailer is lowered so as to comc within a country's Iciading gauge. This methotl of' transport

is used for medium to long distarict-; whcn it is desirable for economic and /or envirvnmenbl masons.

Piggy-back hatch cover Arrarigrrnt.~it trf weather deck hatch c o v t ~ s whereby one panel ctf a two-panel hatch cover is stowed on top oi the other when opened. I Iytlraulically opt~ratcxl, one panel is r a i d vertically and the second panel slides untlerneath it; both panels are then rolled to the sidp on to thc end of the hatchwav, depending on thc design of the shiy. This type of I~atch cover is found on bulk c a r r i e ~ and tnulti-purpose ships.

Pilferage Petty theft.

Pilot Person who is 011iiliiit.d to assist the master of a ship to navigate when entering or Iraving A port.

Pilotage The act, carried out by il qualified person known as a piltit, of assisting the master of a ship in ria\ligation rvhcn entering or leaving a port or in confined waters. The term pilotilgr i.; also sometimes used a s an at~tiwvi,ltc.d fornl o i pilotage dues, the fee payable tor thc s+-rvices of a pilot.

Pilotage dues Fee payable bv the oivncr or qwrator of a ship fer the scrvici-s of a p~lot T h ~ s fee IS normallv bastxi on one of thc slltp's reg~stered tonnag~s Often stmply termed pllotage

Pitch (to) Said vf a ship, to rock lengthwise.

Place a ship off hire (to) As time charterer, to cease tempvrarily to pay hire money tc! the shipiwner while, for px,~n~ple, the ship or her rrluip- ment is broken dawn.

l'lastics terminal Terminal in a pvrt drtlica1t.d lo the handling and storagp cli plasti13 in bulk or in bags. The protl\~ct tnily he in granular or ~w\s~dcr fort11 ilnd storagc is in silos for bulk cargoes or in wnrchouses when bagged, Distritrution facilities include bagging, pallt-tisaticrn and transfer from silo to bulk vel~iclcs or bulk containers and vicr versa.

Plate clamp Device f ixed to the erige 01 a qtct-1 plate to pre\.ent i t horn sllpplng when b e ~ n g hfted

I'latform Flat surface In a shtp rpn whlc tl vt~lllclcs can be moved f r r~r~l one,

lcvrl to another, for evample from thr t ~ \ ~ t ~ t ~ n dcrrk t o the weather (1ec.k

Page 29: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Unlike ramps, platfornls are raised and Iowertd horizontally. This is effected hv hvdraulics, either with wirw o r chains.

Platform flat Effectively a shipping container withciut sides, t-nds or a roof. Normally 20 or 47 feet long, they are used fur abvktvardly shaped cargoes which cannot tit on or in any other type of ccmtaincr. They are sometimes termed arr artificial tween deck as this is what is acliicved when several platform flats are yla'c-cll end to end in a ship. When provided try an cx-can carrier, this type of convcyancr. is often the subject of an additional charge on the ireight rate.

Plimaoll line Summer load line vf il strip, that is, the line painted on the sides of a ship which shows the maxinrun~ dcptli 117 which that ship's hull may be i i m t i i c d when in a summer rune. 'lhe linc is marked with an S. Also refrrnd to as summer marks. Stst* ulso Load line zone.

P.1.t.c. Port liner term charges 9.1:

Point to port rate Freight rate which incltrdes all costs from a n inland place in the exporting country to the pcirt of discharge in the importing cotin try.

Polcoalbill Bill of lading intended to be u m i for shipments of coal under the Polcclal\7oy charter-party.

Polcoalvoy Voyage charter-party, published by the Baltic and Inter- national Maritime Conference (BIhlCO), used for shipments of coal.

Pontoon Flat-httomed vessel wit11 a shallow draught.

Pontoon hatch cover Hatch cover consisting of a single slab which is lifted off when acccss to the hold is r e q u i d . It may be lifted by shore cranes or ship's gear and stacked with uthers out of thc way until the hatch is to be closed. This type of hatch cover is typically found on cellular containerships but is also fitted to multi-purpose and heavy lift s h i p . This hatch cover is also termed a lilt-away hatch cover.

Pooling Shanng of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by ~nember lines of a liner conference. Pooling arrangements du not rxist in all con- fercnccs.

Port (1) Harbour h a v i n ~ facilities for ships to muor and I i ~ d or discharge.

1 48

Portal crane -- - . --

Port or port side ( 2 ) Left side of a ship when viewed facing fonvards

Port dues Charge lcvlcd against a shi~v>runer or s h t ~ optvator by a p>rt authority far the I I ~ of a port

Port liner term charges Cargo hantllirlg charges levitrl on the s h l ~ p e r by the shipping linr ~t the port of luading. Ahhreviated to p.l.t.c.'s.

Port log Statement, prepared by the stlip's agent at tlir loading and d i ~ h ~ i r g i n g ports, which shows the dates and times of arrival of the ship and the c-ommencement and completion of loading and discharging. It details the quantity of c a g v l o a d d or discharged day, the hours worked and the hours s t o p p d , with thc reasons for the stoppages, such a s bad weather, a strikc or breakdown of cyuipment. Also referred to as a statement of facts.

Port mark The narrrr of the discharge port m.1rkm1 011 good< or the~r ~ a c k a g ~ n g tci help ~ ~ r c v c n t them tretng tl~scharged at tht. wrong rwrt or, 11 they are, to enable thfm to he rerouted

I'ort of refuge Port. not on a s h t p ' ~ ~tlnerdry, whtch she C~II IS at because of sonle unforeseen h a ~ r d at sea and tvlretv zhc may r ~ r i d ~ q o repam, refuel or WECYUI-e cargo to eriahle her to contrnue the voyage

Port of registry IylacP where a ship is registered with theauthor~ties, thus rstilhlisl~ing her nationality. T l ~ e name of the port is marked on the stern of the ship.

Port to point rate Fretght rate which ~ncludes all costs frc~m the port clf loadtng In the cxpnrhng country to an inland [,lacia In the ~rnfxlrtlng countrv

Portable unloader Tyipe of ship unloader which i q \vheeled and capable of being moved around a port wherrvcr needed. It is typically ustad in ports where thew is no dedicated terminal with its own fixed equipnlcnt. It allows flexibility but is slower. Alsc~ called mobile utilnacier. StufB LI!W


Portal crane Crane which is w p p > r t t d on a portal or set c ~ f Itlgs. Portal cranes can be found on the cluny, in tvhich rarcV tlley are desigt1c.d to allow milway wap,ons and vehicles, particularly thnw carrying containers, to pass r~ntl t~rr~cath for the purpwt.s ot bettig loatltd or unloadetl. 'l'hcy are also found or1 ships where thry straddle the holds.

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Porthole container rbr portl\ole type container Type of rnsulatcd con- tamer whlch has t~zro dprrturt'r, known as portholes, thrurtgh rvlilrh alr 01 thc correct temperature for tlrr cargo 1s ileltvercd trom (and returrred 10) d l~rmlnal's refngerdtl~n urrlt or cl~p-on unlt

Position containers (to) TL) brtng empty shlpp~ng contamers ton Iocattrm or arca where they will next bv Io,~drii

Possessory lien The r ~ g h t of a shipowtrcr to rctain cargo tlnt~l tlie freight or any genrral average contribution is paid.

Post fixture After the contract for the charter of a ship has bren agreed. Said of work carried out by a sh ipwner , charterer a r .;hi~?hn)kt>r, includ- ing payment of hire or trrigllt, c..~lculation of despatch or dt.n~urragc and tlie resolution of any disputi3.

Post-entry Declarat~un t o the Customs a u t h c ~ n t ~ e after c-1t.arnncc of ~mported or exported pvtds mlrndlng deta~ls cin the or~glnal rnt ry

Power pack Transportable se l f - co r r t a i~ t refrigeration unit poiverrd h\.' its own generator It is designed to provide power for refrigerated s h i p pirrg con~aincrs where there is inacIec1r1atr r l t~ t r ica l power, \vhether in port or at sea. It is built into a 20 foot container thus enabling it to he carried and handled in tlre scIrntx way.

P.p. ( I , l'iikrd ports.

P.p. (2) I'osteci price-the cvrrently available price of a particular grade of 011

Pratique Permission griinted by the authorities at a part, k i n g s.-itisfied as tcr thc state of health of thwe on h a r d a ship on arrival, for then1 to make physical contact with the shvrr. Also referred to as free pratiyue. iZ ship which is the subject of such prrrnissiot~ is said to he in free pratiquc.

Preamble First few lines of a charter-party in which the parties tci tlrc ccintract and the ship arc identified.

Pre-entcy I'resentat~vrr to the Customs authonbes r r i t3xpirrt or 11nport dwlarat~ons prlvr to the clvarance of the gorxis

Prc-shipment charges Atry charges incurred prior to thtb shipment of a cilrgo which arc not inclutltul in thc sca freight.


Pre-sling (to) To p1ac.e gtw>ds in slings which are left in pcwition and used tor the loading to, anrl rli.;chnrging fronr, a s h ~ p This is il fort11 of unit load the purpose of which iq t o siniplifv handling and incrrdse the rate of load~ng and discharging. I'rr-r;lirrgin): is ~ ~ s e d for prociucts szf1rii.h cannot be palletised or containerisrtl. It i~ a r~quircment of some in~portlng countries for certain prcnlucts

I'rc-stow (to) To dec~cle In advancr the stcl~\-aac of a cargo on A shiv

rrrventer # o p or wlrc attached at one end to a ship's derrich head dlrd at the other end wcurtd to the deck of the ship, In order to rel~eve the strain on the mast.

Private form Stan~iaril ilrclrtt~r-p.1rty devised and used hy a particular colnpany. The majority ( 1 1 t h t ~ i.harter-parties are uartl Ilv oil cnn1panit.s when chartering tankers.

Pro forma charter-party Uocmrtrcrrt L-ontaining all the trrltrs and con- Llitii)tls of n contract between a sh ip )h f~ ic r and a charterer but rvhich is unsigncd and therefore is not the ccvntr;lc.t itst~ll.

Pro forma disbursements account Staternrnt st-nt by a ship's agent at a pir t to the shipi\vrrer in advance of the ship's call at t l ~ r por t I t consists of the expenses which art. likely to t v incurrtd, including ywrt c l ~ r g e s . pilotage, towage and the agent's co~tirlrission. This account is ilsrd to help the shipn\vrw cstiniate the viability of a voyage and serves as a reclutst by the agent for sufficictrt funds to be made a\:ailatrlt. prior to the ship's arrival.

Produce carrier Shipping container whose side is ciprn to glve unre- strlcted access for Ivading atid discharging. The side of the container has rc~novable steel grilles or gates and niay have drop down doors covering thc lower part. This type of container 11as two uses: for ventililtioli when carrying certain perishable gvods and for loading and discharging at prernist-s whcrc side access is preferred. 7'lre produce carrier is also known a.s atr c)twtl sided contatner o r open side container.

Product carrier o r products carrier Tanker J r r ig~r id to carry a \.ariet\.' of licli~id pnvd~lrts \.aryirrg Imm crude od to clean arrd dirty petrolrilln prodi~cts, adds, othvr ctlrn~icals and even molasws. -1-he tanks are crmted., this k i n g a r ec l~ t i~ rn rn t of some elf tlie prchluits carried and thr slriy may ha1.e qu ipmrr l t drsijinrd ftrr the loading and unloading uf cargot5 with ,I high viscosity.


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Prnmolinnd rate -- - -

Prumotional rate Concessionary fruight rate offered to a shipper by a shipping linc, or by a liner confewrit.r.on behalf of its members, to facilitate the sale of gocds into a new market.

Propane carrier Ship tlesigrred to carry propane in liquid form. The propane is carried in tanks within the holds; it remains in liquid form by means of pressure and refrigeratii3n. Such ships are also suitable for the carriage o f butane.

Prospects Expectations. This term is used most often tu tlenott3 the e x p c - tations of complction of loading or discharging of a cargo although it can also mean any expc-ctations, for example the prospects of getting a berth or obtaining a c-ertain number of gangs.

Protecting agent Person or company appointed by a shipowner to protect his interests and to supervise the work carried out by the ship's agellt when the owner's ship is in p r t . The ship's agent mav he the only agent at the port cir he may have been a p p i n t r d cir nominated by the c-hartercr and therefore not the choice of the ship~rvncr. Also referred to as il

sutwnris@ry agent or protective agent.

Protecting clausea .Set. Protective clauses h~lr?r~?

Protection and indemnity club or protection and indemnity associ- ation Assot:iation of shipwrrr rs who, bv means of cvntributions, known as calls, provide mutual prvtectiorr against liabilities not covcrcd by insurance, such as claims for injury to crcw and loss or damage t o cargo. Normally abbreviatd to P. & I. club or p.lndi club.

Protective agent St7 Protecting agent alvzv.

Protective clauses Clauses in a charter-party wh:ch prtovide con- tingencies f < ~ r unforeseen situations, such as ice, strikes, general average or collision. Alscl known as protecting clauses.

Protest Declaration, made before il notary public by the niastcr o f a ship on arrival in port, that the ship has encountered circumstancrs hcyo~ld his control, such as hravv weather, which mav have car~std dalnagc to the ship or her cargo. This declaration may be necxssary, for rxa~nple, to avoid liability for damage to cargo.

Pumpman Kilting rvht, tcncls ta the pumps of a tanker.


Purchase Ci'xin in pull or power of a derrick obtained by using two blocks, an upper and lorsrrr clne, with the r o p or wire traversing each one a crrtain number of timm. The gain is roughly equivalent to the number of l ' i ~ t ~ > f the r v p going through the lower block. Thus in [lie case of a gun tarkle ~~urchase , the rope is in t-rvo parts and the pull doubled; the rope in a double purchase configuration is in four parts, roughly quadrupling the pull. This makes lifting casler but thr saip work in^ load of the derr~ck shoulci nevertheless not bc c x c w ~ i d .

Pure car carrier Ship dt-signcxl to rarry url~1i-cc)m~lariicr1 new cars, nor- mally in lnrgc numh>rs over lorig distances. Keplacing tire bulk carriers which were origirrally I I S ~ I tu carry cars on the ~ u t w a r d leg antl bulk cargoes on the return leg, the pure car carrier has rrlll-on rc>ll-c>ff type ramps which givr ai-ct*ss to (1 ~iumtwr c ~ f decks, typically 12 or 13. CMten abbreviattd to p.c,.c. k n r e car carriers have the flexibility to carry other vt41iclt.s such as trucks, trailers and buses, and these are sometimes rcfcrrud to as vehicle carriers or pure car and tnrck carriers (abbrev~ated to y.c t.c.).

Purposes T~me allowe~i In a vc.Vage charter-party for Icmd~ng and dls- i I ~ ~ ~ r g ~ n g comb~ne~i , expressed as a number (31 davc or hilurs rZl5o referred to a \ all purpose?

Pusher Rivcr tug svllich nrovcs barges by pushing rather than towing

Quarter ramp Ramp fitted to a roll-on rcdl-off ship, nclm~ally at the stern, which makes an angle irf 45 dcgm.s rvitli the &\-is (iclrr and aft) dirrction of the ship and which ccrnnci-ts the strip to the shore. Its purpnw is to allow the ship to nloor alongside the quay antl enilblr \vheelt-d cil~y,o to Lw driven 1111 and off rvithciut sl~tvial quay facilities. When not in use, the ramp is stowrd upright, either straight or folded depnciing on its length and the nunlher c ~ f section3 which comprise it. Generally, quarter ramps arc accomp~nird by separate watertight doors.

Quarter-deck 1;ppcr deck of ship irt thr stt-rri vrrtl. A r'biwl qudrtt3r- deck ship is onr whose quarter-deck has been raised in order to prot~iilr more cargtr.cdrryirig capacity.

Page 32: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

I Quartz sand terminal .-

Quartz sand terminal Ternrinal In a port dedicated to the handling and storage of clu'irtz sand, ustri pr~niarily itr lass-making. Quartz sand is shipped in bulk, loaciecl by tticalrs of ccinvibYor and disc.h,irged by crane. Storage is in silts.

Quay Scilid structure alongside a navigable waterway to which stlips are mtwred for Itmding and ciisr.lrarging.

Quick release gear Tvye of ship's hcwk which opens acrtnniatically to release the goods rvlrcn they are landeci. Exiimples are can hooks and plate clanrps.

Quoin %iftwocxl wedge usc~ i to chock off c a s h or othcr roi~nded picves of cargo.

Quote (to) As a charterer, to make known that a ship is sought for a particular cargo or, as a shij)~wrier, to aclvcrtise the a\,ailability of his ship for charter. hlost often this activity is carried out using the servici3 cof shipbrokers.

Raised quarter-deck ship Ship whose upper dcr-k IS raiscd at the sttlrn end in or~ier to increase cargo capacity.

Ramp Inclined plane fitted to a rull-on roll-off ship over \vhic.h vehicles aredriven and which either connects the ship to the shoreor quay (exterior ramp) or connects one level or deck of the ship to another (interior ramp or internal ramp). Depndirrg on the t y p of ship and the piirticular req~lrri~nrent, a ranip may be fitted at the front (bow ranip), side (side ramp) or war (stenr ramp). It may be fixed in one direction or, particularly in the nf stern ramps, may be angled (quarter ramp) or capablc of swinging from one direction tcr another tc, suit individual herthing jx~i t ions (slrwing ramp and semi-slewing ramp). The ramp is foldid against the side of the ship when not in use and, in many dcs~gns of ship, acts as a watertight door when closed. Opvrationally, thc impor- tant characteristics of a ramp are: its width-it must he capable of acconrmcdatil\g the widest type of cargo envisaprd; the load carrying capacity, that is, the niaximir~n weight inrpased on tlrc ramp at one time; differences In level which occur with changes of draught dur ins loading

Itate of loading -- - . - -

and unlrrilding; this de termi~i t*~ t l ~ c length ot r.inlp required. !%sf irrlliiltti11111 typ..; r l f rtrntp fiir rtrorp lilt-tirtlt~i I ~ I * S C . I I ~ ~ I O ! I ~

Ramplhatch cover V'cliicle ramp in the deck of ,I ship whic-h also ar-ts '1s a watertight hatch cover. This arrangement ilvoids the rleed for a repa rate hatch cover. h mmp/hatrh covcr conibinatic>rr is a configuration whcrc a separate hatch cover piv~it.; rithcr up,vards froni one erid or side\vays to allow the rirnrp to he pjsitiorrtd. When the ramp IS movclhle, the Iratch cover and the ramp are pusiticmixi simnltaneouslv. If tht- ramp is fixtd, the hatch cover oprratcs independrntlv.

Ramping system M r t l r ~ d (of lchlding c-ars into ~tarrdard ship pin^ con- tainers. fhis consists c ~ f a stcrl iranie\vurk irnd ramps \\*hicli may bc i i~eci withiti the container or r~niovable Whrrr removable, the apparatus is designid to f ~ d d rip so that a large nunilw*r L-an be returt ld in a c~~ritainer on the return l e g \trhen two cars are to Pt. shipped in a container, one is secured on thc floor of the corrtainer while the other is drivt?n u p on ramps and secuWd, remaining at an angle ah jve thv first. Ranipi~ig svsterris a1.w exist for loading three or four rars in a contiiincr.

Range of ports Series of ports t~ornially on tlrc same coast. Often a charter-partv will contain a rarigr ~ l i ports at u h c h the ship mav dis- chargi'. one o f which is to he nominated by the charterer bv a specific date. 11ie rdrrgr is generally ekprrssed b y rtieatis of the nalni-s of the ports at the two errds. for example tht. Antwerp-I lanrhurg rangt7.

Rate Frequently used tcrm to mean rate of freight or freight rate For dr~~ir~rlrotr, we Rate of freight !vc.lrni?.

Rate of demurrage Anrnunt payable by a voyage charterer to a ship- owner for each day irwd to load a n d l o r discharge 'argo In exc.rss of the time allnrv~xi in the charter-party

Rate of discharge or rate of discharging Number of tonnes of cargo dischargtd cach day fro111 (1 ship. Such it ~.rro\~ision is often incltldei in the terms uf a voyage charter.

Rate of freight ,Atilnunt of monry paid to a shijn>wner or shipping lint for thr carriage ot each unit of cargo. such as a tonne, a cubic nietre Irr corrtaitier load. Also known as a freight rate.

Rate of loading Nuti1hc.r of t o n n e of cargo loadtul per day into a ship. Si1c.h a provision i.i often includecl in tlic terms vf a voyage charter.


Page 33: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Reach (of a crane)

Reach (of a crane) hfaximurn distance to which loading or disch'1rging equipn~ecit can extend outwards. There are various points fmrn which t h ~ s distancv can extend orrtw*nrds, lor example fro111 the quay wall or fendering, or thc lan~isicie end r d ;I jib of a shore cr;ltit3. Also known as the outreach.

Reach stacker Type of frrintlift truck with a telescopic boom arid toplift attachment usc~i for lifting c-ontainers and stilckillg them. Its ~iesign enables it to reach beyond the first mru to pick up a container. This is particularly ~rsrful in t e r n ~ ~ n a l s r u l r t w space does not permit vehicle5 to pass between every rvw of container. Alw known as a boom handler.

Received for shipment bill of lading R~ll of i ad~ng evldenr~ng that the guods have been rt.ce1r.d rnto the care uf the carner, but not vet l i d - i on h a r d It also serves as cvldence cif the of carrlapp and IS a doc-t~tnrrit of tltle, althouglr because the gocds have not necesarrly Lwen lchadetl vn to the ship, t h ~ s type of h ~ l l of ladtng IS not a l w a p acceptable to banks a4 rollateral sealrtty

Receiver I'arty who receives the cargo at the ~ l i l ~ of destination in thc contract of carriage.

Receiving dates Two 1htt.s between which a liner ship receives cargo for loading. These dates are advertiscxi by the shipping line or its agents.

Recharter (to) $id of a charterer of '3 ship, to charter or hire the ship out to atiothrr party. Also referred to as tu suh-lct and to sub-charter.

Recovery agent Pemiri or company whew business is tcb recover as much as possible, from the resp)nsible parties, of the nloney paid by insurance underwriters to cargo interests for loss or d a m a g ~ to cargo. Any money recovewd is P ~ S S C ~ to the undcn\vnters and the agtant IS pard a fer for 111s scrvlces, often a percentage of the amount recovered.

Redeliver (to) As time charterer, to return a ship to the shipowner at the end of the p i ~ n i uf the charter.

Redelivery Return of i> ship by the tirrlc charterer to the s h i p ~ v n e r at the end of the pcricd nf the charter. Abbreviated to redly.

Redelivery certificate R>cument, signed by or on behalf of the ship- owner and the charterer, certifying the time, date and place uf rtdclivery of the ship, that is, the returning of the ship try thc time charterer to the

shipowner at the end of the pericd of the charter. 'She certificattlalso states the quantities of bunkcrs on board at tlie timc of rcdclivcry.

Redly. Hcdclivrry r l . r !

Redwood Scale Scale which mcasurc-s tht- visic>sity of oils, for example fuel oil and diesel oil, in sect>nds. 1-tie prt3ater the ntlrnbrr of s t ~ o n d s , the higher the viscosity of a grade of oil.

Reefer container, reefer box, reefer Kefriserate~l container 1 i . i :

Reefer plug Electrical p i n t on a cargo vessel Into which refrigerated containers are connected to provide F O ~ V C ~ for refrigerating

Reefer ship Refrigerated ship :I rl

Reel guard Curved sheet. typ~cally maclc of i~brc glass, placccl around n paper roll to prntcrt ~t tmm contact dC~majit~, ~artrcularlv irom fork-lift t n~cks

Re-export (to) 'ti) rxport gwwis fmm a country to which thev hi~ve yrc- viouslv Iwt-ri irrryorttd, eithvr in the same condition ar after prwt.l;sing.

Refrigerated cargo pallet carrier Vessel tlsel for the carrtage of wfrrgcr- ated i a rgws in insulated huld s p a c e wh~ch can also tw used t o c-arrv pallrtist~i goc~ls .

Refrigerated container Insulated shipping container used for the car- riage of goods requiring refrigeration in transit, such as frurt, vegetables, d a ~ r y prc~iucts and meat. I t is fitted with a refrigeration unit which is connectmi to thr carrying ship's r1t.c trical powcr supply. Whilc the con- tainer is on thr r c ~ d , it (-an trl. iitttd with tirrritru~itable genrrator. Thc reirigcratcxi c o ~ ~ t ~ ~ i n c r is also kriosvn as a rt>t.ft-r c.otltainc.r. rrefer box nr simply rcefcr. A variation of the refrigerated coritilirr~r is tht. high cube reefer which has a higher cubic capacity than the sti~ndarci si7r wcfcr corrtai11c.r and can thus carry a greater volume of cargo. Tlie extra capacity is achievrtl either by increasing the height of the container or by deign it^^

. .

i t rib that the space taken by the cl~p-on diesel generator 15 over and a h v e the standard dimensions of the container.

Refrigerated ship Ship equiptmi with a rcfri~esating system for carrying perishable gclods, such as f ru~t , vc~r tabl rs , nleat and iish. Basic cnn- stn~ctional features arc sinlilar to thc~lsc of ,I gcncral carp? ship. Rcfriger-

Page 34: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Refrigerated trailer vessel 'llllllllllllllllllllllll!!l!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R!!!!! -

ation of cargo spaces is effected by circulating c u d air at temperahlrtas appropriate to the particular cargo. The cargo spaces arc insulated, tror- mally with aluminium or galvan~sed s t c ~ l , to assist in maintaming thc desired temperah~rr. Wht.11 dedicate1 to the fruit track, this t v p of ship is somt.times callecl a fruit carrier.

Refrigerated trailer vessel Ves.wl with decks on rvhich refrigerated lrai- lers arc carr~ed. Essentially she is a roll-on roll-off ship with a large number of electrical s c ~ k e t connections to 'nable the trailers' refrigeration units to br npwrated. When carrylng shiploads of bacon, these s h i p am referred to as refrigerated meat carriers.

Register (to) 'To record the o w ~ ~ c r s h i p of a ship with the authorities of a country. SF[* IIISO Registration ( I ) h lo~ i l .

Register (to) (2) To record a ship's arrival with the port authority usually at a port which is congtstrd and where s h i p are alloc-ated a berth in order of their arrival. See also Registration (2) h~lnrc?

Register tonnage or registered tonnage Volume of a ship erprt.ssed in tons each of which is quivalent to 100 cubic fed.

Registration (1) Reconiing of the ownershipof a ship with theauthorities of a country. [Mails of the owner or owners arc submitted, as are plans and details of the ship, including the measuremrnts and t o ~ l n i ~ g ~ ~ . The name of the ship and her port of registry must tw painted on the ship. Registration of a ship provides her with a nationality and makes hcr subject to the laws of the country in which she is registered.

Registration (2) Recording of a ship's arrival with tile port authority, usually at a port which is congested and wht>re ships are allcrated a berth in order of their arrival. In ports where thtrc is likely to be a prolonged delay befvre a berth k o n i c s vacant, some ships, after registratioti. proceed to another port to discharge and wturn to take up their original place in the clueuc.

Registro Italiano Navale Italian ship claslii(ication society. Abbreviated to K.1. F~7r t l r ~ firttc-ticit~s of 11 s l t tp clf~ss~fiiatict~t .iclil~ty, set. Classification society.

Release a bill of lading (to) Tc) provide the s h i p p r with a11 original bill clf latlirr~. often in exchange for the frright.


Reversible lavtime

I Release cargo (to) As carrier, to relincl~lish co~~t ro l of a cargo at the p1ac.e ( of destination.

Remaining on board !hid of the quantity of cargo or hunkers still on board a ship at a particular p i n t of a voyilge, for examplr on sa~ling h.cm1 one of the ports on her itinerary. Abbreviated to r.o.b.

Remeasure a ship (to) 'lh recalculate a ship's register totrnages when, for example, the n ~ l e s of measurement are altered or it appears to the authorities of a country that the tonnagw of a foreign ship differ s u b stantially frvm thme which wciuld apply had the ship been measured in that corlntry.

Removable deck Deck of a ship which is capable of k i n g remove1 and stowed out of tlie way This type vf deck is found in x1rnt>'arly carcarritm and is wmovecl when the ship is carrying a bulk cargo. More recent car carriers tend b have decks which fold away when not in use, rather than those which have to tw completely rernov~d.

Reporting point Place whtlrc a ship is reclirirrd to report rvhe~l passing, for example to a p r t authority when appmaching a port. Also referred to as a calling-in-point

Reposition container^ (to) To move empty shipping containers away fmm a location or area \%.here there are no further loatis to one where them are.

Reserve buoyancy Volume of \\latertight space of a ship atrove thv water- line, pruviciing safety for the ship while at sea.

Respondentia 'I'he borrowing of mnntDy by a master oi a ship using the cargo as security Also called a respondentia loan. The do'c~n~ent in which the cargo is pledged is known as a respondentia bond.

Return cargo Cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port or awa where her previous cargo was lcmdrd.

Return load Load whlcli t.n.~bles n veh~i le to rcturn Icwtirri t o the plact- or coilrrtry from where ~ t s ylmv~ous load came hlqo referred to as a back load

Reversible laytime Term 1 1 4 In a voyage clrartcr-party to stgtl~fv that the t ~ m e al10wt.d for l c ~ i d ~ n g rn~iy. , ~ t the charterrr's option, be added to

Page 35: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

'the t ~ m e allowrrl fur disrl~.ir~ing for the purposecif c~aIr~t~li~tir~gclemurrage lor despatch.

R.1. Registrr~ Italiano Naoalc-Italian ship classihcativn socic.ty I'or !Irty

furrctl(!ns ( $ i t shil' i ~ l i z s s i f i ~ . o l i ~ r ~ SOCI'C~Y, st^ Classification society.

Rigger Person who r i p 11 ship's derrick in rmdirrcas for hnist~ng cargo

Rigging screw Screw wtric.l\ .~pplics tension t o NIF or c - t l i l i i ~ q LISCCI for lashing cargo.

Rise of floor Distance from a hori~ontal lit~t* txtcnding outwards to the ship's side i n ~ ~ n the centre line c p f a ship to the lowi?st point of the ship's s ~ d e . This distar~ce or height equates to a sloping c ~ f tllc hull intended tci allow r l ra ina~r of liquids.

Roads or roadstead Expanse of water s~tuated off a pjrt whcrr ships are able to anchor brlft'ly.

Roll (to) Said of ~3 5hip to rc~.k sideways.

Rolling cargo C'argtj which is on wheels. st~c.ll '3% tnlrks or trailers, ant1 which can be rfriven or towed on to a ship. This ttwrrlr 1s normally useti with refererice to a ship which h,ls roll-on roll-off facilities, suc t~ as ramps and vehicle ifcck.;.

Rolling hatch cover Type of hatch cover typically found on the weather desk of bulk carriers. \Yhrn opeiled to allow ~rccrss to the hold, this t y p of cn\:er isdesignrd rith1.r to hc-stowed in a tra~~s~-rrsc .d~rect ic ln, in ivhich case ~t is known as (1 sidc rolling hatch cover, or Ic~ngitudinally. when it is ca l ld an end rolling cvvcr. l>ctx.nding on the design of t l~r ship, each hatch may have one or two covers.

Roll-on mll-off System of i~dcii~l): and ciischarginp a ship wl~ereby the cargo is cir~vrn on and off on ramps. tlhbrcviated to n)-nI. A ship dcsignec-1 to hantilr cargo in this way is kno\vn as a roll-on roll-off ship or ro-ro ship.

Roll trailer rrrlilrr used to cont.ev goods w r h as packaged t1r11tv.r or paper reels I t ni,ly be used solely In a tt~rr111n.ll for nio\.lng gc?cd< brt rvtvn the \\arehortse irr ~tlland transport and ttir 411p tllternatlvely. ~t Tnav I>c

Ro-rdvehiclc/passenger ferry or ro-rolpassenger ferry Vessel designed to carry passengers with or without cars, commc-wial vehic l t~ with their drivers rlnd un,~ccompar~ii-d roll-c~n roll-off cargo o n trailers. All vrlricles dre dr~\*en rln dnd off the .;hip on ramps and ipend the voyagv on s p t ~ i a l d t ~ k s , often wgregated ac.c.ording to the- type of \relricle. This type of stlip is normally usiul on short sca routes.

Rotation St-qucnce in which a ship calls at the )M>rt~ on her ~tinerary.

Round voyage Voyage involv~ng two legs, the second of which brings the ship t ~ c k to the grc~jirapliical area where tlrc first leg commenitd.

R.t.g. Rubber-tvrrd gantry cranc 11.r?

R.t.w. Kc~und the world (service)

Rubber-tyred gantry crane Type of gantry c-rarlr q,:! which is not rail- n~ountecl so that it is not confined to c)nc area elf a t e r n ~ i n ~ ~ l and cat1 be niovcul around as required rlbbreviatrcl t i ) r.t g.

Run aground (to) Said of a ship, to touch thc h>ttoni

Runner Rope or w ~ r e which gncs t h n ~ u g h a pullc.~ and wlr~ch 1s ustd In ordt>r to vary tl\t. lifting powcr of a derr~c-k

Running days C'crrrst~uti\:e c:illrndar diivs of 24 hc~urs i n r l u d i ~ ~ g week- ends '~tid hiJlidays.

I hl

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Salvage (service) - t$$//////////////#/#/////$/$$$ti$$iiiiiiiii$i$iiiii$iiiiiiiiiitt

S.a.b.i.0. Stem and berth in order.

Safe aground Term in a charter-party which allows the charterer to order^ the ship to a port or place where she may safely touch the bottom. This, tcml is part of the cxprrssion "not always afloat but safe agmund".

Safe berth Term in a charter-party which places the respvnsibility on to cargo interests to order the chartered ship to a berth which is physically safe for her whilt. she is there for the purpose of loading or discharging. Abbreviated to s.b. A charter-party may contain a clause allowing the charterer to Icwd at one safe berth, abbreviated to 0.s.b.

effect of the waves on the ship when at sea or by the uneven distribution of weight along her length. It may result in damage or distortion to the '

i hull. !

I Said to contain Term in a hill of lading rignifving that the master and carrier are unawaw nf the nature or quantity of the contents nf a carton, crate or bundle and are relying on the description f in ished by tlie shipper. Abbreviated to s.t.c.

1 Sail (to) ( I 1 To navigate.

Sail (to) ( 2 ) To depart from a port,

Safe port Term in a charter-party which places the rcspmsibility on to cargo iritcrcsts to order the char ter4 ship to a port which is physically arid politically safe for her to reach, remain at and leave, taking into I

consideration the cargo to he luadtd or d~scharged. Ahhmviated to^.^>. A I

charter-party may cx~ntain a clause allowing the charterer to call at one safe p r t , abbreviated to 0.s.p.

Sail-assisted bulk carrier Bulk carrier which is cvrivcntionally con- structed except for having two rectangular rigid sa~ l s mounted athwart-

1 ships in a ps i t ion forward of, and conseclr~ently out of thc way of, the

1 forward-most hatch covers. Savings in fuel ancl exhaust gas emission corn- b i n d with greater stability are claimed for this design, which involves an on-hard computer determining the nimt efficient angle for the sails

Safe working load Maximurii load which can safely he borne by a lifting or hauling appliance, such as a crane or winch. 'The safe working load is generally marked clcarly on the equipment and must not tw exceeded. Often cilbbr~viated to s.w.1.

Safety margin Allowance made for delays tc, a ship or for extra steaming time, caused for exaniplc hy had weather, when calculating the quantitv of hunkers m p i r e d f o r '1 voyage.

Safety radio-telegraphy certificate D c ~ u t n ~ n t , issued by tlic authorities of a coi~ntry, which certifi~s that a ship is cquippxi with suit.ible radio rquipnient taking into cc~nsidrration her sim, number of cw\\altien and the types of voyage which she is likely tu undertake.

Sag (to) Said o f '1 ship, that the c.c.ntre of the sliip is depressrct blow the le\*el of thc two ends. This henrliriy: of the ship'$ plating is caused by tlie

Sailing schedule or sailing card Printed list of current and future sailings issued by a liner company or its agent. I t contains the names of the ships, receiving and sailing dates against tach of the loading ports and estimated arrival dates at the discharge ports. I t also contains the names and tele- phone nun ih r s of the line's agents frir enquiries and bookings.

Sale and purchase broker I'erson who negotiates the ternis for the sale of a ship on behalf of the buycr or seller. S l e and purr-ha.* is oftmi abbreviated to s. it p.

Saleform Memorandum of agnvnient giving dctails of thc purchase of a ship, devised by the Norwegian Shipbn~ke~rs' Assc~iation. S7e also Memorandum of agreement.

Salvage err salvage charges Remuneration paid to a person who saves a ship, her quipnient ur cargo from loss or damage at sea. The amount is assessed by a court of law ilc.crrrding to the value of tht. salved pn~per ty ttrr degree c ~ f danger tu \vhich i t was exposcci, the risks horne by the salvor and the dcgree of skill pxercised in saving the ~ ~ o p r t y All the partics contributt in proportit-~n to the valurv of their salved proprtv.

Salvage (service) Action taken t o save a s l~ip , lirr equipnrent or cargo f n ~ m loss or d a m a g ~ at sea


Page 37: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

'pasn ssalun put! pasn j! uaA3 oslu ,t~s .x.a,q.S.S or paletnaiqqv .a~u~~.iel jo uo!jelnqe.> aqj UI

luncu lou op s/iep!loy qqnd pue s6rpun~ 'sJieplnlr~ ivy) sap~.ko~d q.>lq4\i .i~lvd-la11eq> e \I! uJa1 palda3xa skep!loq PUP sdepuns 'sdap~n~~s

.pas lu jno p.idurp s! [rues aql IIJI~M q'3nolqj Ou!uacio iuolloq e a,\ry lieu ploy s,d!qs ail) 'we3 aLuu5 u1 .le,\owal 1oj s~'dii>q oj a>uaiIl pue aaddoil utu! lo plot1 .aql 03111 a1~Ya~84e 111 pi1r.s aqllajsi~wl suo!,eldo aaq 11~ .J~IVU u jo pu.3 aqj uo paArqtIua aq osle r(~Ul ~PJS V '~1~LdalSld~ 10 PUPS 541 ~111 ddt'1~ pile [XIq 01 q3PJJ 1i.q~ aaq.~n~l 10 .i~ddns srronuyiro~ v sasn p,q1~i~1 lay3nq aq~, .PIIPS 1x1s

01 ~iiurrJ alq~s.~ai~r~~ns r put' add u s,t511 poLllaLu uo!l.)rl+; '~11~~8 pur slay3nq 8i~~)~~xns ,iq air Yu~Spa~p jo spoi11au1 aql 0'3~ry~) ly31a.w ralea.13 e Llrr:, 01 J~ils I? s,\\o[lv .lo 1tlYtli?.11> laciaat> ~111,\i qassa.\ iq 1~otI e 01 ssi1.w sa;a~qnla s!il,~ -qldap sno!.i,utI SJI ol 31 aiojs,u 14 lo ralrnl 10 qldap "111

aseanu! or IJI~ e leau lo ~r auop rlajjo SI s1y.1, 'paq la;\!J u ~utul lo pq ras aql iuorj pilt?s a.u)iuar 01 pat1ii1~31) ~~jsa,.\ lapea PUPS 10 iaYpa1p PUPS

,irlsnpirl uo~)>ru(suo> ail1 o) i1011r1cl1qsrp 1c)j ~YJP~ lo .h~c>l 01 p1puo14ur.q aqaq pu,w.>\ pur t~qsu,%i a.le sj~npo~d asal.1 4.i~ snor.ar.2 lo =;la

-4plp uorj S~IW%J~~P pue pups paHp~p-eassayrl [ruluLlal ~mlr-"pap JO

,XLCJ sly, ,+~od all1 je Par uad~ UP I(~[V~UJON Ieu!uLlal ~~APJS PUP PUPS

..;d!ys la'dle~ ut) pirrluj pue sy~!aap q11 .i.\uaq L~~IM ~~IPIAVSSL'

,illrtlst~ alr daq~ .slsoil yJ!llap sl~oJdns y31q.si 'dys u JO ';aq212~11 aql ir+~~pq palenl!s 'qvd r jo auo uajjo '~seu ;C2\eay 'lloil~ )sod-uosures

-u!utIal jo lsa3?i(a1!1 dill pue 11 10j SLIOS~.>J alq~q01d J~I 'SSOI aql jo 1ualxa ail3 110 suswla1 lila.raiu 11 :sscq e 10j 4111qc11 au!uuajap ,illeuuou IOU saop uo!1r!.>assy au ,svasla,\o saold~e~ .I<) s~11qs 01 palan>.x-, seq a~eucp 10 ssol uaqht sda..uns Ino AUP~ OJ palu~cxicir ualjo 'w..\!)t.luasal -dm JO ym.Mjau ap!,\\-pllan\ e ;lmnrq 'i1o!jes!ue81~) UO!J~!JOSSV aYe~les

Page 38: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Scrap terminal 'I'ern~inal at ir port dedicated to the handling and storagt. of scrap. Generally, facilities are fcsv, with an open space capable of allow- ing scrap of several different basic types to be pilcd awaiting distribution. Shore cranes are nevi14 to disc.tiitrge the ships, using grab5 or magnets.

S.d. Single deck ship 17,rt

Sea waybill Document, issued by a shipping lint* to a shipper, which swes as .I m e i p t for thc g o d s and evidence cif the contract of carriagr. In these r e s p t ~ t s it resembles a bill of lading but, unlike a bill of lading, it is r i o t a dcmrmt-rrt of title; it hears the narntb of the consignee who has cmly tu identify himself in order to take delivery of the cargo. Hccause it is not negutiahle, the litirr waybill is not acceptable t o banks as rollatt.ral scyur- ily The purpose of tlrc liner waybill is to avoid the delays to ships and cargcw which occur whcn bills of lading are late i r r arr iv~ng at the discharge port. 'She sea wvaybill is also refrrrcd to as a lincr \*raybill or an ocean waybill or sirllply a waybill.

Seal Security device attached ti) the doors of a shipping container. .Seals niay be made o f metal or plastic and are of two basic t y p s : barrier anti indicative. 'l'lic barrier typc is niacle of metal and can consist elf a cal?lc n ~ a d c into a Itwp which can be self-lockir~g, or a steel hd t . The indicativt* tyrw seal is a nictal or plastic strlp whew main puryxist- is to provide '3

visllal indicatii)ti as to whether tampering has taken placc. I f the seal is intact on arrival at destination, this is virtual proof that tho container has not btvn o p n d while in transit. Set* 111so Barrier seal, Bolt seal, Cable seal, indicative seal atrti Strip seal.

Seasonal tropical zone One of sevcral geographic-al areas, defined by tile Internati(.~nal Confermce on Lcird I .incs, where, during certain p-i irds of tlic year which vary according to thc particular 7.o1re, a ship's hull may bt* i n ~ n ~ e r s e ~ i no deeper than her tn)pical load line.

Seasonal winter zone C)rit of several geographical arcas, defined b y tlrr

I hb

Self-trimming ship or self-trimmer -

Internatio~ial Cnnferetlcc on Load Lines, whrrc, during certain ~ ~ r i o d s of thc year which vary according to the particular zone, a ship's liull niay b ~rnrnersed no deeper than her wintcr load line

Seaworthiness Fitness of a ship for a partirx~lar voyagr with a prriicular c.argo. The nuin requirc~nients for seaworthiness are that a ship has suf- ficient crew, stores and fuel, that rtiachmery and equipment are in gocd repair and that the ship is fit to rrceivc and 'arry the cargo.

Seaworthy Said of a ship, to be fit for a particular voyage wvitlr a particular cargo. Sre ulx~ Seaworthiness t~lwrv.

Seconds Measurr of the viscosity of ciils such as furl or diesel according to the K d w o c d Scaltl. The highcr the ni~rnberof seconds, the Rrcater thv viscosity of the oil. Oftrn abbreviated to st3c~.

Secure (to) To prevent a cargo fmni shifting in transit, usi~ally by lashing it to the ship or to the container or vehicle by means of wirrs, chains, nqWs or straps.

Segregated ballast tank 'lank in a tanker which is used for water ballast only. 'l'hcre is thus no risk o f cargo b i n s nuxed with ballast with resrtlting i>ollution \vhen the lattcr is pun~pt-d out. Oftm abbreviated to s.b.t.

Self-loading trailer Stst. Side-loading trailer.

self-propelled barge hiannrd barge which has its own motor and means of contn)l. Such barges tend to operate singly fur the purpose of carrying cargo in contrast with the so-callcci dumh barges which have no engine and which are towed or pus l id together with others in a string or train. Self-propelled barges have the ciisadvantagt. of having less usable cargo space than dumb barge%.

Self-propelled trailer 'hailer which has its own potvt~ , that is, i t does nut rtquire a tractor or fvrk-l~ft t n ~ r k . The motor is lwattd under the bed of the trailer. I t is used in c.onfined spaces in yards and ~~arcliouses.

Self-sustaining ship Contaiticrship which has 1ic.r own crane for loading and dischrglng shipping ccltitainers, enabling the s h ~ p to serve prrts which d o not have suitable. or indeed driv, lifting tquipmetit.

Self-trimming ship or self-trimmer Ship whose 11rc>lds are ~hclpecl in such a \vav that a bulk cargo loaded into her will level itself.


Page 39: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Self-unloader Bulk carrirr which is equip1hx-I xvltl\ gear to enable her to d~scharge without using shore equipment. L'i~scls of this type isre nstd in the irvn ore and coal tri1dt.s. Typ~cal gear is a Lxxom conveyor which is capable of a high rate of discharging from ship to shore or fmm ship to s l ip . Often, this k fed by opening gates on the floor of the holds, thus allowing the cargo to drvp on to conveycrr twlts. It is then taken tu urre cnd where it is 'lc\;atmI to deck lrvel by mechanical or pneumatic means.

Semi-slewing ramp ScC Slewing ramp for dcfitzrtir~tz.

Semi-trailer Road trailer which has rear wheels but no fmnt wheels. I t is pulled along by a tractor unit which has a set of rear wheels whiclr act as the trailer's front wherls. When not being tcnved, it has legs \vhicti fold down to support the tront end.

Separation heteans of idpl~tifying separate consignments, particularly where there arc several of thc same commoditv, so that they are not mixnl or discharged at the \\?rung port. This is achieved by. for example, painting different cvlour marks on the cargo or putting tarpaulins between con- signments

Service agreement or senvice contract Agreement ht\veen ,i shipper and a llner cur\tcn-nce In w hrch the $hipper unciertaktr to ship some or all, as thc case mav Pe, of 111s cargo on conference lrne s h t p fnr a stcr-ific p e r ~ c ~ l of time In return for an a g r w i rate of frc~glit and Ie\~el of starvlcc %>me contracts letpire the chipper to achieve a minimum quantltv ell cargo over the agreed perird

S.g. Specitir. gravity q . ! !

Shackle Piece of Iron useti to link together t\\ 'ct Irngths ot chain or a length of chain t t , a block, a mast or to the deck. I t is nrrrmally LJ-shaped and has a pin which slots thrcluph the hvo ends and which is either screwed in or s t ~ u r t d with a device mHcd a forelock. Shacklt5 which are used to take several E V ~ V are rc~und-~ided and knil~sm as bow shackles.

Shears or shear-legs I rftrng apparatus, hdvlng two uprights wparatid at the brjttorn l ~ u t joinetl at thc top, uwcl for h c a ~ y weights Sc~rnetirilt~q spt*lleci sheen; dtld sheer-legs

Sheave Pulley ~vhcel used (in a drrrick.

Sheep carrier Ship used for the carriage of livestcrck, mainly sheep. hlany

are converted from oil tankers and dry cargo ships, althuugh a few have been puryc~sr-built. Ships which tra\~t been converted have essentially only had Livestock decks added; thew consist of weather-prvtccted pens in which the livestock are carried. Alw knnown as a Livestock carrier.

Shelter-deck I)&-k situated above tlre n~a in deck of a strip. Set alw Shelter-deck ship hlltnr:

Shelter-deck ship or shelter-decker Ship which has a deck, called the shelter-deck, alx~ve her twin deck. The original ~ u r p o s e was to enable the ship to Iwnefit from a lower rpgistered tonnage since the shelter-deck space \vvrrld not Lw included pmvidtd that there was a snlall opning, known as the tonnage opening, in the upper deck. More wccntlv, such ships have btvn assigned altemativt- tc7nnages and 1iave a tonnage mark painted on thrir sides. If this mark is submerged, the ship's higher regis- tered tonnage is used for the prlrpcw (crf dttermining p r t charges; if not submerged, the Irlwer tonnage applies.

S.h.e.x. Sundays and holidays excepted '1.1:

Shift Krgular twric~i vf work during the course of a day, such as O H ) hours to 140(1 hours by, for examplc, the duckers in a port.

Shift (to) (1) Said uf ,I ship. to mcwe from onc place to another. for exanrplc from one berth to another within the ~ ~ n c port or from anchor- age to berth. In a vovage chartvr, provision sholilcl tje rnade as to whether the time taktw to shlft counts as laytime.

Shift (to) (2) Said of cargo, to move within the hold vf a ship while at sea as a rnul t of itrsufficicnt securing or ht-il\:? weather. If , in the opinion of thc master, this nlovcmcnt rendem the ship unsafe, he rvould sail to the rrtbdrc.st p r t of refuge for the purpose uf rvstowing and/or rewuri~~g.

Shifting boards Boarcis which are fitted I~~tigitudinally, that is, in a fore and aft direction, along the holds of a ship whcn carrying free-flowing cargws such as grain They art- designed tu ~wv'nt the cargo strifting from side to side, particularly wht.11 the ship is rolling heavily, as she would twornt. dangert)usly unstilblr. Some vessels tiavc Inngitudindl bulkhea~is yer~lran~ntly fitted in thrir i~crlcls and t h e e oliviatc the need for shrft~ng hcwrds.

Shifting charges ('l~argt- f~ l r mov~rtg a ship from one y1ac.r ti, another ivith~n a port, for vxdn~plc frcom one berth tr, another

Page 40: Dictionary of Shipping Terms


S.h.i.n.c. Sundays and holidays included y rr

Ship (1) Genrric tern1 meaning a floating vessel which is sclf-proplltxi and capable o t carryi~iy: cargo tlr passengers,

Ship (21 Stirp 1ntenl9ts, such a3 the owner ur disponrnt olvner or the n~astrr and crrw of a s h ~ p This term 1s usa1 when dls t~ngu~\ l~lng htrtwt-en L.nrgu and +if,, for ~ x a ~ t r p l r crmcrrlnng cnstines ilr cnnlmrt~~al mpunsi- l ~ i l i t i f i

Ship (to) 'lh put (gocx1s) in a ship

Ship breaker Person or io~~ipal iy whose businc.ss is breaking ships up fur scrap. Ships purchased for this purpose atr normalls paid for on the hiisis of thcir l~ght disylacerl~cnt tonnage.

Ship broker Sc-c Shipbroker i~loul.

Ship canal Arhfic-la1 waterway conqt~ucted e~ther to provlde slilpplng w~tl i shorter dlstanct- bet\vcrn ports o r to enable ocean-going 5h1kw to penetrate lnlatid to ~trdustr~al arcas

Ship chandler Merchant who s u p ~ l ~ t - ~ ships w t h s to re and prwrislons Also spellel Shipchandler

Ship management Busitiess of ~~lanning, equipping, provisio~~ing arid maintaining a ship. This function may be performed by the shipowner's owfn organisation or by a firm of ship managrrs.

Ship routing Service offered by a gc>\lernmrrit departriwnt or ~-.rivate company \vlirrehy a ship~wncr or ship operator is providtd with a mute for his ship, deviseti hv means of up-to-date wc.lther prerlictions, which avoids severv weather conditicr~ls such as storms, fog and icp. This route is nec~.sarilv not the nrc~st direct hut is expected to take less time sincr. it avoids conditions which would wquire a d u d i c ~ t i in speed. Addition- ally, the risks of )]cavy weather damage and, in extwnje cases, of injury to the crew, are reduced A lee is charged for this service. Also known as ~veatlier n~uting.

Shipbroker Persc~ri having one of several occup~tions: agent

or o\r~ner's broker, ntxotiati~lg the ttrnis fur the charter of a sliip on behalf of a charterer or shlpowller reup~ctively; sale and purchase broker, negotiating on lwhalf of a buyrr or seller of a ship; ship's agent, attending

S l i ipp in~ instructions - - -

to the requirements of a ship, her master arid crew w h ~ i in port on behalf of the shipowner; loading brvker, whose htlsilic.?;~ is to attmct cargoes to the ships of his principal. Sometimrs spellrtl ship brr)kt.r.

Shipbroking The wurk of a shipt>roktkr. .Sr7c. Shipbmker ( 1 1 ~ 1 i ~

Shiploader Shore tyuiprlirnt used to load bulk cargoes such as fertil~ser or Iron ore It normally consists of a conveyor system linkel to a chutr w l i ~ ~ l l directs the cargo Into the holds elf a sliip This methcd is normally , iw~-iatcd with a h ~ g h rate of load~ng

Shipmaster C'ornmand~r of a mrrcliant ship.

Shipment ( 1 1 11 rc~t~sigrinicnt

Shipment (2) I'utting cvf gaods c>11 h a r d a ship

Shipped bill of lading or shipped on board bill of lading Rill uf lading isstled when the gclcds hdvt- bt-t.11 10adt.d on h a r d the sliip. This type of bill of lading, which must cwntain a reference to the goods having k n shipped on board, is often required by banks who advance nioncy using the bill of lading as collateral security and \\rho whh to tv satisfied that the gwds arc 011 board the ship. Rill of lading is often abbreviated to h/l .

Shipper Person or company who enters mto a contract w~th a liner confert3rrct., sliipping line or slii~xx\,ner for the carnage of gcxjds.

Shippers' council k x i y which rcpn-sellts the views and intemts of sh ip pen in dir;cussions and nrgotiatic>ns with liner conferences, pirts, sh ip owners' or~:ariisatio~~s. gc~vrrnnients and other bodies in\;olvecl in the carnage of g c d s by sea and air.

Shipping (1) hlarititne tranapirt.

Shipping (2) Ships.

Shipping ( 3 ) The loading on hoard a ship (of g o d s )

Shipping co~~fcrence .'IT Conference

Shipping instructions Document, prepam1 by the shipper, which pro- vides the frright forwC~rder svitli full ~nstruct~o~is regarding the con-

Page 41: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Sliipping line - - ~p -

signmpnt. It inc.ludes a description of the cargo, its place vf origin and final iit3tinatiun, documerrtnrp requirt-nients, the name c ~ f thc carrying ship, the place and date of Ivading and any special provisions.

Shipping line Company which operates a ship or ships behvevn advcr- tlscd p~irts on aregular basis and offev space for gtmis in return for frc~ght b d s d on a tariff uf rates.

Shipping mark Markings distinctly displayed un ginxis being s h i p p i , or on their packaging, for ease of identification. Thew include thc port or place of Jtyti~iation and a package number, if there is rirore than crrrt3.

Shipping note lhcument, completed by the s h ~ p p e r and sent to the shipping line or its agent, dtltailing the consignnirnt Lwlng srrrt fnmrard for shipment.

Ship's agency Bus~ness of loc~hng after the interests of ship while she is 111 port Stor, ~ l s o Ship's agent hrlr>u!

Ship's agent Person who looks after tlrc interests o f a ship whilc she is in port. liis duties include the arranging of pilotage, towage and a berth for tlrr ship, the signing of bills of lading and the collection of freight. I'hc agent is paid a fw, agreed in advance with the shiporvner.

Ship's articles Written agreement between the master of a ship and the m w cu~nc-vrning their cniploynicnt. It includes rates of pay and capacity of each crewriian, the tiatc of comniencement of the v v p g c and its dur- ation. 'Shis agreement is also known as the articles of agrwrnc~it.

Ship's dues Charge, based un a ship's register tomape, which c-clntributes, tcrrvards the capital arid operi~ting costs of a port.

Ship's gear Crirtie(s) or dcrrick(s) fixcd to the d c ~ k of a ship for loaciitig and disliarging cargo and/or stvres and spiws. I t is ~ ~ s t r l for cargo at ports where there are no shore cranc-s or where the show cranes am inefficient or of inadtyuate lifting capacity.

Ship's husband I'crson ernployed by a shipowrirr to attend to the main- tenance arid repair of a ship.

Ship's rail Sidp of a ship. Under Inany contracts of salt-, concluiltd on f.o.b., c. & f . and c.i.f, terr~is. includirig those whicli incorporate Incotrrms,

-. - Short rea trader

- - risk passes frr>m seller to buyer when the goods cross the ship's rail at the port of loading.

Ship's sweat Condensation which ocwrs when a ship sails fnrnr a warm to a relatively ciml climate. The tempratun. of the cargo drops at a slower rate tlrarr that of the ship's en\~irciririirnt. Moisture ~c1nden~;t.s on the inner surfaces of the ship .ind drips on to the cargo. To avoid damage to cargo caustul by slii}l's sweat, it is important for cargo to be dry wherr loaded into the ship and ventilation is favol~relf w h t ~ meeting these climatic conditions.

Ship's tackle Ship's tyuipnient, such as ropes and pullevs, used for lifting.

Shipyard I'lace w h t w s h i p are built. Often abbreviated to yard

Shore A prup, normally made of tinrtwr, placed at an angle against a cargo in order tu support it and prevent i t from moving. Shores may bt? u s d on the deck of a ship or inside a shippirig 1-ontainer. To slrpport a cargo in this way is to shore it.

Shore gear Cranes, situated on thtl quay, used for luading <arp;o to, or dischargirrg cargo from, ships. Befort. a s l r i p t ~ ~ ~ ~ n e r or charterer schtdules csr noniinates a ship hlr a p~rticular port, it ib rr t~tssarv to determine whptlrcr the prrt is eqn ippd with cranes and that thrsc arc of sufficient capacity to lift the cargo, failing which a ship which has lifting gear is requlml.

Short form bill of lading Bill of lacling which does not have ~lrintcd on i t the full terms and cond~t~clns of the c-trntract of carriage but inste.id contains a relrrrric-e to thc carrier's cclnditions, normally stating that a Clq?). is availat,lt. oti rcyucst. Bill of la~ling is oftrn abbreviatd to b,/ I .

Short sea Slivrt cjistancc international trade.'

Short sea trader Ship ustd to gochis internationally but over rrla- tivvly short datances. This tc8rni is often used syrroriymtrusly with thv cuirstcr which carries cargct.s k twcen ports on the .irri~tx ctmst or hehvet.11 ports o f the same country. Tht>n. is no real distinction in ternis of con- ~trr~c?itrrl between the two: ships i ~ r either tra& are 01 vrry \.arietl t y p : they nray have one deck or morv than one deck, thrv nia): he geared or gearless, thcy may I~ave one hatch or scvcml, and may lit. fitted tcl carry

Page 42: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Short ship (to) ~It?I~~MI!v!fl!?I!fI!tI!f~f~fI#fI!fl!~!fI!fI!fI!f!!f!!f!?t!?t!Tt!?t!?t!Tt!?f!?ff?~I!fI!fI!fI!tI!fI!

shipping containers. As a rule, they are small in relation to ocean-going vessels.

Short ship (to) ,+r Shut out (to) hl[ltru!

Short shipment I'art of a consignment which has not been shipped in a specific ship, normally because there was insufficient space in the ship or M a u s e the g o d s arrived at the p r t of loading after the ship has com- p l e t d loadlng or has sailid.

Short ton Ton of 2,WHI Ibs. Also rcferred to as a net ton

Shortage Gmds shown ori the shlp's manifest which cannot be found when the ship discharges her cargo.

Shortlanded cargo Cargo, shown on the ship's manifest, which has not twen discharged at the port for whlch it was intmded. The ship's agent at tlic discharge port sends a cargo tracer, by letter or telex, to the agents at the other discharge ports on the ship's itinerary to determine whether this cargo was landed in error at one of thtxc ports

Shrink-wrapping Method of packing goods involving wrapping them in a material which IS then heated so that it shrinks and tiolds the gocds securely.

Shut out (to) To fail to take cargo on a ship. Situations where cargo is left Lwhind at the Iimding port wcur mainly when a shipping line has insufficient space on board its ship for the volumt- of bookings taken, or when cargo arrives after the ship has completed loading. Also reft*rml to as to short ship.

Side door Srr Side ramp bi710u?

Side door container Shipping container whose cicn~rs are at the side rather thilri at the war. Thew containen an. used when c'lrgo is r e q u i d to be l o a d d or discharged at places where access to thc end of the cc)nlainer is ~llffklllt, for exaniple when they are carrird on railway \vagons.

Side guard Sheet placed along the side of a stack of goods in cinlcr to protect it from contact damage, particularly from fork-lift trucks. Typically i t is made of fibre glass.


Single buoy mooring K~A~/~//-///d~/A~/~~d-<:;:>?:*~ - - -


Side-loading trailer Trailer equipped with its own apparahls to load and offload containers. The aim is to eliminate waiting time and crane hire ccmts Thls equipment can also transfer containers to and h r n rail wagons Also known as a sideloader or self-loading trailer Abbreviated to SI,T.

/ Side ramp Ramp fitted to the side of a ship to enable gwds to be wheeled ' on and off. Such ramps are found on mll-on roll-off ships, in particular i pure car carriers (pcc.1 and pure car and truck carriers (p.c.tc.1. They are

also found on ships carrying unitised gcxxis, such as pallet sh ip : the pallets are carried on fork-lift trucks over the ramp and set down on elevators in the ship which mnvey them to the appropriate deck. There

I they are picked up by further fork-lift trucks to be placed in position for 1 the voyage. When raised, this ramp k o m e s a watertight door, referred

1 to as a side door.

I Side tank Tank situated on cither side of the centre tank of a tanker, viewed longih~dinally. Side tdnks cxtend the entire depth of the cargo

I space and are elther the same s i 7 ~ or smaller than the centre tank. I

1 Sidelift truck Type of fork-lift truck whose forks are located along otie

) side. I t is designed to be operated i r i narrow aisles where use of a fn)ntlift , truck is difficult or inipossible. It may br fitted with a toplift attachment

for lifting shipping containers.

I Silo Tower-like stntctuw, nornially cylindrical, usmi for the storage of

/ grain. Typically it is fed fmm the top by suction elevators and emptied / from thc base.

t Sim. sub. Siniilar substitute q i?

Similar substitute Shipoffered by a shipc~wner toa charterer asa replace- ment for the one originally chartered \vhiCh is similar in respect of the principal characteristics, which include dtratlwt.igl~t, capacities and hold

j and hatch sizes. Abbreviated to sim sub.

Simplification (of a tariff) Reduction in the numtwr of classes or categories in the tariff of a shipping line or liner confrrrnct. to make lrcightlng simpler tcl administer.

I Single buoy mooring Huoy to which a large cul tanker moors tn discharge her cargo which 1s then pr~rti~~crd bv plpelinr tcl a refinery Thts facll~ty avotds thc need for a deep water trrtninal caphle of handling such large


Page 43: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

uadu pua auo puu Lio~ all, uo sOu111y LIOJ! nwllrys beq 11 .ot(lt?.> llelus s~~txiuel~as~u~ laylo PUP al18clj lo savuq IIelus a%~q.>s!p puc peol 134 pasn UIJ~J~L'~~ ielnSucl.~a~ d!y~

'P3JtL>X Sl 13Ll!t?1UO3 %uIdd!ys P q3lll.M OJ UC) ylOA\alUUJ) I!

hlaia~u lnq peo1 P ,irlc.> 01 iwq OLI sey q31q.~ 1al1e4 ~PCC'~ Jal!eq IelaIayS

.2u18~cil.~!yr dn paads pue ,ij!lri~~!s ol sr? crj +!sue~l Ldu~~np pur Bu!pcol lap uo!a!sod u1 )~a[ ale .iaq~ aamos 111 lny palald~uo~ uaaq svq 4~~1 ay1 ~aljv 0Ld-'r3 at11 1UtUJ pa.4OLUill ale sSUI~S '.illel~~o~ '8~11~ ~ti0.I SI? UMOlly OSlV 'palJll t)q

ue., asaql pi11 ~vi '~~LUPX~ JOJ 'sleq 10 sLdcq UI ~at)Ldle~ ~LIIIOJI! Ldunls 57 11 ,do01 r samroj I! ley, os laqla'ilo~ luu!ij an spua as?;oilm adcu ~II a.wj Bu!l~

sra,\o.> y34r.q .iq ~w.>rlda~ u~.y dla2~el scy puvs1assaA laplo uo pasn SI luauaLdi1e~~r srq~ (cweaq Sury uo lsar speoq ayl JV spua ayl) ,i~,uq~ley ail] asolxo l1~3rld ,up Isplcoq y 'JP~ se u.wr111y ,spvoy 1') SUO!JII>J al1ua-, ail4 q31i1m 03 uo .ie.~q~~eil JO q4Cdual ail) ~UC~P say3lals qa~il,~ r~o~lm pais uxcaq lals!S .sd!~15-'ai11r1ut13 put? sd!l{s 031~3 IC'J~UA~ [VL~O!~~I~,~LI~~~

,sxI!qs pal~iJ81JjA.I uo punoj s! la.ro3 y3li'tl s!y~ p~~acicl i1ay.u y~lvy 344 JO pila y>ea 01 TJVL~ ap11sq31y.w slauvd 10 s1.1~ OM! a.\ry 4q811u q.yey a81el v .~>,\IO~S uay,w rayto ayl rapun auo apqs q31q.w s~aued JO JixlLunu e JO

SlS!SUO3 11 -"'I"p UaaMllIll p1lllOJ ld~\C).> l[>lPq JO d.~ JaAOJ q3lry tdll!p![~

,aq drua asp3 ail4 SP 'pJt?OliJL')S 10 ~~td 2~o~~~d PJI%UF ayl 01 u.r,a;se Alpamp 110~~1stxi

e WIXJ pMa[s aq ues pile '~~P~J~,SJJ(> )lad laqlta ;i[uo la~lcnb auo la.so sa~elado IIJI~.% dwel P s! ciulrl !!tu!~dls-!ulas v .SJIJ!~!~~J llOil )not(;!,%\ lo ~IIM suo!lr.xy JO .i~a!~c.\ u 4e o81u3 papay"\ pe01~1n pi112 pet31 01 11 SMOIIP

puv si1o111scxi 8u~i1l.1~1 jlo X~rl!q!xa~ ~a+exl% d~qs ail) %.kt% s!~ ..w,~et~b .%uuoow donq

lu!od-al8u!s e SP u.wouq sam!Jaiucs .ur.q.s 01 pa~~taa~~lqe ualjc) -slassan - - - - ,:;<:;<:;!:z?:r!:,fr,,l,

iaqwp al%u!6 ro drys qDap alsu!~

Page 44: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Slow steam (to) - ttttttttttt/iddxxxdxd/ttt!!!!tt/tdt/////ttttttttttt*tdx -

Slow steam (to) To reducta the speed of a ship in order to make savings in fuel cmts. These savings are offset to some degree by the extra running ~ s t s incurred as a result uf the lengthening of the voyage.

Snatch block Long flat pulley whose block is open on one side, so as to insert easily a double wire or mpe.

Snotter Type of sling made of rope or wire. An eye is formtd at either cnd of a straight length for attaching to a hook for lifting.

Socket Point uf a ship's el--trical power supply to which a refrigerated container is connrt'ted.

Sole arbitrator Individual who, in accordance with a contract such as a charter-party, is alone nominated by both parties to settle a disputearising out of the cclntrac?. SCP also Arbitrator.

Sous palan Under ship's tackle. This term qualifies a freight rate and may apply to the port of loading or discharging. At thc loading port, it signifies that the shipowner's responsibility mmmences when the goods are delivered alongside, under the ship's tackle. At the discharging port, it signifies that the shipowner's responsibility ends when the g d s are l i f t4 off thr ship and on to the quay

Sovcoal Voyage charter-part): published by the Baltic and International Maritime Conference (HIMCCN, used for ship~nents of rval from countries of the former Soviet Union.

Sovcoalbill Rill of lad~ng ~ntended to be uscd for s h ~ p ~ n r n t s of coal from corlntrles of the former Soviet IJnion under the h v a m l charterparty

Sovconround Crt.ryage charter-partv, published by the Chanlbcr of Ship- ping of the United Kingdorn used fur shipments of timber hl tn c-ounhies of the former Soviet Union.

Sovmnmundbill Bill of lading intended to be 1 1 . 4 for shipments c ~ f timlwr from cc3nntric.s of the fornier Soviet Union undcr the Sclvc.c>nround charter-party.

Sovietwood Voyage chilrtrr-party, published by the Baltic and Inter. national hlaritinlc Confenxnce (RIb1CO), usel for shiprrrrnts nf r v c d from counlr~es of the former !%viet Union

1 78

Spillage - - - - -

Sovoremn Voyage charter-party, published by the Shipchartering Co- ordinating Bureau, Moscow, used fur shipments of ores and wncen- 1 trates from countries of the former Soviet Union. 1

Sovorecunbill Bill of lading intended to bt3 used for shipments of ores and ore cnncontrates fmm countr i t~ of the fc~rmer Soviet Union under the Sr~voremn charter-party.

S.p. Safe port q.1,.

S. & p. Sale and purchase. See Sale and purchase broker.

Space filler Paprbc~ard honeycc>nib i~st i l to fill cri~sswise spaces between g o d s in shipping containers, trucks or rail cars. This is to avoid shifting or toppling of goods while in transit. Alscl known as a void filler.

Spar ceiling Strips of timtwr fixed to the frames of a ship, either in a horizontal or vertical direction. which keep cargo away from the sides of the ship. This assists ventilation and helps protect against a build-up of moistuw or condensation. Also knowrr as cargo battens and permanent dunnage.

S.p.d. Steamer pays ducs.

Special commodity quotation Reduction in the tariff freight rate offered by a liner ccmference to a shipptbr, normally for one particular mmmcdity, whrn the application of the full tariff rate would makr it diffiqlt for the shipper to a c l ~ i ~ v c or mair~tain a crrtain level of shiprrlents because of its effect on the competitivrncss of thr selling price. Abbreviated to s.c.q.

Special equipment Often used to designate containers vtht-r than general pui-p~se ones. Exaniples are open top and refrigerated containers.

Special survey Stringent examitlation of a ship's hull anti machinery carried out every five years by a classificatiorr sociev surveyor for the purpi~st~ of maintaining class.

Specific gravity Rativ oi the \vt*ight of a liquid to its c~~t> ic capacity. Ahhn?viateJ to s.g.

Spillage Small quantities ol ;I bulk carg~1 1cwt overboard during loading or discharge of a ship when using gralw.

1 79

Page 45: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

1 IHL .suo%u,\i 11" leu 01 deys

&rU& rll Fn c)slr JJe ldl~ie)s e ql!m p~lddv q31q~i saldel~ .cliile.> Bu!~n.~s JOJ pasn puv 'SJ~LIJO~ iuolloq pur do1 ail) Lduop pale301 ale 1{3!1IM

JC) ~CJJ,~~SJJU~P~UO~ 8u!dd!ys r ap!siIr pxy Su~llg pdeqs-r~ aldels

,s~i!qs oH~e.> le~ai~afi pile airl~nd-!llnw JOJ alqelttls s! pup q3ap uaa.\i) pue sy.>ap ~wea,~ uo pas11 S! .13,\0-) q31Pq JO dl;~ s~ql ;ieniq3+eq aql ~n Irua aq) pi~o,i;rq lsnl lo pua ~iru le j1as11 .ieniipleq aq) u! 1aql!a ~au'nj~st~i 51 y>elsai{,l. .q)cair~apun ~~1101 aq ue3 ~auetl a.\~~samns q3ea ley) os ~aq%!q ku)j!1 irai{+ s! l.)els Sit!llnsa ail1 .qleau -lapun auo lxau aq) %UI[>I[~I'UV 1au~ti JSJ!~ dq) 'iC[[e.~!ln~lp~tl[ Jo .ille31ll~a[" rLdqlj~~ .iq Iw,\a!ipe s! s!i~.~ .pairdo ila~l~i JJ~IOUF JO do3 uo auo 1~y3els ae ii314.w SISU~ iuJa.tas JO %u!ls!suos la.to2 iple~ I laao3 q~eq %uppeas

.auen alppeas e se u~ouy oslv 'paliiIiC)iu.l!el aq osle ue3 lnq s~oiiap [.rue sleu!uual lau!elrlo:, 111 I~IJJCJ alppvl~s P SP ,iv~ aurw aqj u! pasn s! 41 .YJ~>M~LII~JJ 11~~0 s11 LII~IIIAI SJ~LIIP~UOJ SUI~~ILIS %U!IJ!I

10 alqede., 'SY.N'J~ 1113 10 SI~WLIM 110 aq ,iriu q~!q.\i aueJ[) auem layaels

'3215 plPM)(MI JO s~O%JC~ JO ~SPIU~~ ail) 10j ~HUBISA~) ale sa~l(ij \{tog .i~.\iop paploj J~P ~JI~M spua a,wq daql uayni sy>e~~v~ Yu!ploj puta <asn u! lou uaqM pde1lo2 ;UP qJ!qM sod ~au~0.l a~vq /iaill uai1hi S~~UJJVU alq!dulln> se u.uouy xlv AVM s!yl u! alqtJy.>vls ale ii.)!ilnj slr~ iie~ awes aq) LII

pal~odsuey aq 01 iuayl8u!lqeua .J~LI!c~LI~;, %ir~ddriis plepuels a@u!st? se suo!sua~u!p aulrs aql sril q31i1~ 73~1s I? O~UI q3erleU .Qdura lelIw!s .millo ql!.w payxq~a1ii1 aq Lctu :ildiua uaqhi 'q~q.w Y~V~Y'U lev a1qey3els

.sla!Jle., alppeqs SP q3nw?".\ap ~LII)JII

~31110 01 OS~ 111q SJUL'J~ y3ap pur saiiu~~ Lietll) ol :t~uo 1c1u s)uaruipejlr sr. pasn are SUIL'~~~ iapexld~ ;I~UIC)UC)J Jql J!J 0) luauijsn!pc J!)eiuo)ur JO ~P~LI~LU JO 'a1qrdr3 ,3!61)3sa1al aq ,iviu JO sillYua1 ~au1rluo3 p~~puu~s lii,uaj~~p ail) ~li?pc"uwo.).~e ol -z!s sno1-le.t ti! put! yldual ~.N!J j1) aq ,iow surray iapcard~ ~Jau!eluo~ aq1 JO sSu!ist?.~ aau~or, .XI, 01 uu 111 q31il.\t ~i~aiud~rllw JO w.~!d prlc-6 air 431q~ j~) 11v ,satl,il snorleo\ JCI 3q .~VLLI sJau!q -ircu %u~(puei~ ioj pas11 lueJt1 ~alJt?a~ds JO 1~4~. aql .Pir!uau 11) 'Airrpu&1 lnoql~~i pajj11 'srn>d~e.> aiuos L~IM I~I~~ILX~U! 'pue .il~iraj~~jja pirr ,ila~~~ amtu pa1~11 aq 01 osv.) .wolle asaql :~rq 1-1s al8u1s e lo ls~suo.> ,iew 138.1~~ [PJ~u"~ JOJ 8~a~wa~ls d~durrs JU ,surPaq l~p~ald~ .wau!t?+ucm %u!ddri~s ~UII~UP~ JOJ pue OSJVJ JO sa331d q1Ldi1al Suol JO pdcqs ,ilp~v.~y.rtt! SUIJJII mj aueu r o) paq~,e)le s! i[~!qni pals jo aprirr i~lensn a~lna(1 ~apealds

.sp10q a111 01111 UIV" SP tpns ssod~e~ ylnq slm~p pue d~ils e JO ie.wy~lt.il ail1 Ja.to put! Lent) aql puo?\'~l sl~a~cud ii31qm ad!^ )nods

Page 46: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Starboatd ar starboard side -- - $d/yy.~.x*x.y///xx*xKxK7///P:Yxxxx2

Starboard or starboard side The right 5ide of a ship when viewtrl facing forwards.

Statement of f ads Statement, pwparecf hy the ship's apt-nt at the loading and dischargmg ports, which shvws the dates and ti~nc-s of amval of the ship and the con~n~encenient and complction of loading and discharging. It details the quantity of cargo loaded or discharged ~ a c h day, the hours worked and the hours stopped with the reasons for the stoppagw, such as hilt! wealht-r, a strike or breakdo\vrr of ecluipn~cnt. Scnnetimes rrferred to CIS a port lr>g

Stay Kopc or wire u s d to support a mast or dt-rrick, secured at one end to the mast and, at the other, to the deck. With rnain masts ant1 heavy dcrricks, wveral stays are set up, namely hack stays, forr stays and topmast stays.

S.t.c. Said to contain 4.2:

Steam guy OIIP of a pair of wires and rvpes fitted on either side of a ship's demck between the derrick head and a winch on thc deck. I t is u s 4 tv pun thtx derrick into the desired positions when working a heavy lift.

Steel c d ? ?tee1 prrsd~ick, csrrisb In T q e q~~ant i t ies a h l ~ ~ n d Ihc worl~!, ~ r s d it\ many inc411~;trim mid [fir rnartjf ~ L I rpmes inr[i~rkin~: car Imdi* a ad pninrs an9 wllLtr ~srr~ds. !I i s s h i p p i i n kvu basic lams: hnl rr914rri and r7n;rted. Jn i ts hut ~ ~ I P L I t'm-rn, il is 4rnyackrc.l atid requilm little or nn prcrt~ct~nil il#u[nsk ~ I I P ~ l t f i ~ ~ n l s . i-ttllpr than ngainet salt watrr, cince il will br Furtl5~r pr i lcc~smi prior tr.1 i ! ~ vnil usc. C r 3 a t d stml Lr rrarrnally packkd in on nrrtet c-nvr:~qrt~. nnrn~nllv r i f metal, .I ni l rnny 31nvc frrrtlipr pr~1~r~Li0ir agairrs! humid1 11:

Steel pipe Long hollow steel product u.wd widely itr the oil and water industries. I t may k supplied and shippmi uncoatt-d, or coated in differ- ent ways suit) as with concrete, which acts as a mrn~sion resistant. C'cwteci pipes require careful handling to avoid ciamafie to the coating.

Stem ( I ) 'I'he fanvarif-mcwt part o f a ship at the point whew the ship's $id- meet the h w s .

Stem (21 Availability uf a cargo on the date or dates on ivllich a ship is offering t c ~ load.

Stem a berth (to) To reserve a hcrth for A ship.

Stem burikers (to) Tc) contract for the supply of hunkers

Stem The w.lr of a h i p . Also known as the after end

Stem door Ihwr at the stem or rear of a roll-on roll-off ship It is sittrated fonvard of the ramp and provides a watertight barrier against tire entry of sca water

Stem ramp Inclined plane which connects the after end ot a ill-n roll- off ship with the shore or quay on which mlling cargo is wheeled or driven on to or o f f the ship. The ramp is very aftCrr designed to make .I watertight door to crwer the opening in the ship.

Stevedore Pcrson running a business whose futrctions are to load, stow and unload ships. Oftel) used synonymously with docker

Stevedore's hook C'urvrct piece of steel w ~ t h a pcunt, heltt in the hand by a dockcr and \I& to attach =cks of cargo for the purpose of moving them froni plarv to place, both on shore and m the hold of a ship Also known as a docker's hook or hand hrwk (as dlstlnct from a hook wlrrrh is attached to a crane or cierr~ck)

Stevedoring charges C~harges for loading and stor\ving or unloading (as the case may be) a ship.

Stiff Said of a ship, havlng a t t~ridenq to roll quickly due to a large mctawntric height oftcn caused by stowing dense cargors low in a ship.

Stiffeners Bags of grain stowed on top of bulk grain in a ship's holds. Their purpwc is to prevent the hulk cargo from shift in^ with the rolling and pitching of the ship. When the grain is discharged, these bags are usually cut arid the grain incorporated into the tlul k.

Stoppage in transitu Right of an unpaid seller of g o d s to order a master to deliver thcwe g d s back lo him should the buyer beconie insolvent while the goods are in transit.

Stopper Short rope or chain, of which there are many t v p ? , used to check the nrnnlng ot cables.

Sto-ro System of stosv~nfi conventicmally on a ro-ro ship. Thr cargo


Page 47: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Stow - is w h ~ l r d on .~trd off the ship on triiilers of various sorts depending on the particular circx~mstancc~s, but is n.rnuvec1 frotrr the trailcrs and stowtrl dircctly on thc deck or tank top for the duration of the voyilpe.

Stow rosltlon In a shlp where gocxis are placed for thew cdrrlage to the port vf d lsch~rge olqj Stowage Ivitni?

Stow (to) To arrange or position goods in a ship for their carriage to the port of disc-harge. Stst. ulscl Stowage kloril.

Stow deadweight (to) %id of a cargc1, to take up Ims than one cubic metre of space in d ship for each tonne uf cargo.

Stowage Thc placing of goods in a ship in such a way as ttr firstly, the safety and stability of the ship nut only on a sea or wean passage hut a lw in betwtwn ports when parts of the cargo have been loaded vr discharged, as the cast. may Lw; s m n d l y the safety of the individual conqignments which should not be damaged or contaminated by being in proximity to goods with which they art* not compatible; thirdly, the ability to unltwd goods at them port of discharge without having to move gauds destined for other ports.

Stowage factor Katie of a cargo's cubic measurement to its weight, ch-' pressed in cuhic feet to the ton or cubic nirtres to the tonnr. 'l'he stowage factor is uscrl in conjunction with a ship's grain or bale rapacities to cleterniint. the tot.11 cjrrantity of cargo which can br Itmtltil.

Stowage plan Plan, in thr form of a lungitudinal crc~s-WL-tion of a ship, wliich shows the locations in the rhip of all the ct~nsignments. It is frr- cluently colcwr-coderf to highlight thc various ports uf discharge Thc ~tcovagc plan is vcrv often sent to the stc\eciore at each of the discharge p r t s to assist thcm in planning the disclrarging of' the ship.

Stowing ramp l y p of lnlcrrial ramp ~nslde a roll-on roll-off s h ~ p tvhlch connects one deck wlth another I t can be secund In the elsvatef posltion to allow greatcr headrot)ln for largcr vrhlclcs

Straddle carrier \Yhtr.lrcj vehicle designcul to lift and carry shipping containers within its own fran\c\vork. 11 is use11 for trrc)ving, and svnie- times stacking, sh~pping containers at a ror~tainer tcrniinal.

Straddle crane Cr.ine, rvliicti may bc on wheels or tracks, wl~ich can lift shipping containtrs within it* cnvn frar~irwork. I t is ~ ~ s e d in thtlsame way


as a straddle carrier in container tern~inals and depots but can alx) be rail.mounteci.

Strand (to) Said of a s h ~ p , to cease moving as a result of tcluching the bntton1.

Stranding Contact by a ship with the lmtton~ which prevents her fmm moving. Stranding is normally an involu~itary act hut it aLw occurs when a ship is intentionally nln ashore to avoid a gwater peril.

Strapping l'ractice of securing holds partly filled with grain by lashing or strapping timber over the surface of the cargo. This is to prevent the shifting of the cargo.

Strap seal Srr8 Strip seal.

Strengthened hold Hold of a ship whose tank top is winforced to carry dense cargoes such as ore.

Strike clause Clause in a bill of lading or charter-party which set.. out the options available to the parties to the contract of carriage in the event that a strike prevents or interrupts the loading or disc-harging of the cargo. The wording of the clause and the options vary accclrding to the individual contract. In the case of a charter, the clausc. may contain a pnnrision for the effect of a strike on Iavtimc.

Strike-bound (1 ) Said of a port where no loading or discharging is taking place because of a strike of dockers or where ships are unable to enter or lcavc k a u w of a strike o f pilots, tugnlcn or loc-k-gatemen.

Strike-bound ( 2 ) %;aid of A ship which is unable to leave a port b-ause of a strlke o f pilo~s, tugmen or Icxk-gatemen.

String of barges Group of barges tied together for towing. Also known .as a train of barges.

Stringer or stringer plate Steel plate used to stiffen the interior of a ship's plat~ng. It is sometimes a requlrcn~ent in charter-parties that cargo Lw dunnagcd so as tv prevent ~w~itact wit11 the ship's stringers.

Strip a container (to) 'Ih tltiload a sh~pping containcr. Also known as to destuff.

IRE; 1

Page 48: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Stripping pump -- -.-

Stripping pump Pump in a tanker which is brought into use towatds completion of discharge to drain the tanks of their remaining cargo. Steam or electricaUy driven, it pumps at a considerably slower rate than the main pumps.

Strip seal Indicative type of seal q . z ~ . , intended to show, when riiissing or damaged, that unauthorised access has twen made to a shipping cvn- tainer. It consists vf a strip of metal or plastic attached to the nds or arms on the doors of a shipping container, looped through a hole in the rod and sczurt.il by k i n g tightened through a ratchet device. It is removed hy cutting and is con.seyuently not re-usable. Sc>~tirtimes referred to as a stra~r -seal.

Stuff (to) Ih Icrad a shipping crpntainer

Sub. ( 1 ) Subject. For ~.sam/~l~.\, we url~icr Subject

Sub. (2) Substitute. For d t* f i r~ i t~o~r , sce Substitute and Substitution hlorr t

Sub-charter Srr Sub-let.

Sub-charter (to) SIT Sub-let (to)

Sub-charterer Person or company who charters a ship from a party who IS nut the orvncr hut who, in turn, has chartered the ship.

Sub-freight Fre~ght pavable by the sub charterer, nclrmally to the char- tertr. Srfs ulw Sub-charterer and Sub-let.

Subject (used as a noun) A condition the existence o i which generally precludes tlie charter of a ship fn)m being agreed. Used in the expression

to lift subjects q . r ?

Subject details or sub. details Term qualifying an offer or counter-offer for the charter of a ship whicli denotes that only minor details remain to be a g w d . I t is widely accepted that the conclusion of a contract is conditional on these details being a g m d although an American court has rultxi that the acccptancc. of such an offer or cuunter-offer is sufficient to crtBittt. a contract, leaving the details to be agwed subsequently.

Subject free or sub, free 'lilrm useti in an offer made by a shipowner to signify that the acceptance of that offer will only m u l t in a contract if one


' has not bwn concluded in the meantime with a third party. Also referred I to as subject open or subject unfixed.

Subject open or sub. open Scc Subject free alhliw

Subject stem or sub. stem Subject tcl the availability of the cargo on the date or datcs on which a ship is offering to lmd.

Subject unfixed or sub. unfixed Set. Subject free shrv .

I Suble t The charter of a ship to one party by another party who is not I the owner hut who, in turn, has c h a r t e d the ship. Also referred to as a


Sub-let (to) S a d of a charterer of a ship, to chartt-r or hire tlie ship out to another party. Alsu referred to a s tu recharter and to sub-charter.

I Subrogation 'Transfer to the insurrr uf the nglits of an insured lo m o v e r from an rxean carrier or other respc~nsihle party fur loss or damage to1 cargo.

I Substitute Heplacement ship fur a part~cular vciyage. Sec also Sub- stitution klmc-.

Substitute (to) To replace a ship, chartered for a particular voyafie, with another. Sci. also Substitution I l c ~ l r n c ?

Substitution The replacenicnt of a ship with another ship. A shipowner

I oAt-n has an option in a voyage to eniplov a ship other than the one named In the charter-party since he may not know rvhicll of his ships will he capable of performing the voyage at thc time the cclntrart is concluded, particxllarly if this is done well in advancr 01 loading.

Suction elevator Methuci of unloading bulk cargcnts of grain from ships using a vacuilrn to obtain pneumatic suction. Tlir cargo is sucked up through pipes.

Suit time Peritd withiti which cargo interrsts must bring a lawsuit against the carrier for any claim which thrv have under tlie 1,ontrac-t of carriage. Failing this, the carrier is normally discharged of all liability. The pericui may vary airxtrding to the partic-uldr contract but is often one year from tlie date when the goods w t w delivered or should have been ; i e l l v e d In prac-tic-r, many claims are not hilly qualitifitxi in time and


Page 49: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Sulphuric acid carrier Support ship

the carrier can grant an extension to suit tittle on the request of cargo interests to provide the parties with further time to settle the claim out of court.

Sulphuric acid carrier 'Iirlker specially equipped tc~ carry siilphuric acid. k a u s e of the highly corrosive nahire of this prtduct, the cargo tanks are lined wit11 one of a variety of linings or coatings. Hcating coils are necess- ary to maintain the correct temperature. Sulphuric a d d g i v e off noxious g a s e ~ v h i c h have to be vcrrtrd away safely.

Summer draught Depth of water to which a ship's hull may be immersed in a summer zone at all times or in a seasonal zone at certain times of thr year. The depth is indicateti by thesunlnIvr loacl line painteci on thr ship's sides.

Summer freeboard Distance betrveen the deck line and the appropriate load linr for a ship in a Furnmer zone. Set. 11/97 Freeboard urrd Load line zonc.

Summer Load line I .ine painted on the sides oi a ship wlric.li sho~vs the ~~rax imi~rn depth to which that ship's hull may he inin~crstd when in a summer zone. 'The line is marked with an S. Also referred to as the Plimsoll line or sunimrr nrarks. SCP 111~0 Load line zone.

Summer marks See Summer load line I I ~ R ~ T Y

Summer tank Ttink Iri a type of tanker k m w n 3s il summer Lank trip. %id .Taw- .-rn 4 t t l l ~ ~ side nf t hr tank are r ~ c I o v d so as t;lo form ~rMi!ivnal tanks ~vliiclr allow moTc cargo 10 tw c a r n d when 131~3 r r s s r l rs 4afling 111

s sulnmcr Paerl l i l i ~ zone 1 l i m ~ tanks IVCI~I~J b e lcli [ .ni~+tv when IF a wintw z t ~ ~ i t -

Summer timber freeboard [)lstancp twtwct'n thedeck llneand theappro- prlate load llnc for a shlp H ~ I ~ I I a d t ~ k cargo of timber 111 a surtlmer lone. SCP also Freeboard utrd Load line zone

Summer timber load line Line painted on thc sides of a ship which sho\vs the maximum depth to which that ship's hrrll may he ~ n i n ~ e r s c l \vhtbrr in a summer zone with a deck cargo of tirrrher. The line IS niarkcxl 1.5. C'c*rp:t!~:r Load linc zonc.

Summer zone One nf wveral peographlcal arcas rfrflnmi hy the Inter-

1 88

national Confcrcnce o n L i d I.incs. whcrc a ship's hull may PC i~nmcrscd no d t ~ p c r than hrr sunInIrr Io,ld litre.

Sundays and holidays excepted C'hartcr-part); trrrn kvhiclr prnvirlfi that Sundays and public Irolidays do !rot c-ount in the 'iilculation of laytirne. Abbrcviatcd to S.11.e.x. Scr. ols17 Even if used L I I I ~ Unless used.

Sundays and holidays included C'11artt.r-party terrn rvlrich providw that 5undays ant1 public hulidays cc~unt in the calc~~lation tif laytime, whether or nut used for loading or discharging, as the case may be Abbreviated to S.h.i.n.c.

Supercargo Person eniployed by a s1ilp)wner or s h ~ p p ~ n g company or charterer of a ship or shiptwr of goods to ~ u p r v i s l-argci handling opcr- ations.

Supervisory agent Pcrstw or conlpany appointed by a sl~ipowncr to protect his 1ntetr.sts aud tcr supcrvis thc \vork 'arrid out hy thc ship's agent \vhen thc owner's ship is in p ~ r t . The ship's ilgrnt may be thc only agent at the port or he ]nay have bcvn appoilitcd or naminatc? by thc cliartcrcr and thcnxfort. not thr chciirr of thc shi~x>\vncr. Also n.it.rrt.il to as a prr~tec'ting agent or pn)tt.c,tive agent.

Supplementary call Extra payment, made by a shipo\vner to t h e pro- tection and ind~rnnity assc>ciat~an with wliich his ship is cnt~rcd, to covcr clainrs nradt. h y all t l ~ r slrij~c~~vnitry: rnerntwrs against tlrr association's funds which wtrn not allotved for in the yearly advance call. The amount is generally based on the ship's tonnage.

Supply-ship Shlp used in the offshore drilling industry As well as carrying out the nc>rmal duties clf delivering supplies, her duties in- clude towing (when she is sometimes termed a h~g,,"supply ship), anchor handling, survey work and rescue work.

Supplytime Timcch.~rtcr partF1, publ~shtd by thc Baltlc and International hlarit~rne C'onfervrrce (UIM('C)), used for offshore srlvlcr slilps

Support ship Vessel used in the offshort. industry for t-ting an11 ~ ~ r v i c - i n ~ 11nil~r<~;1 riln<trrlction w o r k . Typirallv .;he has her own cranes, diving bell, a helicopter deck, and possibly photographic and research laboratories If cngagcd in d iv~ng support, she might have com- pression chambers. -

1 rtg

Page 50: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

S.w.a.d.Salt w3te.r arrival draught

Swapbody Type of trailer uscd for conihineci rail arid nlad tra~isyort. I t is capable of being t o w 4 by a tractor unit on the rcmds as well as being carried tin rail wagons I t \\-as designcxi to mauiniise the numLwr of pallets carricd and, at 2.50 mctn.s wide, is wider than a standard shipping conlatner. I t has four legs on which i t stands to t-tiable a tractor unit to be placed underneath. Early designs had soft tops and were incapable of bcing stackcd hut more ment ly mavy different models Irave appeawd. itrr'lr~ding h'trd top vrrrions. These can h a stacked whcther empty or laden. tllw spelled swap body or swophclcly cIr swop txody.

Sweat Conclensation which LKCUrS eitlwr when .I ship sails from a cool to a rtxlatively warm climate (5t-t* Cargo sweat) or \ice \ :em (styb Ship's sweat). Often, the expert use of ventilation is rcquired to pwvent sweat which can cause wrlous darnage to cargoes

Sweep the holds (to) 7'0 clear rubbish from the holds of a ship after a cargo has been dischargrd so that they are clean in readiness fur the next cargo. It 1s often a requirc~riient of time charter-parties that the holds of the slrip be clean or clean-swept on delivery to the time charterer at thp beginning of the per~od trt the charter and, similarly, on ndt3livery to thc shipowner at the end c i f the charter. Such rubbish or lrakage 1s known as sweepings.

Swinging buoy blnoring buoy uscd by a tanker which allows her t o swing with the tide.

Swinging derrick Tern-\ given to a dcrrick which is used on its osvn in a sinrildr way to '1 crane. \Yliereas derricks are otten used in pairs (union purchase), thcsr are fixtxl; a swingi~rg derrick c'iln slew or .swing, thus making ~t easier to spot or place the cargo In thr des~red pl.lce on h r d or aslrvre. Cargci is attochwl to the hook, l i f td hy pulling on the fall and s l c~v td or swung by mcanr of tvinchrs.

S.w.1. Safe working Inall i / , i 7 ,

Swop body or swopbody Str. Swapbody

Sworn shipbroker Official in cert.iiti ports in 1:rance \vlicr ha.; a r n c l r i - o l ~ ~ l y , in thc port in which he carrim on business, in chartering nego- tiations. <Other n-\onop>lifi enjovd include tht3 translat~cl~r cit official atid an!: clther dcic.rtments, such as cliartt~r-parties anti bills of lading, sale and

Tally clerk - -. -- -- - -- --

purchase of ships and the formalitie5 associatrti with the inward and outward clearance of s h i p .

Synacomex Voyage charter-part): whose full name is the Continent Grain Chartcr I'artv, u s d for ship~~icrits of grairi.

- -. - - --

T. i l l 'lhnnes, that is, metric tons of 1.0[lO ki1agranimt.s.

T.A. round Trans-Atlantic rc~iuid voyage

Tackle Collection uf wiws and mb-w i ~ s a l with a ship's derrick to lift goods. Also used to dtx-ribe the mt.thtd of rigging a derrick consisting of two blocks with a rope <or wlre passing thrclugh them in a particular configuration.

Taint Trace rif a substance found ill a cargo bohich contaminatrs that cargo and is likely to make i t unfit for its original purpose. Some cargcm, like citrus fruit, have a tendency to taint others \vllile scirne, like tea, are mow sltsceptible than others to being tainted thrtnselves.

Taking inward pilot Frequently used pn~visicr~r In a time charter to drttv- ~ii ine the time and placc of delivery of a ship by the owner to thechartrwr. 7'he hire collrmences at the monicrit the piled t'mbarks.

Tally I'hvsical 'ount of the number of p~eces of cargo 1 t ~ d w i ~nto , or discharged imm, a ship. StT i11sc Tally (to) Iwlozi!

Tally (to) To m o r d the number of pirces tugethcr with their dwript io~i , marks and numbers at the time thry are loadcd into, or discharged from, a ship This task may tw performed by tally clerks working for the s h ~ p - cwner, the shipper or m ~ i v e r , or the stevedorvs. The entries are niade on tallv shct.ts or in tallv bcloks atid Perve to verify !lip cjuan!ity of i,argci loaded arid dischargwl.

Tally clerk I'erwn criipivyed bv a ship pill^ cwrnpany, shipper, r ~ r i v e r


Page 51: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Tally sheet or tally book -- -1

or stevedorr to carry out a physical murit of cargij bring loaderi ~n to , or dl%-harged fmm, a s h ~ p Sc. illso Tally (to) n h r w

Tally sheet or tally book Wr~tten record of the count of the number of p m e s of cargo. their description, marks and numbers, ca r r id out at thc tinw they arr I r~dc t l into, or discharged from, a ship S'r 1 1 1 ~ Tally (to) nbnrr

Tandem 'Two crirnes are said to bc worked in tandem \\*hen they are employed together so CIS to make use of their conibineti lifting <apncity whcn handling lifts in excess of their individual capacities.

Tank barge Rlver barge designed for the carriage of l iqu~d bulk cargoes.

Tank car 1yp of container w e d for conveying liquids in hulk bv rail.

Tank cleaning Rclnuval of all traces of a cargo frvm the tanks of a ta11kt.r normally by means of high pressurp water jets. Tanks are cleaned trr avoid contamination and, where applicable. to rrlllove toxic or explosivr gases which might remain after a cargo has been discharged.

Tank container Shipping container designed for the carriage of lic~uids. It consists of a cylindrical tank made oi stainless stwl surror~nded by a framework which provides the smne overall dimensions as thow ot a standard drv cargo container, enabling it to tx? carried a~\r l handlrd in the same wav. Products carried In tank containers range fmm potable spirits, such as whisky, to hazardous chemicals.

'Tank terminal or tank farm Facility at a port where liquid cargocs are rrceivcd, stored and distr ihutd. 'ltrese are stvred in tanks of various sizes, some of which may be coat14 inside or made of stainless stcul, and some heated with heating coils or insulatctl. I 'rc~essins facilities, such as blending, filtering anti Itrnding into drums, may also be available Prcnlucts storrd include fuel oils, vegetable oils and chemicals.

Tank top Floor of tire hold, so called as i t is the top of the double bottom tank.

Tanker S h ~ p designed for the carriage of licluid in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several, or indeed milnv, tanks. Tankers 1-arrv a widc v,irirty of yro~iucts, including oil, refined prtducts, licluiti gas arid wine. Sin. and capacity range frc~m the ultra large crude carrier (u.1.c.c.) of over half a niillic)n tonnes deadweight t t ~ the small coastal tanker. 7 h n k r ~ load

tlieir cargo bv gravity from the show or by shore pumps and discharge using their own pumps.

Tanker broker Shipbrokcr who spwialises in the negotiations for tht- charter of tankers. I

Tanker charter Charter-party mvrring the hirr of a tanker. There are various types, for both voyage and time cliarters, marry of which are pmduced and used by the maior oil cclmpanirs.

Tare or tare weight Weight vf wrapping or packing. This is added to the net \velght of a cargo ti) determine its grctss weight. I r r the case of shipping containers, the tare represents the weight of the container without its contelits.

Tariff !khedule of charges, such as the height tariff of a shipping line or h e r conference, in which are puhlisheci freiglrt rates, generally for a wide varictv of commodities.

Tariff currency (.'urrency of a particular cr~untry on which the fwight rates in the tariff uf a shipping line or li~rer conference are b a ~ d and in which the rates are quoted. Generally, the freight payable by a stripper IS

by the shipping line to the currency of the country of shipment at the rate of exchange ruling on the date of shipment. 'l'lre most widely u s 4 tariff currrncy world-\l*lde is the U.S. Lhllar.

Tarpaulin Waterprtmi 'anvas shcvt ~ ~ s t r l to pn)trct goods from, for example, rain and sea water. Tarpaulins are used i r i a variety of situations: for example, to cover #clods on trucks or on the ground when gc~>ds are stowtd out of dtx,rs. They cover open top iorltainers and prevent water entering whilegr\f in~ a nic.;lsun~of protection against co~idensation. 711t.y arc also used together with hatch boards to cover hatch openings on older vt-sels.

I T,b.n. '1;) be nom~natnl . Srt, rrrrdcr Nominate a ship (to).

Telegraphic transfer Transfer c r f tunds trollr a l a n k 111 c>trts ~oun t rv t t ~ a bank In anotlrt-r c.orlntrv, ctfc~ttxi bhv tclt-graph or c.iblr Ahbrev~at~d to

Page 52: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Telescopic spreader --.- -- -

Telescopic spreader Device usually made of steel which is attacheti to a crane for handling shipping containers. I t is vne of a variety of spreader beams u . 4 for handling containers, all of which a n solid pieces of t'cliiipnwnt which f i t on to t l i r corner castings of the containcr. The tele- scopic vrrsion is capable of manual or automatic adjustment tcr fit tlie containcr.

Temperature recorder Device which measun.s and records the tcni- perature over a p r i r d of tinie within a n insulated shipping conlaint~r. Such a device may also be combined with a hygrometer and used in tlie hold of a ship to record not o~ily temperatun but alscr humiditv.

Tender S a d oi a ship, unstable due to h a v ~ n g a snlall metact-trtric height ~ v h ~ c h gives a tendency t o roll slowly. T h ~ s condition is oftt-n caused b y stowing denw cargves tcx) high in the ship.

Tender notice of readiness (to) As master of a ship, to present cargo interests or their agent with written nnticc that the ship has arrivcd and IS ready to load or discharge, as the casc nray be. Sotirc charter-parties provide tliCit this notic-e may tw offered at certain tinips only, ior cxample during ofiicc- huurs.

Tensioner Devicc which applies tension to wirt3 i i r r t l ropes, tor example1 when bundling gc~ ids top-ther Tensinners are of two basic types, manuall and pneumatic.

Terminal chassis Trailer u s 4 only within a tcrnri~ral, such as a port terminal, to tra~rsprrt Ituds hetween the ship clrid the tvarelivuse. It is attat-Ired to a tractor for this purpose.

Terminal handling charge Charge payablc to a sh~pping line either for receiving a full container load at the container terminal, storing i t and delivering it to the ship at the Icmd port or for mceiving it fro111 the ship at tire discharge port, storing it and delivering it to the ctrrisignee. Abbreviated tn t.h.c.

T.e.u. Twenty frrot equivalent unit r l . i ! l

T.f. Tropical fresh. 1

Threefold purcha~e Methtd uf r igg~ng a derrick using tr+fo threefold blocks, the lowt-r one carrying the hook and having the r o p or wire in six parts. The gain in power, krio\vn as tlir purchase, is rc>i~ghly equivalent

to the number of parts of the mp, in this caw by a factor of six. 'She safe working load of the derrick should nevertl ir lw not he cxct-rdd. Also ktiowl~ as trcblc p\rrchase.

Through bill of lading Rill of lading issucd by a shipping line for a voyage requiring on-carriage, thus involving at least one transhipmcnt. According to the particular contract, thc issuer of the bill of lading may he resp>tisible for the glwtis thr(~ug1iout ttre voyage or only for onp leg, acting a s agent for tlir on-carriagc. (7ftrn wferrcd to simplv as a through bill.

Through rate Freight rate whit,lr includes tht. ocean carri'ige, tran- shipment. if illiy, and on-carriage by a ~iiffcrcrrt means of transport to an inland destination.

Thrower X4at.hine used in trirlrnrlng dry bulk r,arga in a ship's hold. The bulk is fed tlinlugh an t)vt.rhra~i hoppcr l o the thmwer which projects it in a strcam intr) the wings. I t can h= used in either thc lower hold or tlre tween d1.c.k. A centrifugal thrvwer has a jt-t rvhicli rcvolves thmugh 360 degre's s r that the strc.irn of hulk rar)r;o is distributed in all directions. This niachine is used for stowing sugar. ores and niint~rals in the holds of hulk carriers or in warehouses.

Tidal range D~tferrnce in thc depth of water l>t.tween low w.ittbr and the next clr p r e \ ~ ~ ( n ~ s h ~ g l i watcr

Tide tables Edal predictions for a port, ~~~ l r l i s l i e i l by the p r t authority, g i v i n ~ dates and dclrths of water, nlttxti (.overing a yrric J of one calcndar y c.,~ r.

l i e r limit or tier limitation Maxin~i~trr nulnber 01 lt*vels of a coniniotlity wlrich may bc stowed on tnp of t'ilch other witlrout suffering darnage f rc~m cum prt-sicrn.

Timber carrier Ship d m ~ g t ~ t d for the carridge (if tinilwr, ucuillly geared and having large hatchways. Sometinics rc t r r rd to as a forest prcducts carrier.

Timbcr deck c a ~ o !'r.lctirc o f ~.~it.ryirig tinlbzr t-ar);cw\ I I ~ I ~ olrly In tlre holds uf s h ~ p s but a150 011 deck h i a ~ ~ w of ~ t s higlr stowage factor. k ~ a u s e of the he~ght of the cargo, str~t-t r rg~~la t ions exist whic-h call for a cornpact stow and securi! la.;hing.

Page 53: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Timber dogs - . - . . . --

Timber dogs Pair of metal htwks, linked together with a chain, used for lifting large timber logs. The lioc>ks have sharp points which penetrate the timber when lifted. In common with other liiting dcvices, timber dogs have a side working load which nitlst not be exceeded.

Timber freeboard Distance between the deck line, that is, the fine mp- menling tlie uppermost coniin~~ous deck, and the relevant timber laad line, pai~rted un the side of the ship. Freebmrcis are assigned by a govern- ment department or, i f authorised by UML department, a classification 9oriety

Timber load line One of the lints painted on the sides of a ship which shows the mi~xirnum depths to which that ship's hull rnay be immerscd when arriving at, sailing through or putting to sea in the different load 11nc zones with a deck ci~rgo of timber. The paitioning of t h t ~ lines is determined hy tlie rules agreed at the International Co~ifer~rlzr on Load 1.itlt.s \vl~ich h a w bcrn ratified by niany maritime countries. /\lsci known as tht. lumber load lirre.

Time Frrquently used terrn ta me.m layt~rne F C J ~ drti~irt~~~tr, cr*r, I aytime

Time bar Explrv ut the p n o d w ~ t i ~ t n whrch a lawsu~t tnrlst be brought or arb~trattorl conimenccd agaltrat a carner for any c la~m under a contract of carrlagr Normall\; a rlalm wh~ch 19 the subject of a t ~ m e bar rv~ll trot succt\xl This p r ~ o d 1s ,~grrtxi In thc contract af carrlagr and can be extended bv agriu.ment of the h5.o par t le

Time charter (1 ) The hiring ol a ship from a shitwwner for a p e r i d of tirne. Uritler t h ~ s typc of cvntract, the shi~x>\\~tler places his ship, with i w t v anti rqu~pmcnt , at the ciisp)iial oi t l ~ c-liarterer, fur which tilt. ctrar- trrrr pays tiire nuwtBy. S u h p ~ t to any restrictions in tlre ccj~ltrilct, the charterer decicies the type and cluantity of cargc~ to be carritd and the ports of loading ~ ~ r d tlischarging. He is responsible for supplying the ship with bunkcrs anrl for the payment of cargo handling vperatinns, port charges, pilotage, towage and ship's agency. Thr tt-chrlic-al tipration and navigatio~r of the ship remain the rrspcinslhilitv of thr shipowner A ship hired in t h ~ s wav is said tu be on time charter.

Time charter ( 7 ) Ahhrev~at~on tor tlnw charter-prty P1.r ki~>fitr~tr~v~, .;tr

Time charter-party / r r . l ( l r c l

Time charter (to) 'To him ,I strip tcir a p r ~ o d ,ri t l t t r r . This may be said cilllcr o f a ~hjpclwner, \vhc) !~irfi his shipout to '1 rllarterer, ur of a chartervr

- . Tolemted oulsider

who h l m a ship fmm a shipvwner ,%F a1.w Time charter (1) ab1n-e.

Time charterer Person or company who 1lin.s a ship for a p r i c d of tinlc Sft. also Time charter ( 1 ) uh~rv

Time charter-party Lknx~ment containing the terms and conditiorrs of a contract bctwzen a charterer and '1 stli$x)wner for the hire of a ship for a pric-K-1 of time.

Time sheet Staterncnt, drawn up by the ship's agent at the loading and clischarging ports, which details the timt- worked in loading or dis- charging the cargo together with the anlount of laytime u - 4 . This latter figure, when compared with the time allowed in the voyagc charter- part): is used by the shipowner and charterer to calculate drmurrage or despatch, as the case may ht..

Time-barred Said o i a r lai~n against a carrier for which the pried with~n which a lawsuit must hr bmught, or arbitration c-ommencd, has erpinul. Normally, a time-barrrtl claim will not succctd.

Time-charter Alttvtrative spelling of tirnr charter. For drfirlitrorr, s ~ e Time charter nrrd Time charter (to) n h u - r ~ .

Time-charterer Alternative spcllirrg of time chartem. Inr dt~fi~littcrn. WP

T ~ m e charterer ahlru.

T.i.r. Transport intt-rt~ational muher.

T,l.o. TotC~l loss only,

Tobacco terminal Terrninal in a port dedicated to the handling anti storage of tobcco. As tc~hacco is affected by maistuw, storage sheds rtyuire dehumidifyitig equipment and good ventilation. Lighting in the warehouse must alsv be neutral since tobarci> is aswseti primarily on its colour.

Tolerated outsider Shipping line which. although it is not a n lemkr oi a particular llner confercncc. tra5 an agreement wrth that n~trfermce mvtxring the level of service prcwidrd, partict~larly in resprit of t t r r freight rates which i t offers to shippc*m who have a loyalty contract with that cvnference Shiptrrs arp allo\ved by the conference lo ship cargo in s h i p ope ra td by tlrt* tolrratrtl outsider without illfriril;ing their loyalty con- tract.

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Tomming or tomming down

Tomming or tomming down Rracing of cargo in a ship with timber to hold down casts, bales and some other types of cargo. The purpose is to prevent thc cilrgo from shifting.

Ton 2,240 Ibs.

Tongs Implcmrtrt having a scissor action used for handling and lifting certain conimrdities. In the case of timber, tongs are used for spyarating logs. 'I'hey are also used, w h t ~ l attachmi to a chain, for lifting, for example, rails.

Tonnage ( I ) Quant~ty of carKo, ricirrnally expressed as a number of tonnes or tons.

Tonnage (2) Cubic capacity of a ship. Srr ~11x1 Net tonnage atill Gross tonnage.

Tonnage ( 3 ) Cargo capacity of all the ships cif a country or of a particular trade, a s thi. icwr n ~ a y be.

Tonnage mark Mark paur td on the s ~ d e of a shtltrr-deck s h ~ p wh~ch, ciepencl~ng on rvlrrtlrer ~t 13 submerged or trot, determines whether thc s l i~p 's larger or smaller reg~stcr tonnage a p ~ ~ l ~ e s when port dut-s ,art$ assessed for a yart~cular voyage C t v i l l s o Shelter-deck ship

Tonnage opening Permanent opt.ri111g In the shelter-dcck of a sh111 desrpntxl such that her rt=g~ster&l tonnage would not ~nclucle the shelter- deck space although this space IS capable of carrying cargv SFF nlso Shelter-deck ship

Tonne Metric ton of l,(X)O kiloprammes

Tonner Ship of a given deadsvcight. f ) r example, a 2,OU(l ton~icr is a 5hily of 2,(K)o tonnes deadweight.

Tonnea per ccntimetre Quantity (if cargo needed to inimersr a ship orre furtlirr centimetre. It is Iound in therhip's deadweight scalc, table which also shows 111 ~ C I I U I I I I I S a set of draughts with the s1iip')i corresponding leadw weight tonli.lgt3 when she IS lying in sill( water and fresh water. The quantity vnrlm ncrt c>t~lv ship bv ship but also according to the quantity alre,ldy on btwrd. Abbreviated to t.p.i. I t niny c~ltt>rnatively he expressed in (long) !c l r l> p s . r inch ( t p.1.1,

Tonnes per day Quantity of cargo loacl-i cir disharged each day. The time a l lowd by a shipowner to a charterrr fur lvatling ur discharging, known iis laytinw, is often expressed as a number of tonnrr; p3r day. Abt>rrviatt-d to 1.p.d.

Tons per inch Quantity, for example of cargo or fuel, n w r l d to Imnierst a ship unr further inch. This quantity varies not only ship by ship but also according to the clr~antity already on board Abbreviated to t.p.i.

Top off (to) To fill a ship which is alreatly partly loaded with cargo. This cr~wratiorr occurs when there is a draught restriction at the first load port or between thew and the open sea. The ship loads a quantity of cargo correspintiing to the ~ ~ r n i i s s i b l e draught, then fills u p at the second [ x ~ t where there is no rrstricticrn.

Top side rail Steel m i o n nrrining alotrg t h ~ Icngth of each top edge of a shipping container giving it s tn~ctural strrngth.

Top stow cargo G o d s which are storveri on top of all others in a ship's hold lm-ausc of their relatively low density and tile probability that they would Llc damaged ~f overstc?wt~i, By definition, gtwids 11lacud at the top of the cargo Ptyausc they are for discharge at the next prt of call an. also termed top stow C i l q O .

Toplift or toplift attachment Attachmciit to a fork-lift truck which is dcsignrd to lift a shlpping container. I t sits a c n w the top of the container

dltlt'r. and is srcurtd by twist locks at the top corners cif the cont- '

Topside tank Upper wing tank of a bulk carrier which is used either for cargo or for ballast.

Total deadweight L>~ffrrrnce hetwt.cn a sh~p ' s Ifi~deci and l~ght JIS- placements, cons~stutg of the total rvelght ot fuel, fresh water, stores arid cn3w 1\1hich a ship can carry when ~mmrrst.d to a partrcular load I~ne, nornrallv hcr summer load l ~ n e The dmdwe~gh t 1s t'xpr~ssed In 1011s or tonnes Abbrt3v1atid to t LI rv Also referred to as tleadwe~ght or dead- we~ght all tiild

T. y.c. Tonnes per cenhmetrr q L*

T.p.d. Tcmnes per day r j rr.

T.y.i. Tons per inch y 7,

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Tracer Message sent by a ship's agcnt at one of the discharge ports on a ship's itinerary to the agents at all of the vther d i s c h a ~ c ports to deter- mine whether cargo, which was shown on the ship's manifest as being for discharge at that p r t but was not discharged thcrt-, had been landed in ermr at one of the other ports. A similar message niay be sent to the agent at the loading p r t to ascertain whether the cargo was not, in fact, l&~dt.d. Also known as a cargo tracer.

Tractor S e l f - p m ~ ~ l l r d vehicle used for towing trailers. In ports, tractors may he used to nwve road trailers on to and off roll-on roll-off s h i p .

Trading limits Geographical limits specified in a tirne charter-party outside which the charterr-r is riot permitted to order the ship.

Trailer Vehicle. on which gvnds are loaded, towed by a tractor.

Trailer deck Deck on a ro-ro vessel dedicated to the stowage of rciaad trailers. It is similar to a car deck but has a higher clearance.

Train ferry Ship designed to carry rail cars. Thcsr may be cargc? wagons or passenger cars. The wagoris are shunted on to train iiecks whlch have tracks laid on them. Tht-re are various configurations possible which determine the n u m k r vf tracks. Pure train ferries carry only rail trclffic while \-chic-le/train ferries, alter~ratively known as trainlvehicle ferries, carry road vehicles as well. As an example. a vehiclei train ferry might have a rililway track in thc rniddle of the deck with two lines of road \~ehicles, one on either side.

Tramp or tramp ship Ship which will call at arry p r t to carry whatevrr cargoes are available, normally on tht. basis of a charter or part charter. Such a ship is the opposite of a liner ship which trades nn a specific rvute Lwt1vtu.n advertised ports.

Transfer charge Charge njade by a shlpplng 11ne for the lcmn of I ~ S quip-

tnent, such as containers or traders, to a s h l y p r or recelver who prov~des h ~ s own ~nland haulage Also refern4 t o a* an equlpnient Ilandc~ver charge

Trannhip (to) To transfer gtk~tls from one s h y to another St.(. nlsc~ Tran- shipment brlcricr

Transhipment 'I 'ra~~sier of g~Khlls fr0111 i)nt> ship tci another. Thls tronstrr niay be dinlct (Ir i t may be nwussary t o di.*harge the goods to tiit,


Trim - - . . - . - - -

quay prior to loading them on to the s w c ~ ~ d ship, or on to vehicles should the second ship be loading at a differrrit berth. Alternative spllings arc transshipment and trans-shipment.

Transit cargo Goods which are discharged fn)m a .sea-going ship in one country but which are destined for another country.

Transit time l i m e taken for g ixds to Lw carried fmm one place to another.

Translifter Type of tractor ustd for towing ndl trailers q.r~. and cassettes q.it In the case of cassettes, it raises, and prvvides axles and wheels fo~; both ends. It serves the same p u r p o ~ e for the wheel-lrss m d of a roll trailer.

Tkan~porter crane Typc of crane used for handling shipping containers. Typically, i t is a rnp-hoisting, rope-traversing crane which operates by lifting the cvrrtainer (hoisting) and moving it along a tmlley (traversing) befc~re lowering it intu position. l'he crane movt-s along the length of the quay on rails. It is equipped with a spreacier beam which attaches t o thc corner castings of the container tcl enable it to be lifted.

Tkansship (to) or trans-ship (to) Alternative spellings for tranship. For ~i t~f i~~t t inn . 4*t3 Tranship (to) allii Ranshipment ulwlrv.

Transshipment or trans-shipment ,\ltcrnative spellings for tran- shipment. For r lq f i~r i t io t t , s t ~ Transhipment a l ~ ~ r u ~ .

Tran~versc bulkhead Vertlcal separation acniss a ship, for exarnplr k t w c c n ~ I Y O holds.

Tray Kectangular wooden platform used to carry cases and cartons con- taining such gcn~is as fruit when being loaded o n to and discharged h r n a ship.

Tk-eble purchase Method of rigging a derrick using two thrwfold blocks, the lower one carrying the hook and having the r r ) p cir wire in six parts. The gain in power, known as the purchase, is roughly equivalent to the number of parts of the rope, in this case by a factor of six. The safe working load of the derrick should tirverthrlt.ss not be exceeded. Also known as threefold purchase.

'him Relationship betwwn a ship's ~lraughts tcirward and afl. Con- sideration is given to the trim when loadinx cargo s i r ~ t v i t is d t~i rable to

20 1

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Trim cargo (to)

sail with a reasonably even keel. Failing this, a ship is safer down by the stern, that is, with the draught aft slightly deeper than the draught fonvard. Adjustments can be made to the trim by the way in which the cargo is distributed in the hold(s) and by means of water ballast, for example in the peak tanks. A ship is said to be trimmed by the head if her draught forward is slightly deeper than her draught aft.

Trim cargo (to) 7h Icvrl a bulk cargo in the hold of a ship in order to contribute to her stability at sca. I'his is donr it) different ways, depending on the cargo and the facilities; for example, a coal cargo may be s ~ w u t trininied. that is, made level while actually being loaded by the movement to and fro of the spout frnni rvh~ch the cargo is poured into the ship; a grain cargo tnigfit tw I t ~ ~ ~ r l l e d hv bulldozers mo\ring across it after it is loaded.

Trim a ship (to) Tc) adjust the draughts forward atid aft of a ship so as to enable her to sail on a reasonably even keel. This is ac-liieved by careful distribution of cargo in the hold(s) and by meatis of water ballast, for example in the peak tanks.

'Ikimmed by the head Said of a s h ~ p whose draught fonvard is sl~ghtly derppr than her draught aft Thts often makes the handling of the ship difficxllt at Gea Alscl ref~rred to as down hv the head

Trimmed by the stem Said of a ship whose draught aft is slightly d c c p r than her draught forward. Also referred to as down by the stern.

Trip charter Time charter of a ship for a specific trip, rather than for a p ~ r i ~ d id time. .Also u s d occasionally to mean a voyage charter

Tropical draught Ikpth of water to which a ship may be immersed in a tropical zone as iticiicated by thc tropical load line painted on the side of the ship in acc,urda~irr with load line rt-gulations.

Tropical freeboard Distance between the deck line and her tnypical load line. Src alcn Freeboard artti Load line zone.

Tropical fresh water load line I.inr yaitlttd on thc sides of a ship which shows the maxinitrni depth to which that ship's hull niay hc i ~ n n i c r ~ e d when in fresh water in a tropical zone. Thy lints is t~1arkt.d '1'E $C>C rllsn Load line zone.

Tmpical fresh water timber lord line Line painted on the sides <of a ship

Tween deck - -. -. -

which shows the niaximum d e ~ t l i to which that ship's huU may be imnrersed when in in-h water in a tropical zone with a deck cargo of tirnbcr. The line is m a r k d LTF. Sts(- L J ~ ~ I ? Load line zone.

Tropical load line I,inc palnted on tlic sides of a ship which shows tlic rnaxinium depth to which that ship's hull may be i n ~ ~ n c m l when in a tropical zone. The lint- is marked T. Sir. alsc~ Load line zone.

Tropical timber freeboard I)istancc lxt~vtvri the deck line and her trop- ical timber lcmd I~nt-. Set. a l w Freeboard at~ci Load line zone.

Tropical timber load line Line painted on the sides of a ship which shows the nlaxin~r~rn del~tti to whlch that ship's hull may be immemtl when in a tnlpical zone \vitti a deck cargo of timber. The line is marked LT. SYP IIISO Load line zone.

Tropical zone One of severill gmgraphical arras, defined by the Inter- national Cnnfenwcc on Load I.in(.s. where a ship's Iiull may bt. irnniersed no deeper than ht-r trop~cal Irmd linc.

Tug Sniall, powerful ve<sel used for tc)fir~ng or pushing s h ~ p s In pirt, t ow~ng or pc~sh~tig barges aioli): rlvers, or t o ~ f ~ n g , lor example (711 rigs, out tosea

Tugmaster Tractor used w~thlri a port termma1 to pull traders of various t y p s It may be ubrd to t o ~ v the tra~lers on and off rci-1x3 vessels or betwcc~\ the quay and either thr warehouse or lrlland transport

Turn (a ship) round (to) To bnng a s l i ~ p Into pirt , Iwd or discharge her and her from the pbrt Thls tern1 1s rlioqt often uud In conner?rtrr~ w ~ t h the t~tiic taken to cdrrv out this ulwrdtlon

Turn round time or turnround time or turnaround time Tinrt- between a ship arriving in pnrt and sailing

Turn time lime d u r ~ n g which a ghip waits for a berth

Turnbuckle [>evice wh~cli applies tenstolr t o ropes or clia~ns used for Iasii~ng carpi Also rrferrtrl t o '1% ilc~tllc s~ 1 t8 i \

Tween deck k k which sepclrattbs the hold r b f a s h ~ p ~ n t o two, ~naklng


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Tween deck ship rm t w e n deckw

an upper and a lower hold. Its p u r p s e is to provide two separatc Irvcls of stowage for llic cargo, givtng ease of access and helping to avoid cclmpression of cargo caused by dlrect overstowage

Tween deck ship or tween decker Popular type of general cargo ship whcise holds are divided horizontally by one or more decks, known as the tween decks This arrangenwnt allows a wide range of commodities to be carried effectively and safely, normally by stowing hcavirr, dcnscr cargoes in the l ~ w e r hold and lighter cargoes in the uppt< part of the hold on the tween tleck clr decks. The bvecn dtcks have hatch covers in the same way as the main deck but very often these are flush with the deck to enable vehicles and fork-lift trucks tu move easily acrms them. These vessels are of either the sitigle hatch or twin hatch t y p : the single hatch version has hiltcliways whose breadth covers a good part of the h a m c ~ f the vesst>l; the twin hatch version has hatchways divided lengthways tu facilitate loading close tn the ship's sides.

Twenty foot equivalent unit Unit of ~nedsuwnrent mluivalent to one 20 foot shipping container, tiornially abbreviated to t.e.u. Thus a 40 foot container is equal to two t.e.r~.s. This measurement is used to quantify. for v~iitnple, the container capacity of a ship, the number of tuntainers o ~ r a particular voyage or over a period of tinrr, or it may be the unit on which freight is payable.

Twin hatch vessel Dry cargc~ ship whcm hatchways are dividcd length- ways into two halves. This enables cargo to be l m - ~ d d and stowtd nt~artBr to the ship's sides without much, if any, extra handling.

Twist lock Ile\?icr which is inserted into each of the four cciriier fittings of a shipping container and is turned or t\vistpd, thus locking the container for the put-pose of securing or lifting. 0 1 1 a flat, twist l r ~ k s are used to hold the uprights in a vertical position and to lock several flats togcthcr whrn not twinp rlwi for cargo 5 ~ ) that they form on t l i f t .

Two-way pallet Type of pallet 111 wh~cli the apertures intended to take the forks of a fork-lift truck are s~tuated on two o p p l t e edges S ~ T I I ~ S C ~

I'allet, One-way pallet rrtl~i Four-way pallet

U.b.c. Universal bulk carrier q.n

U.1.c.c Ultra largc crudc carrier 9.r'

Ullage Height of the space in a cargo tank ah3vc thP surfac-e of tlre licluid cargo. This distance ig used to calculatp the vol~l t~re elf liqr~itl in the tank.

Ullaging Pcterni~n~ng thc nwasuwnirrit of ullage hv means of a nleasurlng tape 11ist~ted 11it0 the tank

Ultra l a q e crude carrier Giant tanker of no official size but variously doscritwd as being one between 350,0(10 totint5 deadwright and .!iHI,O(U) tvnnes deadweight. Often abbreviated to u.1.c.c

Umpire Person who decidrs a dispute which Ii,>s t w n the s u b ~ t of an arbitration ~nvol\~lng two arb~tratcm who are unable to agree,

Unclean bill of lading Bill of lading cont.iining onr, or r ~ l c ~ r r than one, supr impsec l clause specifying a defect to thr cargo or packing, noted at the time the gcxds arr nnct-ivtd by the ship. Such a bill of lading is also referred to as foul or dirtv.

Uncontainerable cargoor uncontainerisable cargo Cargo which k a u s e of its overall d im~r~s ions will not fit into or onto a single shipplng con- taint3r. (h rot1tt.s which are fully containerised, such cargo can sometimes be occ~c1nimodatc.d on twci cir more flatracks or plalform flats. Cargo is also considrrd rlnccintainerable if it is ton heavy for a single containrr. In this case, it may secured on the deck id a ship. Oitcn abhrrviattd tcl


U.N.C.T.A.D. Unrttxl Nat~ons Ccmfewrrce on Trade and Ckvelopment It 1s air ag'ncv elf tlre CJtrtted Nat~ons Chgan~sat~on whose work In sli~pplng ~ncludes the h e r crde in\rolvlng the sharing of iargocs h t w w r i tlre 5hlpptng llnes of the impcwt~ng and cxpor t in~ C O U I I ~ ~ I ~ ~ S and tlilrd coun- trlrs in :I;< ratit) 40 10 20

Under deck shipment Carrlap. of g~nnls wt th~n the holtl of a ship, as

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distinct h i m their carriage on deck. Under deck shipment affords greater prritectir~rl against the elements and is often a requirement of purchasers o f gtnds, ~virticularly when payment is bv letter of credit

Under-consumption Arnount o f furl used per clay or over a perled of time by a ship wlrich is It.lss ttra~r the amount exptuteci or agreed.

Underkeel clearance Minimum distance between the huttom of a ship and ttr t - bed of a river or sea, required by some authorities as a d e t y margin because of unseen hazards or climatic <hang(-s in thc drptlr of water. Also known as k c ~ l clearance.

Undock (to) 'Ih Icavc dock.

Union purchase Popular methtd of combining two derricks for the ~ ~ ~ r p s e of lolading cargo to a ship or discharging it. One derrick is positioned over the hatch, the other over the quay. The two falls arc. connected together to the cargo hook. Once the cargo lras htvrr lifttd to the desired height, it is swung by pulling on the nyws of r ~ r r r derrick and releasing thtme of the other.

Unit load Method of presenting guodsfcor shipment such that they are in lifts of wgular size or weight, for example g m i s shipped on pallets or pre-slung. This method s~niplifies the handling o f tlrc cargo arrd irrcr~asec; the rate of loading and discharging o f strips since there will be fewer, and hra\rirr, lifts.

Uniti.9ation 'T'hr gnnlplng of gcxids for sh~pment Into a unit of regular s~/ t . . knowrr a5 a unit load

Unitise (to) Tc) gruup goods for sh~pment ~ n t o a u n ~ t of regular size, knawn as a u n ~ t Inad, to taol~tate handllng and increase the rate of loadlng nnd ci~scharglng of a s h ~ p Gclods on pallets, tor example, are said to he ~ ~ n i t ~ s e d

Universal bulk carrier F ~ r l y bulk carrier, Iraving a single dcr-k atrd frop- pd holds, designed to carry a wide range of hulk cargcws (but onlv one at a time). She has separate upper holds which could be used for ballast or for dense cargoes such as iron ore, while the ~ n a i n holcis carry less dense hulk cargoes. Abbreviated to u.b.c.

Unless used C Imrtcr-party ttwn wlr~rh prov~drs that a pnil~irt ton, nor- nrallv all or half, of tltnt u\td to I(md or drschargr, as the caw may be,

Utilirration - allowance

during excepted p r i o d s counts for the purpcwe of calculating total time used. Abbreviated to u .u .

Unload (to) TCI remove g r d s fmm a ship.

Unloader 'T'erm usel to define port apparatus employed to unload ships carrying dry bulk cargoes. This equipment Itray take the b r m oif a crane with a grab attached or pneumatic suction apparatus used typically for grain. Unloaders are normally ass--iated with a high rate of discharge. Unloaders may bc f i x 4 or mribile, the latter k i n g slower but allowing flexibility at tcrnrinals and ports by being capable of Lwing moved wher- ever mluirrrl.

Unmoor (to) To remove the ropes which attach a <hip to the shore.

Unprotected Said o f gocds which are shipped without any protective packing.

Unseaworthinew Cinfitness of a ship for a particular voyage with a particular cargo. This n ~ u l d be, for example, as a result of insufficiency [of crew, stores or fuel, machinery or equipment not being in gocd repair or unfitness to receive or carry the cargo.

Unseaworthy S a d of a slr~p. urrflt fur a part~cxllar vovage w ~ t h a par- ticular cargo SLY also Unseaworthiness uh)tlt*

L'nntuff (to) 'To unload a shipping container.

Upper tween deck Space for carrylng cargo hlorv the main deck of a ship ahive the deck which divides the upper hold.

U.S.D. lJnitec4 States Dollars.

U.S.N.H. United States North of Hatteras

Utilisation Quantity of cargo which ran br loaded into a shipping con- tainer.

Utilisation allowance Deduction from the f.c.1. freight pn>vidtrl 1,y a shipping litrc or l i n ~ r conference to a shipper who Icrads a rnininrurri number of tonnes or cubic metres of cargo into a shipping container. There may be various allowances d e p e n d i ~ ~ g on tht- degrre of r~tilisation of the container. Also known as an f.c.1. allowancr.

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U.U. Unless usrd q.a

Valorem Sre Ad valorem freighl.

Valuation forni Statement, signed try cargo interests, r q r i i n d by a general average adjuster to enable the contributions to general average to be calculated. This form requires details of the voyage to be filled ill. together with the cargcr and its invoice or shipped value and, if the grxds arp insured, the name and address of underwriters and the insured value.

Valuation scale List of freight rates, in the tariff of a liner conference or shipping line, each of which is applicable to a range of f.o.b. values; generally, the higher the f.a.h. valrtt. per tonne, the higher the freight rate

V.a.t. Valuc added tax.

Vlc Voyage charter q.r!

Vehicle carrier Ship designed to carry unaccompanied new \~ehicles such as cars, trucks, trailers and buses. Replacing the bulk carriers which were originally used to carry cars on the outward leg and bulk cargcw o11 the return leg, the vehicle carrier has roll-on roll-off type ramps which give access to a number vt decks, typically 12 or 13. Hoistable decks allorv height adjustment, enabling taller vehicles to be accomnindated.

Vehicleltrain ferry Ship designed to carry rail cars and road vchicles at the same tinir. Various configuratiuns are possible, one bring that rail cars, which might t>c cargo wagons or ~iassenger carriages, are shuntctl on to a central track with two lines of mad \rch~cles, one on each side.

Ventilate (to) To in tn~ducr f r e h air into the hold of a ship by means uf a ventilator on deck or by clpnirig the h'itches clr by means of a n~ecl~anical system. The yrtlrIwsc of ventilating is to prevent condenation. Sre a lw Ventilation hflvrct

series of holes along the top and bottom side rails of the container which provide ventilation thmughout.

Ventilation The introduction of fresh air into the hold of a ship. The purpose is tn warm or cool the cargo so as to prevent large differences oi-curring betwccn the temperature of the cargo and that of the ship's envinlnment, which would give rise to cwnden~t ion. Ventilation is effected by means uf ventilators of various type attached to the d--k of the ship, or in fine weather hy opening the hatches, or by a rn~tlanic-al system which forces air into the hold. Ventilation is also used in certain types of shipping container.

Ventilator I>uc-t attachtrl to tile d c ~ k of a ship which allows frcsh air to enter the hold (SFC Ventilation ahcnc.). Ventilators are of various types, the most common of which is the cowl type which can be swivrlltd to vary the rate of air flow into as well as out of the hold.

Very large crude carrier Large tanker of no official size but variourly described as being one betwecn 100,CXNl t o n n e deadweight and 3X1,000 ton11c.s deadweight. Often abbrev~ated to v.1.c.c.

Vessel (1) Ship or Lmat.

Vessel ( 2 ) Vessel interests, sttc.11 as tllc owner or disponent owner or the master and m w of the vessel. This term is usrd when distinguishing between cargo and vessel. for example concerning costings or contractual obligations.

Vessel sharing agreement Agreement reached ~ h v ~ n , generally, hvo shipping lines whereby they have a common ezhrclule nrdking use cli the ships of both companies. The p u p ' s e vf such an agreemelit is to reducr. competition caused by nvertonnaging on a given trade. Abbrrviatrtl t o Lr.S.a.

Visconbill Liner bill of lading published hy the Baltic and Internativnal blaritinic. Conference (RIMCO). Sat. Liner bill of lading.

Visconbooking 1.1ner h k ~ n g note p u b l ~ s h ~ d by the Balt~c and Inter- natto~ial Maritime Conference (RIMCC)) 5t.f Booking note.

Ventilated container Shipping container which resembles a gcnrral purycrw container hut which is designed to provide continuous vm- tilation fcrr cargoes requiring it, in particular cof f t~ . This is achieved by A


Visor il)pt.ning at tht* fonvarri end of a ferry, which consists o i tilt. r t l t i r t *

bows -tion. It is raised and held out of the way in port to allv+v the ramp to hr accessed and vehicles to be driven on and off the ship. Normally the


Page 60: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

ramp itself is a watertight door sl> the visor does not have to hlfil this objtu-tivr.

V.1.c.c. Very large crude carrier q . z r

Void filler P a p e r h r d honey~xirrrb ustd to fill c r r ~ w i s e spaces between goods in shipping contamen, trucks and rail cars. This is to avoid shifting or toppling of goods while in transit.

Voucher Dmiment, such as a receipt, which supports an item on the disbursements account rmdered to the shipowner by the ship's agent at a port.

Voy. \rc~vagts

Voymga a r m n t Srntcni~nl of the c m h and n-vtltiuc of a vayngc al ;I ship made after tti++ vdl!agc i+ mn~plrted ~ v h e n ~ E I P I ~ L - I - J I ~ ~ P and all a~_-tual cwl-: arr known

Voyage charter (1 ) Contract of carriage in which the charterer pays for the use of a ship's cargo space for one, or sometimes more than one, voyage. Under this type of charter, the shipowner pays all the operating cr~sts of the ship while payment for port and cargo handling charges aw the subject of agrccmcnt between the parties. Freight is generally paid per unit of cargo, such as a tonne, based on an agreed quantity, or as a lump sum irrespective of the quantity loaded. The terms and conditions of the contract arc set down in a document known as a drarter-party A ship chartertad in this way is said tu be on voyage charter.

Voyage charter (2) At>brrv~at~on for voyage ctiartt-r-partv For dt.fiti~trrnr

QLT Voyage charter-party fwlorcl

Voyage charter (to) T ~ I contract for the use of a shlp's cargo space for one, or rnorr than one, vclyage Thts may lw s a d of a shipi\vner or a charterer Ster 11l,s(3 Voyage charter (1) rrhrtlt.

Voyage charter-party Dm-ument conta~nlng thc terms and crinr!~ttons of a contract be twen a charterer and a shipowner tor the use of a shtp'f target space for one, or more> than one, voyage

Voyage estimate Calculation of the pmtitah~lity of a pmspcctlve voyage of a ship using cstiniated fig11rt.s. Irr thc rase of a tramp slripowner, the estimate i s U R C ~ to conipare two or ~ n o m possible vnyagvs in order to

Water density f I ! f I ! f I ! f I ! r n f I ! r n ~ --

determine which is the most profitable. Similarly, a time charterer would conrpaw two or more ships 90 as to charter the one which is least costIy overall. The content of an estimate varies according to the type and terms of the charter and whether the calculation is Lwing made by a shipowner or charterer. For an owner, the principal costs are the running cost of the ship (or hire money for a time charterer), bunker costs, port chaqes and canal dues together with ship's agency fees and any cargo handling crrsts; the revenue is the daily hire, in the case of a time charter, or the freight, less any conimission in the casp of a voyage charter.

V.s.a. \Jessel sharing agreement q.rt

Wagon demurrage Charge made bv the ratlways on the user ot a rallwray wagon for detaining 11 twyilnd the ag rml t ~ m c

War clause Clause in a bill of lading or charter-party which sets out the course of action open to the master of a ship in the event that the ship o r t r t v cargo or crew would hc put at risk k a t l s e of war should the ifoyage p r t ~ r c d . The clause varic.s according tci individual contracts but irlvariably the master wc~uld not he required tci yut his ship or crew '11 risk.

Warp (to) Ti) slrift ship by means cit her n~cnxing m p s .

Water ballast I-Ieavy wriglrt of sea water carrird by a ship when without a c a r p for stability and wfrty at sea.

Water density Iiatio of the weight rlf rvatrr to its volrtnir. I'his ranges fnim 1,000 ki1cvgrarnrnt.s per cubic nit,tre for frcsh water tv 1,(12h kilo- granimes for sea watrr, with brackish water in between. Sea watrr p r o vidcs greater btioyiil~c.~ t l ld l l freslr \ v d l r i 50 a i l r i ~ loadetl in frt~sh water to ht-r frc5h water load line will rise to hrr Fclnrmer load line by tht* time she n.acht=s the open wa.

Page 61: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

When where ready

Waybill Document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper, which senfes as a receipt for the g m d s and evidence of the contract of camage. In these respects it rescnibles a bill of lading but, unlike a bill of l a d i n ~ , it is not a docvment of title; i t bears the name of the consignee who has only to identify him.wlf in order to take delivery of the cargo. Decause i t is not negotiable, the waybill is not acceptable to banks a s collateral security. 'Iht. purpose of the waybill is to avoid the drlays to ships and cargoes which c~c-ur when bills of lading are late in arriving at the discharge port. This document is also referred to as a liner waybill or an wean waybill or a sea waybill.

Weather deck Uppermost deck, exposed to the weather, extending the lengtlr of tlrt? ship.

Weather permitting 'Serni useti in a voyage charter to signify that laytinrc d c w not cc~unt when weather cunditions do not allow loading or dis- charg~ng operat~ons to k cam& out. Abbreviated to w.p.

Weather routing Senvice offered by a government department or private company whereby a shipowner nr ship operator is provided with a route for h ~ s ship, devised by means of up-to-date weather predictions, which avoids severe weather conditions such as stomis, tog and ice. This route is necrssarily not tht. rl~ost direct Put is cxprctrd to tnkr lcss time since i t avoids contiitions which would require a reduction in speed. Addition- ally, the risks of heavy weather damage and, in extreme cases. of itrjury to the clew, are reduced. A fee is charged for this service. Also known as ship routing.

Weather working day Ilav t t t l which work is norm.llly carried out at a port and which coilnts as laytime unless loading or iliwhargitig ~votlld have ceased because of bad weather. Abbreviated to w.1v.d.

Weather-bound Said of a ship which is unable to sail from a port or place 1~t~rausc thc severity of the weather would make sailing unsafe

W.e.f. \Y~th effect froni. Ihtq IS u rd , for cxaniple, of the date when a new or amended r t ~ r c h a ~ e of a shipping litre tdkrs t>fttact

Weighbridge Plate on the ground onto whtch t n ~ c k s can be d r ~ v e n t t r

orcicr to w~tg l i them The pu~kx~se of t h ~ s 1s to determ~ne whether the niaxlmum pt>rn~trs~blc we~ght tor a veh~cle tcl be allowed un the mads ha\ been e\certltrl Tht. use ot wt31fillbrtdge also allows the wetght clt cargo to be a x v r t ~ ~ r i r d tjv d t d u c t ~ t ~ g thr tarc or we~gh t of the veli~cle

(plus the shipping container, if any) from thc grtws weight. The weight ~btained in this way is termed thc weighbridge weight.

Weight cargo Cargo one tontrc of which tt1rasurt.s onr rubtc mrtw or less. ITrp~ght on a weight c.,lrgo is grrrrrally payable on the weight, that is, per tonne or per tun. Also wferred to as cteatlweight cargo

Weight or measure or weight or measurement Freight for a consignment payable on the basis of its weight or cubic nieasurenrent, whichever provides the carrier with the greater return. Abbreviated tta w / ni.

Weight rated cargo Cargo wtio5e frrlght is payat~le on the basis of its weight, by means of a rate per tonne. Weight r a t 4 cargoe are generally, although not always, those which measure less than one cubic metre to one tonne. The freight for such cargoes is said to be payableon the weight.

WeighUmeasurement ratio Ratio of a cargo's weight to its cubic measure- ment, exprrsscul in cubic feet to the tori o r cubic nittrc3 to the tonne. This ratio can Lw u d in corrjunc.tion with a ship's h i ~ l ~ or grain 1.aparitirs to detrrrninr the maximum yuantity of iargcl which can be Icwdrd in a strip.

Welcon Voyage charter-~arty, published by the C'harntwr of Shipping of the United Kingdom. used for shipments of coal.

Well (1) Depression in a specially designed flatrack into which steel coils r t 4 to pr'v~nt them from mevlng when In trans~t

Well (2i Space twt\vet~t~ t l ~ t ' fort~dstlv 'and t1rv tlridgr or l>t,twt~tr the pn>p and the bridge

Wet weight Mreight of a bulk cargo including its mo~stum content

Wharf Structure built alongside the water where ships berth for loading or dischal-gina - ~- ~ 1 x d s .

Wharfage or wharfage charges C'lrrlr~'~ pavablc hv cargo ~ntemsts for the 11re of a wharf

Wharfinger I'ersoti who owns or operates a wharf

When where ready Frequently med proviston in a time charter to deter- tnirrc t l ~ c time and placc of mdelivrry of a ship by the charterer to the stiipv\vncr. Abbreviated to w.v.rv.r. 'I'his tcrttl is qualified in such a way as


Page 62: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

~4~~4 aql PUP Xenb sq1 uaaMjaq saiilii UI paXanuo;, pirr )no @wnd s! oihr.3 ayl .quel a8v~ols 58~~1 1{11~ pdd!llb s[eu~w~a~ l~od arr p!q.+i slrutwlal aupw palu3!pap )v palpiteq ale mql 3~a)1~9 aqsi su u.+ioirl( sd~ys pas!lrpads u! ylnq 111 PJ~IJPJ /(pp!~ oklit?~ pmbg ,au!M

~91~3 ylnq auy ol ?;ln>xj ssol jn ddl q~ C~U~C~JVL~SI~

JO 'du~prol Wu!lnp pu!~ ayl .iq Le~c unqq os~rr, jc3 irrluent, aiiepu!~

,drys aql ioo~u 01 PUP saq>)eq as013 pue ~r~lo nj ,sad01 y~~rrap .1a1%\o1 pile *as!al 01 :sasn sno1Jt.A srq 41 .J!qsv jo y~ap ail1 ol palloq s! y3!11.~ 331.4dp ~U!A~I>.\~J e JO 61u!riu Y~II~SISUO~ drau!q~rw jo a.m,I ~>u!M


iut1alo4d iueap lo sl>npcuJ ueap sc ol parxajaJ oslv ,auasway pue 11~1ds ~ojou~ 31rlds uo~le~nu se tlms st~npcud FJUIJ~H spnpo~d al!qM

.u.o~.!.M 01 pala~~iarqqv ;Clled-~dl.~~y> aqj q11~ a.lirep0.m u! ]unm 01 IJels o) .~ur!)Ae[ loj 'p.x~~nbar JI 'ss3u!pra~ jo XIIJOLI lapual pile 'l~od ayl ap~sano 11 daYe~~~q>u~ aql 42 a.t!JJe Alllo paau ails -8unoJ ol l-rels 04 alu!lde~ ioj S~ILU!~ ~~td ayj u!yj!.w 3q 01 joi1

sop d~qsaill 1~111 ~a~ey3 a%e/io.\ e u! uo!s!,\o.~,l jou 10 vod u! raqlaqM

II~O,~.J.I,.M ol pa~e!~a~qq~ ,sa!l~loqlnc ail1 Aq pa~ue18 uaaq seq anb!lwd lou JO 1aqlayM litled-~aa~eqs aqJ qlt~ a3ucpaulx tu! ~UIIOJ 01 qmls 111,~ aiu!lrirl p.~~t~b.x

J! 'ssau!peal to ayiou parapua; puu 1lod aq4 le p.41llr! sey d~qs aql a>uo 'leql lapcy3 a%e.io,\ r q uo!s!.\old jou lo anb!)~~d aay u! raqjayM

.)~tui ayj jo aureu aql dq pa~o~loj .~-.>.J-M.A~ 04 palclnaqqv paureu r lv aS~eyx!p 10 uoga~duxu, uo se il~rts 8st~or~!qw~un a~eltI pue aurg aql aqeu 01

- IOU Jo qVaq u! JaqPqM

Page 63: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

Winter North Atlantic timber freeboard

shows the maximurri depth to which that ship's hull rnay Lw immersed when in one of the North Atlantic winter seasonal zones. The line is marked WNA. See ul?;o Load line zone.

Winter North Atlantic timber freeboard Distance between the deck line of a ship and her winter North Atlantic timber load line. Sct*lilso Freeboard nfrd Load line zone.

Winter North Atlantic timber load line Line painted on the sides of a ship which shows the maximum depth to which that ship's hull may be immersed when in one ol the North Atlantic winter seasonal zones with a deck cargo of timber. The line is marked LWNA. Swalsc~ Load line zone.

Winter timber freeboard Distance hetween the dtrrk line of a ship and her winter timber load line Sn* ~tlscl Freeboard nrld Load line zone.

Winter timber load line Line painted on the sides of a ship which shows the rnaximum depth to which that ship's hull may be immersed when in a winter zone with a drck cargo of timber. Also referred to as w~n te r marks. 'l'he line is marked LW. See nlzo Load line zone.

Winter zone One of srvt-ral geographical areas defined hy thc Inter- national C'unfrrcnce on Liati I .irrcs, where a ship's hull may be immrrscd nil deeper than hcr winter load lint. a t r ~ r t a i n times of the year.

W.i.p.0.n. Whether in port or not r j . r !

Wire rod in coil T h ~ n gauge steel bars wourld ~ n t o co~ l s of around one to two tonnes, widely transported worldwide and r~sed to produce a va r~ t ty of fln~shed prc~ducts C o ~ l s are strapped in several places and care must bt. ererc~sed when h a ~ l d l ~ n g In ordrr not to break the ~ t r , Ipp~ng

Withdraw a ship from the service of charterer (to) Tci wmove control crf a ship from the time charterer for the rcnraining period crf the charter. This action is taken by the shipowner in accordance with the charter when thcre has bt.eir a serious breach nf contract, cunrmonlv when the cl~arterer has failed to pay hire money vn t i n r ~ .

WNA CVintcr h'c~rth Atli~nt~c-

W.0.g. \V~thtlut guarantee This tern3 is often found In telexr.; o r cables


Working day of 24 consecutive hours ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , , , , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ # , , , , , , , , ~ , ~ , ~ < , , , , r , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ~

containing details of ships offered on tlme charter and qualifies, for example, the speed of the shrp, dc-signating that this figure 1s given without cornm~tment.

Woodchip camer V'essel designed to carry wotxlchips in bulk. Normally in the size range 20,000 to W.000 tcnl~es deadweight, such vessels have a high cubic capacity because of the high stowage factor of this commodity which rnablcs them to be loaded to their marks. Discharging is effected in clnr of various ways, for example pneumatic conveyor belts or buckets. The advantage of w r d c h i p s over other timber prrxlucts, as far as ship- ping them is concerned, is that they are quicker to handle and are conse- quently more economic to transport.

Woodpulp carrier Type of ship suitable for the carriage of wocxipulp. The holds of the ship am box-shaped, that is, wit11 vertical sides and having nu obstructions, m as to allow the cargo, which is presented in large blowrks, to k stowed efficiently. Some ships have side doors to allow loading of thew blocks of woodpulp when they are palletisd. I f the ship is u m i to carry paper rolls, sllc rt~ust have adequate dehun~idifying cquipnient

Work a sh ip (to) To carry uut cargo operations on a ship at the load o r dixtrargt- port

Work to finish (to) To continue to lomd o r d~scharge the cargo of a 4h1p after the normal work~ng hours and customary overtltne of the port until the balance of the cargo has h r n completely loaded or d ~ s h a r g c d The extra cost of this operat~on IS generallv 1-s than the running ccwt (>I hire nroney ~ ~ ~ c u r r c d ~f the s h ~ p t r a ~ t s rlntrl tlrc fi~llowing workany, day to cornplrtr.

Workable hatch 'Ierrn in a voyage c.1iartt.r which determines the n u t n h r of days allowed for loading and/or discharging, hy dividing the quantity of cargo in the large9 hatch by the quantity per workilhle hatch per day as stipulated in the charter-partv. Difficulties of intrrpn>tation may arise in the calculation of 1a)ltinrr allowtd when expressed in this way, par- ticularly if the ship has hatches capat?le of being worked by two gangs simultaneousl\r. Also referred to as a working hatch.

Working day Day tvhcn normal rvorking is c,arrird out in a prt

Working day of 24 consecutive hours Worklng day wh~ch equates t o one layday The word cot~sc~ut ive was introdt~cetl ~ f t r r ~t was ruled in

21 7

Page 64: Dictionary of Shipping Terms

sti~p,(vl aayt su pap1w03 aq p1no.w wloy PZ JU ~ep 8ityi0~ r uayl :iep J& aurg Yu!yroni [PLLLIOU

aql s~uasadar s~uoil ~q%!a leqt IJC~ P jo LLI~~S~J ail1 S! )! j1 sinoy BU!IJOM ~VUIJOU PZ sute~uo3 q3!y~ awl lo po!laj sinoy )Z 30 Lep %u!qroM