DEVELOPING ESL LISTENING: PROMOTING STUDENT ESL آ  DEVELOPING ESL LISTENING: PROMOTING

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  • DEVELOPING ESL LISTENING: PROMOTING STUDENT MOTIVATION

    A Thesis

    Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research

    in Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    Master of Arts

    Hlaviso Albert Motlhaka

    Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    May 2012

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    © 2012 Hlaviso Albert Motlhaka

    All Rights Reserved

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    Indiana University of Pennsylvania School of Graduate Studies and Research

    Department of English

    We hereby approve the thesis of

    Hlaviso Albert Motlhaka

    Candidate for the degree of Master of Arts

    _________________________ ____________________________________ Lilia P. Savova, Ph.D. Professor of English, Advisor __________________________ ___________________________________ Roger L. Briscoe, Ph.D. Professor of Educational Psychology __________________________ ____________________________________ Mark J. Staszkiewicz, Ed.D. Professor of Educational Psychology

    ACCEPTED

    _____________________________________ __________________________

    Timothy P. Mack, Ph.D. Dean School of Graduate Studies and Research

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    Title: Developing ESL Listening: Promoting Student Motivation

    Author: Hlaviso Albert Motlhaka

    Thesis Chair: Dr. Lilia P. Savova

    Thesis Committee Members: Dr. Rodger L. Briscoe Dr. Mark Staszkiewicz

    This study aims to analyze learning and teaching strategies that foster student

    motivation and English as a Second Language (ESL) listening to enhance ESL learning.

    Scholarly published articles and books from 1980 to 2011 were collected, analyzed and

    guided by the content analysis approach.

    Regarding motivation, the main findings of this study indicate that student choices

    and learner autonomy are significant for enhancing student motivation. Also, the

    findings suggest that the use of student questions to promote communication from diverse

    perspectives is a significant motivational tool.

    In developing ESL listening, this study demonstrates that cooperative activities

    promote a non-threatening environment conducive for learning. It also finds that teacher

    talk and teachers’ questions elicit students’ use of ESL through speech production.

    Finally, after demonstrating the implications of learning and teaching strategies, this

    study offers a set of recommendations to help teachers and researchers in promoting

    student motivation and developing ESL listening.

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This work may not have been completed without the remarkable help, support,

    and encouragement from many wonderful people, to whom I am truly thankful. First and

    foremost, I would like to express my whole-hearted appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Lilia

    P. Savova, for her professional guidance, tremendous support, and continuous

    encouragement throughout my graduate study at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

    I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to my esteemed committee

    members: Dr. Rodger L. Briscoe and Dr. Mark Staszkiewicz, for their insightful advice,

    incredible help, and valuable feedback during my journey of writing this thesis. I am also

    grateful for the wonderful help and support from all faculty members, staff, graduate

    students in TESOL and Composition, and tutors at the writing center who have been a

    source of inspiration throughout my academic journey.

    This thesis is a tribute to my father, Nokela Motlhaka, and my sisters, Monene

    and Sasabona Motlhaka, who have always been there, supporting and loving me

    unconditionally throughout my schooling years. This work is also dedicated to my late

    mother, Mokgaetjie Motlhaka, for her unconditional love and inspiration.

    Last, but not the least, my sincere thanks go to Samuel Malapile, Thomas Tsebe,

    Mohammed F. Alqahtani, David Tyler Sgrignoli, Jocelyn R. Amevuvor, Brian D. Cope,

    Laurin D. Jefferson and Ray Aaron Deem, my dear friends who are my source of

    inspiration, joy, support, and endless care.

    May God bless all of you!

    Hlaviso Albert Motlhaka

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Chapter Page ONE: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………1

    Statement of the Research Problem and Motivation………………………………………1 Problem Statement………………………………………………………...............1

    Snapshots of my ESL Learning Experiences through Interactive Listening……...4 Motivation for the Present Study………………………………………………….7 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………….7 Study Objectives…………………………………………………………………..9 Research Questions……………………………………………………………….9 Study Scope……………………………………………………………………….9 Organization of the Work………………………………………………………..10

    TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE …….……………………………………………...11

    Introduction………………………………………………………………………………11 Themes across the Literature…………………………………………………………….11

    Motivation in Listening…………………………………………………………..11 Definition………………………………………………………...............11 The Background of Intrinsic Motivation and Instrumental Motivation in an ESL Class……………………………………………...12 Intrinsic Motivation……………………………………………...............12 Instrumental Motivation………………………………………………….14

    ESL Acquisition and Learning in Listening……………………………………..16 Definition and Distinction between ESL Acquisition and Learning in Listening…………………………………………………….16 Background of ESL Acquisition and Learning in Listening…………….16 Integration of ESL Acquisition and Learning into Interactive Listening…………………………………………………………………16 Critical Thinking in ESL Acquisition and Learning……………………..17

    ESL Learning strategies in Listening………………………………………..…...18 Definition………………………………………………………...............18 Learner Autonomy in Listening………………………………………….18 Cooperative Learning in Listening……………….……………...............20

    Cultural Experience in Listening………………………………………...............21 Definition………………………………………………………...............21 Pragmatic Competence across Cultural Differences……………………..21 Acknowledging Individual Cultures in Listening………………………..23 Intercultural partner projects……………………………………………..23 Animated conversations about different cultural traditions……...............24

    Real Communication Activity in Listening……………………………...............25 Definition………………………………………………………...............25 Communicative Activities and Problem-solving Tasks………………….26

    Integrating language awareness into task-based learning in Listening…………..27

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    Definition………………………………………………………...............27 Task-based Learning and Language Awareness…………………………28

    Comprehensible Input in Listening………………………………………………29 Definition………………………………………………………...............29 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis……………………………………...............30 Long’s Interaction Hypothesis…………………………………...............31 Focus on Form…………………………………………………...............32 Focus on Meaning………………………………………………………..33 Meaning-focused Activities……………………………………...............34 Adventure Learning…..………………………………………………….35

    Summary…………………………………………………………………………………37 THREE: METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………….38

    Introduction……………

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