Designing Virtual Reality Systems: The Structured Approach

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  • Gerard Jounghyun Kim

    Designing Virtual Reality Systems

    The Structured Approach

    With 191 Figures

  • Gerard Jounghyun Kim, BS, MS, PhDDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)Korea

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2005923778

    ISBN-10: 1-85233-958-6 Printed on acid-free paperISBN-13: 987-1-85233-958-6

    Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review,as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only bereproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission inwriting of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with theterms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproductionoutside those terms should be sent to the publishers.The use of registered names, trademarks etc. in this publication does not imply, even in theabsence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws andregulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of theinformation contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for anyerrors or omissions that may be made.Whilst we have made considerable efforts to contact all holders of copyright material containedin this bok, we may have failed to locate some of them. Should holders wish to contact thePublisher, we will be happy to come to some arrangement with them.

    Printed in the United States of America. (SPI/EB)

    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    Springer ScienceBusiness Mediaspringeronline.com

  • To

    Dad, who has been my inspiration,

    Mom, for her unconditional love,

    and God for his grace.

  • Contents

    Section I: Basics of Designing Virtual Reality Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    . Chapter 1. Introduction: Virtual Reality in a Nutshell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3& What Is Virtual Reality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3& Goals and Applications of Virtual Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3& Two Pillars of VR: Presence and 3D Multimodal Interaction . . . . . . . . 5& Building a Virtual Reality System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8& About This Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10& Final Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11& Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12& Summary and Pondering Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    . Chapter 2. Requirements Engineering and Storyboarding. . . . . . . . . . . . 14& Example: Ship Simulator Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19& Summary and Pondering Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    . Chapter 3. Object and Scene Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27& Object Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27& Scene Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36& Object Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36& Multiple Frames of Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42& Re-Expressing Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43& Function and Behavior Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47& Ship Simulator Example Revisited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49& Summary and Pondering Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    . Chapter 4. Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53& Example Continued: Ship Simulator, Level 2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56& Summarry and Pondering Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

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  • . Chapter 5. Performance Estimation and System Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . 66& Tuning with LOD Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66& Presence/Special Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67& Using Images and Textures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68& Summary and Pondering Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    Section II: Creating the Virtual Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    . Chapter 6. Output Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77& The Human Visual System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77& Human Depth Perception and Stereoscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81& Visual Display Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88& Human Aural System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98& Aural Display Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103& Haptics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105& Stimulation of Other Modalities I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108& Summary and Pondering Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    . Chapter 7. Sensors and Input Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115& Trackers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116& Event Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118& Sensor Errors and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120& Summary and Pondering Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

    . Chapter 8. 3D Multimodal Interaction Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122& Why Go 3D Multimodal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122& Structured Approach to Interaction/Interface Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123& Metaphors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125& Interface Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126& Multimodality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128& Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    ^ Ship Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    ^ Immersive Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    ^ Tabletop Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    ^ Selection and Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

    ^ Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

    ^ Menu Selection and Invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

    ^ Whole Body Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

    ^ Tangible Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

    ^ Alphanumeric Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150& Summary and Pondering Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

    . Chapter 9. Simulation I: Collision Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153& Handling Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

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  • & Collision Detection with Line Segment(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155& Collision Among Polygonal Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160& Bounding Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166& Building a Bounding Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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