Designing Open Educational Resources for Re-Use

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Designing Open Educational Resources for Re-Use. Beverly Leeds University of Central Lancashire. OERs as Re-Usable Learning Objects. anything that has an educational purpose ( McGreal 2004) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Designing Open Educational Resources for Re-Use

    Beverly LeedsUniversity of Central Lancashire

  • OERs as Re-Usable Learning Objectsanything that has an educational purpose (McGreal 2004) a digital object that is used to achieve pre-determined learning outcomes or educational objectives (Nash 2005)any digital resource that can be reused to support learning (Wiley, 2000)

  • OERs as Re-Usable Learning ObjectsBreaking educational material down into modular chunks (objects)Each object can have its own defining properties taggedCombined with other objects, assembled into sequences

  • Designing for Re-UsabilityAutonomousCustomisableAccessible

    SharableDurableInteroperableHernandez et al (2008) , Moodie and Kunz (2003). Salas and Ellis (2006)

  • Granularity & Tagging GranularityContent/Information/knowledge object Lesson

    TaggingDescribing the object using metadata

  • OER Learning PackagesRe-useable ResourcesWordPDFAudioLearning Activity Learning PackageTasksAssessmentPowerpointVideoetcCartoon

  • Template for Re-UseRe-Usable ResourcesGagne's Nine Events of Instruction : Gain attention ,Inform learners of objectives, Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the content. Provide "learning guidance", Elicit performance (practice), Provide feedback, Assess performance, Enhance retention and transfer.

  • Use and Re-Use of OERsRe-useReworkRemixRedistribute

    Freedom to copy;Freedom to modify;Freedom to redistribute;Freedom to redistribute modified versions.

    Wiley, 2007)

  • OER Learning PackagesIndependent of VLE Stand aloneLesson plan formatLearning OutcomesPresentation of content, specified tasks for guidance and practice, self assessment, feedback for tasks and guidance on further study or practiceRe-useable resourcesCustomisableCan be easily re-sequenced, repackaged or amendedShared through OER website and JORUM

  • Re-Usable ResourcesSingle resourcePedagogically independent Variety of formatsAudioVideoTextAnimationCartoonEnhanced Powerpoint used for mini lectures (Adobe presenter)

    Different TypesInformation givingAssessmentCase StoriesAccessible

  • Re-purposing OERs

  • Re-useable OERsLearning Activity 1IntroductionAnd Learning OutcomesTasks

    Mini LectureQuiz ReadingMini-lectureWeb linkWeb linkDifferent Pedagogies

  • Re-Using ResourcesAIntroduction to Negotiation(Enhanced ppt)BConflict Styles(Enhanced ppt)CConflict Mgt.Survey(URL link)DNegotiationSelf-Test(Enhanced ppt)EWhat is Conflict(Enhanced ppt)FConflict Quiz(Enhanced ppt)Different Contexts

  • Re-Using Resources for OERsAIntroduction to Negotiation(Enhanced ppt)BConflict Styles(Enhanced ppt)CConflict Mgt.Survey(URL link)DNegotiationSelf-Test(Enhanced ppt)EWhat is Conflict Mgt(Enhanced ppt)FConflict Quiz(Enhanced ppt)Introduction to NegotiationManaging ConflictAIntroduction to Negotiation(Enhanced ppt)BConflict Styles(Enhanced ppt)CConflict Mgt.Survey(URL link)DNegotiationSelf-Test(Enhanced ppt)EWhat is Conflict Mgt(Enhanced ppt)FConflict Quiz(Enhanced ppt)

  • OER Repository

    www.employability.org.uk

    www.workbasedlearning.org.uk

  • Stories and Metaphor

  • Stories and Metaphors OERSTORIES AND METAPHORSIntroductionAnd Learning OutcomesTasks

    AdvertsYoutube clipsMetaphorsMini-lectureStoriesMini-lectureWizard of OzWorksheetRe-Useable Resources

  • Further Information

    Email: EProject@uclan.ac.ukBeverly Leeds bleeds@uclan.ac.uk

    Obtaining Materialshttp://www.employability.org.uk www.JORUM.ac.uk

    **The OERs developed by the projects were developed under a re-usable learning object (RLO) model for resources, however there is no clear definition of Learning Objects despite much debate and discussion. Most definitions appear to agree that the concept of Learning Objects (LOs) relies on the idea of structuring learning materials into reusable units (Fournier-Viger et al 2006). In the broad sense a Learning Object is anything that has an educational purpose (McGreal 2004) but in the case of an online or electronic course it is given that a LO is a digital object that is used to achieve pre-determined learning outcomes or educational objectives (Nash 2005). Similarly according to Gallenson, Heins and Heins (2002) a LO is a unit of instructionally sound content, centred on a learning object or outcome intended to teach a focused concept. Wiley (2002) describes them as a unit of digital resource that can be shared to support teaching and learning and the IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (2001) add that any entity digital or not, which can be reused and more importantly referenced can be described as a LO. For the purposes of this paper, the definition of an LO as any digital resource that can be reused to support learning (Wiley, 2000) will be used

    The term learning object originally comes from the discipline of computer programming and refers to modularising the development process. Think of course development as breaking down educational materials into modular chucks objectsBy breaking down the content into manageable chunks each object can have its own defining properties that can be describedThe modular chunk of material can then be used as a single learning resource or it is common for them to be combined with other objects and assembled into sequences. In summary quote from Kate Campbell (2004) Modularizing course development: think of courses as several blocks which together form a larger unit. The term learning object originally comes from the discipline of computer programming and refers to modularising the development process. Think of course development as breaking down educational materials into modular chucks objectsBy breaking down the content into manageable chunks each object can have its own defining properties that can be describedThe modular chunk of material can then be used as a single learning resource or it is common for them to be combined with other objects and assembled into sequences. In summary quote from Kate Campbell (2004) Modularizing course development: think of courses as several blocks which together form a larger unit. **As a principal of design the EVOLUTION and E-EVOLVE projects followed the principals of re-usability of learning objects to facilitate the re-use of the OERs. Hernandez et al (2008) recommend that to make an object reusable and appropriate for an e-learning setting some standards should be followed. Firstly to make a LO reusable it must be autonomous. Creating autonomous LOs means to build objects that are free from reference to external contexts. For example, an author that designs a LO to explain how to create a Gantt Chart, must avoid references to other LOs because they can be presented individually (Mogharreban and Guggenheim 2008). The second trait that makes a LO reusable is to ensure the object is customisable. This way the facilitator can integrate the object within particular contexts (Moodie and Kunz 2003). Salas and Ellis (2006) also make a very important point in regard to the standard of design of the LOs. They state that they should be accessible. Learning content should be available anywhere, anytime, any place, for example on mobile phones or through an mp4/mp3 players as well as on laptops and PCs. Thirdly the units of instruction should be able to withstand the ever evolving delivery and presentation technologies without becoming unusable (Debevc and Krneta 2007).

    Learning objects have a number of characteristics to make them beneficial to education. Some of the characteristics include: Re-usable: need to be able to be reused in different waysAutonomous/Stand-alone: objects need to be able to stand-alone in order to be able to be re-purposableCustomizable: in order for them to be used in the wider context they need to be able to be altered slightly to fit different contextsApplicable: to the subject Sharable: produced centrally and used across many different coursesDurable: objects need to created so that they will be long lasting (aid reuse)Interoperable: learning objects produced by different authors need to be able to be packaged in a way that they will be able to uploaded to a range of repositories

    Many other characteristics (digital, modular discoverable..)

    Extra Info about Learning ObjectsThe term learning object originally comes from the discipline of computer programming and refers to modularising the development process. Think of course development as breaking down educational materials into modular chucks objectsBy breaking down the content into manageable chunks each object can have its own defining properties that can be describedThe modular chunk of material can then be used as a single learning resource or it is common for them to be combined with other objects and assembled into sequences.

    Range of definitions that exist to try and define learning objects: these range from the very broad definition (Learning Technology Standards Committee, LTSC), Wiley (2000) any digital resource that can be reused to support learning to those definitions relating to an educational purpose: Definition proposed by Ally (2004), any digital resource that can be used and reused to achieve specific learning outcomes or outcomes.

    *The last principle that ensures that LOs are reusable is to adopt a strictly granular approach. Granularity is noted by Wiley, et al., (1999) as the most difficult problem facing the designers of learning objects. A n umber of authors have used the analogy of LEGO building blocks to highlight re-use and the importance of size.. LEGO building blocks have a standard shape and configuration but they can be put together and used in different ways and for different purposes to create unique entities subject only to imagination and planning (Nash 2005). Hodgins (2000), notes the need for content to exists at just the right and lowest possible size, like individual LEGO blocks, where the size of the blocks are the smallest possible to be of use. Reigeluth and Nelson (1997) suggest that teachers break instructional materials down into their constituent parts when first gain access to them. The parts are then reassembled to support their individual teaching goals. This supports the idea of small, reusable chunks of resources that are packaged but also available decomposed into their constituent parts to increase the speed and efficiency of the re-use of the resources (Wiley, 2000). For some users of OERs the most value will be gained by using a pre-assembled resource whereas others will want to assemble their own OER from sub-assemblies of other OERs.

    Debate about the correct size for a learning object - learning objects exist at different levels of granularity: For example: Basic level is the content/information/knowledge object (simple text document, photograph, video clip, 3D image)Content packaged as a lesson forms a learning object of a larger granularity - becomes more useful to the learner in this form. Size of learning object is an important issue when considering the reusability of the object.

    McGreal (2004) states learning objects at different levels of granularity:Modules: longer learning experiences or groupings of lessonsCourse: lessons longer than 10 hours or if they are made up of more than one moduleProgramme: group of courses that lead towards a certificate/diploma

    Tagging the importance of metadataThe features of the learning objects need to be described in order to ensure the objects are easily discoverable and searchable. Metadata (data about data) are essential for addressing Learning Objects. Different types of metatadata:Objective: basic factual informationSubjective: Professional ratings, comments from others.- LObjects must be tagged properly to allow LOs to be accessed whenever they are need. - Important with educational learning objects to ensure tags are used to capture the educational features of the object.

    Importance of learning objectsWith technology learning can be customised. LObjects can be used to alter courses to meet the specific needs of the students. Help moving towards accessible and lifelong learning (making learning resources easily accessible).

    The dominant theme for instructional design for learning objects is a component-based approach however this would not provide re-usable OERs. Malcolm (2005) notes that discussions regarding template-based approaches for RLO design make up only a small section of in the current literature, suggesting that this approach explicitly standardizes the pedagogic approach. Malcolm (2005) is also critical of the naming of learning objects arguing that it suggests that learning can exist in an object not associated with the learner or their learning. She argues that size, customisation and pedagogic purpose are interrelated dimensions critical to reuse. *However for OERs to be usable in their packaged form some sort of template is required. Wiley (1999) suggests one approach that would provide a basic model template approach. He advocates the use of Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction to determine the instructional process. These are: Gain attention , Inform learners of objectives, Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the content, Provide "learning guidance", Elicit performance (practice), Provide feedback, Assess performance, Enhance retention and transfer. Therefore OERs need to have a clear pedagogic direction in the way they are packaged for direct use. However, this does not preclude the constituent parts from being reused for a different pedagogic purpose.

    *Finallly, for OERs to be re-used there must also exist a license that permits re-use. Wiley (2007) identified four ways in which educational material can be used: The Four Rs:Re-use: Use the work verbatim, just exactly as you found it;Rework: Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needs;Remix: Combine the (verbatim or altered) work with other works to better meet your needs;Redistribute: Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with others.The EVOLUTION project provides opportunities to use the OERs in all four ways; the packaged content can be used as provided, the tasks can be customized for specific needs, the content may be deleted, re-ordered or added to, the repository provides a facility to share the OERs or derivatives of the OERs.As well as The Four Rs, Wiley(2007) also highlights the need for The Four Fs:Freedom to copy;Freedom to modify;Freedom to redistribute;Freedom to redistribute modified versions.

    Wiley (2007)*Based on the research undertaken the project developed a set of principles for re-usability and these were used to develop the re-usable OERs. The principles for re-use were: Customizable: in order for them to be used in the wider context they need to be able to be altered slightly to fit different contextsStand-alone: resources need to be able to stand-alone in order to be able to be re-purposable Sharable: produced centrally and used across many different coursesDurable: resources need to created so that they will be long lasting and hence aid long term reuseInteroperable: resources need to be packaged in a way that they can be used in different platforms.Modular: to ensure each resource can have its own defining properties that can be described but can also be combined with other resources and assembled into sequences. Sized appropriately: to ensure re-use, resources need to be small enough to be of use but large enough to stand alone. Pedagogy as part of the packaging and not for individual resources.Open licence to facilitate re-use and re-purposing

    **********

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