Dams: Parts, Pakistan

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    Group 1

    Ghulam Rasoul BughtiSaqib JavedMatiullah Khan

    Zulqarnain AkramKhizar AliMobeen Tahir

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    PARTS AND TYPES OF DAMS;DAMS OF PAKISTAN

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    DAMS

    A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairlyimpervious material built across a river tocreate a reservoir on its upstream side forimpounding water for various purposes.

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    Parts of Dams

    Abutment:Te part of te !a""e# s$%e a&a$nst '$( te %am $s(onstru(te%) Ma# a"sorefer to an arti!ial abutmentsometimes !onstru!ted as a !on!rete "all# Right and leftabutments are those on res$e!tive sides as an observer"hen vie"ed looking do"nstream#

    Emban*ment:%ill material& usuall' earth or ro!k& $la!ed "ith slo$ing sides#

    Fa(e:(ith referen!e to a stru!ture& the e)ternal surfa!e that limitsthe stru!ture& e#g#& the fa!e of the "all or dam#

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    Parts of Dams

    Foun%at$on of %am:

    The natural material on "hi!h the dam stru!ture is $la!ed# Gate:

    *n general& a devi!e in "hi!h a leaf or member is moveda!ross the "ater"a' from an e)ternal $osition to !ontrol orsto$ the +o"#

    +ee" of %am:The ,un!tion of the u$stream fa!e of a gravit' or ar!h dam"ith the foundation surfa!e# *n the !ase of an embankmentdam the ,un!tion is referred to as the u$stream toe of thedam#

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    Parts of Dams

    Inta*e:

    An' stru!ture in a reservoir& dam& or river through "hi!h "ater!an be dra"n into an outlet $i$e& +ume& et!#

    Out"et:An o$ening through "hi!h "ater !an be freel' dis!harged for a$arti!ular $ur$ose from a reservoir#

    ,o' "e!e" out"et -bottom out"et.:An o$ening at a lo" level from the reservoir generall' used for

    em$t'ing the im$oundment#

    Dra'%o'n:The resultant lo"ering of "ater surfa!e level due to release of

    "ater from the reservoir#

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    Parts of Dams

    Per!$ous /one:A $art of the !ross se!tion of an embankment dam !om$rising material of high$ermeabilit'#

    R$prap:A la'er of large un!oursed stones& broken ro!k& or $re!ast blo!ks $la!ed inrandom fashion on the u$stream slo$e of an embankment dam& on a reservoirshore& or on the sides of a !hannel as a $rote!tion against "ave and i!e a!tion#

    Seepa&e (o""ar:

    A $ro,e!ting !ollar usuall' of !on!rete or steel built around the outside of a$i$e& tunnel& or !onduit& under an embankment dam& to lengthen the see$age$ath along the outer surfa!e of the !onduit#

    Sp$""'a#:A stru!ture over or through "hi!h +ood +o"s are dis!harged# *f the +o" is!ontrolled b' gates& it is !onsidered a !ontrolled s$ill"a'#

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    Parts of Dams

    Stru(tura" e$&t:

    The verti!al distan!e from the lo"est $oint of natural groundon the do"nstream side of the dam to the highest $art of thedam "hi!h "ould im$ound "ater#

    Toe of %am:The ,un!tion of the do"nstream fa!e of a dam "ith the

    natural ground surfa!e# This is also referred to as thedo"nstream toe# %or an embankment dam the ,un!tion of theu$stream fa!e "ith ground surfa!e is !alled the u$stream toe#

    Top of %am:The elevation of the u$$er most surfa!e of a dam& usuall' aroad or "alk"a'& e)!luding an' $ara$et "all& railings& et!#

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    Parts of Dams

    Top t$(*ness -top '$%t.:

    The thi!kness or "idth of a dam at the to$ of the dam# *ngeneral& the term thi!kness is used for gravit' and ar!hdams& "idth is used for other dams#

    Tra$n$n& 'a"":A "all built to !onne or guide the +o" of "ater#

    Tras ra(*:A s!reen !om$rising metal or reinfor!ed !on!rete barslo!ated in the "ater

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    Parts of Dams

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    Parts of Dams

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    T#pes of Dams

    0ase% on purpose Stora&e %am or $mpoun%$n& %am

    *t is !onstru!ted to !reate a reservoir to store "ater during $eriods"hen there is huge +o" in the river -in e)!ess of demand. forutilisation later during $eriods of lo" +o" -demand e)!eeds +o" in theriver.# (ater stored in the reservoir is used for irrigation& $o"ergeneration& "ater su$$l' et!# B' suitable o$eration& it !an also serveas a detention dam#

    Detent$on %am

    *t is $rimaril' !onstru!ted to tem$oraril' detain all or $art of the +ood"ater in a river and to graduall' release the stored "ater later at!ontrolled rates so that the entire region on the do"nstream side ofthe dam is $rote!ted from $ossible damage due to +oods# *t ma' alsobe used as a storage dam#

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    T#pes of Dams

    D$!ers$on %am

    *t is !onstru!ted to divert $art of or all the "ater from a riverinto a !onduit or a !hannel# %or diverting "ater from a riverinto an irrigation !anal& mostl' a diversion "eir is!onstru!ted a!ross the river#

    o2er %am

    *t is a tem$orar' dam !onstru!ted to e)!lude "ater from as$e!i! area# *t is !onstru!ted on the u/s side of the site"here a dam is to be !onstru!ted so that the site is dr'# *nthis !ase& it behaves like a diversion dam#

    Debr$s %am

    *t is !onstru!ted to !at!h and retain debris +o"ing in a river#

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    T#pes of Dams

    0ase% on #%rau"$( %es$&n

    O!er3o' %am or o!erfa"" %am*t is !onstru!ted "ith a !rest to $ermit over+o" of sur$lus "ater that!annot be retained in the reservoir# Generall' dams are not designedas over+o" dams for its entire length# 1iversion "eirs of small heightma' be designed to $ermit over+o" over its entire length#

    Non4o!er3o' %am*t is !onstru!ted su!h that "ater is not allo"ed to over+o" over its!rest#*n most !ases& dams are so designed that $art of its length is designedas an over+o" dam -this $art is !alled the s$ill"a'. "hile the rest ofits length is designed as a non2over+o" dam# *n some !ases& these

    t"o se!tions are not !ombined#

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    T#pes of Dams

    0ase% on mater$a" of (onstru(t$onRigid dam

    *t is !onstru!ted "ith rigid material su!h as stone& masonr'& !on!rete&steel& or timber# Steel dams -steel $lates su$$orted on in!lined struts. andtimber dams -"ooden $lanks su$$orted on a "ooden frame"ork. are!onstru!ted onl' for small heights -rarel'.#

    3on2rigid dam -embankment dams.*t is !onstru!ted "ith non2rigid material su!h as earth& tailings& ro!kll et!#4arthen dam 5 gravel& sand& silt& !la' et!Tailings dam 5 "aste or refuse obtained from minesRo!kll dam 5 ro!k material su$$orting a "ater tight material on the u/sfa!eRo!kll !om$osite dam 5 Ro!kll on the d/s side and earth ll on the u/s

    side

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    T#pes of Dams

    0ase% on stru(tura"bea!$orGra!$t# %am

    *t is a masonr' or !on!rete dam "hi!h resists the for!es

    a!ting on it b' its o"n "eight# *ts is a$$ro)imatel' triangularin sha$e# Solid gravit' dam 5 *ts bod' !onsists of a solid mass of

    masonr' or !on!rete 6ollo" gravit' dam 5 *t has hollo" s$a!es "ithin its bod'#

    Most gravit' dams are straight solid gravit' dams#

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    T#pes of Dams

    0uttress %am

    *t !onsists of "ater retaining slo$ing membrane or de!k onthe u/s "hi!h is su$$orted b' a series of buttresses# Thesebuttresses are in the form of equall' s$a!ed triangularmasonr' or reinfor!ed !on!rete "alls or !ounterforts# *ngeneral& the stru!tural behavior of a buttress dam is similarto that of a gravit' dam#

    Emban*ment %am*t is a non2rigid dam "hi!h resists the for!es a!ting on it b'its shear strength and to some e)tent also b' its o"n "eight-gravit'.# *ts stru!tural behavior is in man' "a's di7erentfrom that of a gravit' dam#

    4arth or ro!k

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    Dams of Pa*$stan

    Tarbe"a Dam The "orld8s largest earth lled dam# Built in 9:;< at a !ost of 9=#> billion and almost 9>??? $akistani and =?? foreign "orkers

    "orked on its !onstru!tion# *t has the !a$a!it' of generating @&;= m" of ele!tri!it' *t has a reservoir "hi!h is :; km long and has a de$th of 9@; meters#

    Man&"a Dam The "orld8s third largest earth lled dam The dam is lo!ated 99> km southeast of ra"al$indi and is @&@>@ meters long and 99 km south "est of

    Ra"al$indi on the 1hamial Road#

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    Tan*#o