Crude Oil Ppt

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    CRUDE OIL

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    What is crude oil?Crude oil is a fossil fuel and one of the most important

    substances in the world. It is a mixture of hundreds ofdifferent compounds.

    Crude oil is used to make

    fuels for transport, heating

    and generating electricity.

    It is also used to make

    plastics and hundreds of

    different types of chemicals.

    Every day, the world uses over 70 million barrels of oil. If you

    filled bath tubs with this amount of oil and put them end-to-

    end, they would stretch round the Earth 7.5 times!

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    Composition of Crude Oil

    CRUDE OIL

    HYDROCARBONS NON-HYDROCARBONS

    ALIPHATICS AROMATICS NAPHTHENES SULFURS NITROGENS OXYGENS METALLICS

    25% 17% 50%

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    Crude oil: a brief historyThe modern oil industry began

    in the mid-19th century whenkerosene was distilled from

    crude oil and used as cheap and

    clean-burning fuel for lamps.

    It wasnt until the development of the internal combustion

    engine and gasoline-powered cars in the late 19th

    centurythat gasoline became highly valuable.

    Gasoline was a by-product in

    kerosene production, and was initially used as a solvent.

    This led to a great increase in the demand for crude oil, which

    has continued to this day.

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    How was crude oil made?Crude oil is thought to have been

    made from the remains of marineplants and animals that died

    millions of years ago.

    These remains sank to thebottom of the sea, where they

    were buried in layers of sand and

    mud, preventing them from rotting. These

    layers gradually became sedimentary rock.

    Over millions of years the layers of rock built up, increasing

    the heat and pressure. This caused the remains to be broken

    down into the molecules that form crude oil and natural gas.

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    Hydrocarbons in crude oilMany compounds in crude oil only contain the elements

    carbon and hydrogen. They are called hydrocarbons.

    Most hydrocarbons in crude oil are compounds called

    alkanes. Alkanes contain a single chain of carbon atoms

    with hydrogen atoms bonded along the side.

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    What are alkanes?Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbon compounds with the

    general formula CnH2n+2.

    The simplest alkane is methane.

    It has the formula CH4.

    The second simplest alkane is

    ethane. It has the formula C2H6.

    The third simplest alkane is

    propane. It has the formula C3H8.

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    Drilling

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    Finding crude oil at seaCrude oil is often found trapped in rocks of the sea bed.

    Oil rigs or drilling

    platforms are used to

    drill through the sea

    bed to obtain the oil.

    Once the oil has been

    removed from the sea

    bed, it is pumped in longpipelines to an oil tanker

    terminal or an oil refinery

    on land.

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    Crude oil itself has no uses it must first be processed or

    refined. This is done in an oil refinery.

    The first step is to

    separate

    compounds in the

    oil into groups

    called fractions.

    Each fraction

    contains a mix ofcompounds with

    a similar number

    of carbon atoms.

    How can crude oil be made useful?

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    What is fractional distillation?Fractional distillation is a process used to separate a

    mixture of liquids that have different boiling points.

    Fractional distillation is used to separatecrude oil into fractions with different

    boiling points. It can be done industrially

    and in the laboratory.

    When the mixture is heated, liquids with a low boiling point

    evaporate and turn to vapour.

    Liquids with a higher boiling point remainas liquid. The vapour can then be

    separated from the liquid.

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    Distilled and chemically processed fractions are treated to

    remove impurities and is done by passing the fractions

    through the following:

    1.A column of sulfuric acid

    2. An absorption column filled with drying agents to

    remove water3.Sulfur treatment and hydrogen-sulfide scrubbers to

    remove sulfur and sulfur compounds

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    Fractional Distillation

    of Petroleum

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    Science: Refining Crude OilDistillation

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    What are the products?

    The products of crude oil (and their boiling points) are

    as follows:

    Gases(310 degrees)

    Petrol (310-450) Naphtha (400-490)

    Kerosene (430-523)

    Gas oil (590-620)

    Fuel oil and wax (above 620)

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    PetroleumGas

    Below 40 1 - 4 Fuel forcooking

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Petrol(Gasoline)

    40 - 75 5 -10 Fuel for carengines

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Naphtha 75 - 150 7 - 14 Chemicalfeedstock

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Kerosene 160 - 250 11 - 16 Fuel for jet

    engines,

    cooking

    and heating

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Diesel 250 - 300 16 - 20 Fuel for

    diesel

    engines

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Lubricants 300 - 350 20 - 35 Making

    waxes and

    lubricating

    oils

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    Fractions of PetroleumFractions of Petroleum

    Fraction Boiling

    Range /rC

    No of carbon

    atoms per

    molecule

    Uses

    Bitumen Above 350 More than

    70

    Paving

    roads

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