Critical Thinking ... Critical Thinking –Working Consensus The process of reflective judgment which

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    Carol Ann Gittens, Ph.D.

    June 8, 2016

    Critical

    Thinking

  • Proven predictors of

    academic &

    workplace success:

    Sponsors of the 2016 National Institute

    on the Assessment of Adult Learning

  • +

    I cannot teach

    anybody anything,

    I can only make

    them think. Socrates (469-399 BCE)

    Philosopher

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

  • + Goals for the Session

    Engage and Affirm critical thinking

    skills and positive critical thinking

    habits of mind.

    Augment understanding of the

    definition of critical thinking & how

    it relates to student success.

     Expand repertoire of strategies for

    promoting and assessing students’

    critical thinking.

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

    .

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    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

  • + Critical Thinking –

    Working Consensus

    The process of reflective judgment

    which manifests itself in

    reasoned consideration

    of evidence, context, methods, standards,

    and conceptualizations for the purpose of

    deciding what to believe or what to do.

    The Delphi Report: Executive Summary: (1990), ERIC Doc ED315 423

  • + Critical Thinking Skills

    FRAMING QUESTIONS:

     Analysis

     Interpretation

     Evaluation

     Explanation

     Inference

     Self-Regulation

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

  • +How do we build our skills and the disciplined intention to use those skills in any endeavor?

     Sports

     Music

     Management

     Science

     Ministry

     Healthcare

     Teaching

     Engineering

    How do we go from “novice, confused, disorganized, overwhelmed

    and ineffective” to “experienced, immediate, focused, disciplined,

    and successful”? © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

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    Active Learning Approach

    Constructivist Perspective

     Self-reinforced learning

    Considerable energy, enthusiasm and effort

     Student as “partner”

     Teacher as “resource, guide, motivator”

     Increases retention & transfer

    Application of prior knowledge and skills to novel,

    real-life contexts

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

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    What critical thinking activity could

    students do to demonstrate mastery of the

    following learning objective?

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

  • + Questions to Ignite CT Skills

    Skill Area

     Interpretation

     Analysis

     Inference

     Evaluation

     Explanation

     Self-Regulation

    Potential Prompt

     What does this mean? Why is it happening?

     What are the arguments, pro and con? What assumptions must we make to accept that conclusion?

     Given what we know, what can we conclude? (can we rule out?)

     How credible is the claim?

     Why do you think that? Why is that conclusion correct?

     How good is the evidence?

  • + Novel Questions and Human Reflective Response Time

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Humans need 11 - 16 seconds

    to process a novel question.

    Tick Tick Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick

    Tick Tick

    What does this mean for a student faced with an novel question?

    How can an instructor use this to teach for thinking?

    How does this impact decisions made in time-limited situations of

    risk, uncertainty?

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

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    THE NAME ON THE FRONT OF YOUR

    JERSEY REPRESENTS WHO YOU PLAY FOR.

    THE NAME ON THE BACK OF YOUR JERSEY

    REPRESENTS WHO RAISED YOU. DO THEM

    BOTH JUSTICE.

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    A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem

    Solving Process

    I = IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities (Step 1)

    D = DETERMINE Relevant Information and Deepen Understanding (Step 2)

    E = ENUMERATE Options and Anticipate Consequence (Step 3)

    A = ASSESS the Situation and Make a Preliminary Decision (Step 4)

    S = SCRUTINIZE the Process and Self-Correct as Needed (Step 5)

    THINK Critically 3rd Ed. (2016) Facione & Gittens, Pearson Education

    .

  • + The first and most important question:

    “What exactly is the

    problem?”

    Success depends on analyzing problem correctly. © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

  • +“Caitlin and the Pacemaker”

    Context:

     Unfamiliar

     High Stakes

     Uncertainty

     Urgency

     Facts constant

     No opposing interests

    Suppose you are the parent.

    Which pacemaker will you

    choose? © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

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    • Identify contextual factors

    • Acquire relevant information

    • Identify and evaluate options

    • Select the option with that appears to offer the best

    balance of maximum

    benefit and minimum risk

    • No simple rule to apply

    • Both choices were “right”

    • The outcome does not validate the quality of the

    decision process

    • Emotion and reason can work together

    • Human tendency to “lock in.”

     OBVIOUS  NOT SO OBVIOUS

    Learning from Caitlin’s Case

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

    .

  • + Human Decision Making and

    “Dominance Structuring”

     Pre-edit

     Define the problem

     List decision-critical factors

     Identify a promising option

     Search until finding an option that’s good enough.

     Test the promising option against others

     Ask if that option is no worse than any other

     Structure the dominance of the to be chosen option

     Marshal our facts and reasons to support our choice

     Note: Here we are at risk of renegotiating the factors, redefining the problem, exaggerating the virtues of our preferred option, or magnifying the defects of all other possible options.

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA.

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    Advantages: We do, in fact, act. We are not frozen in perpetual

    analysis and reevaluation.

    We sustain efforts and persist with confidence.

    Disadvantages:

     Tend not to re-examine our assumptions or question prior decisions.

     Tend to dismiss counter-evidence unless it is forceful not only in its content but in its psychological impact or potential for adverse consequences.

    Risk: Lock-In Prematurely.

    Search for Dominance

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

  • +Core Competencies

    Critical Thinking

    Oral Communication

    Quantitative Literacy

    Written Communication

    Information Literacy

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

  • +Why Assess for Critical

    Thinking?

    © 2016 Gittens Educational Consulting, Morgan Hill, CA

  • Three Basic Options for Measuring Learning Outcomes

    1. Locally Developed Assignments and Activities

    Tests, Essays, Lab Reports, Case Studies

    Embedded / Authentic / Qualitative Rating Forms, Typological

    Matches, Checklists

    Requires rubrics or scoring tools / practiced judgment

    and inter-rater calibration

    2. Commercial Tests &

    Performance Assessments

    Fixed Response / Narrative Response

    Case Studies / Authentic / Standardized

    Baseline / Cross-Sectional / Longitudinal

    Potential for comparisons & data integration

    3. Self Reports

    Journals, Self Critiques, Focus Groups,

    Questionnaires / Reflective Essays

    Insights about personal progress and deficiency

    May require significant resources for data

    analysis

    Are we consistently getting a valid and reliable measure of the phenomenon we intended to target?

  • Critical Thinking Reflective Log:

    Strong or Weak, and Why? W2: Why do you think that? ASK: Another student, not in this

    course

    W3: Seriously, how good is the evidence for that? ASK: Anyone,

    not yourself

    W4: What else did you consider? ASK: Someone who has

    completed college

    W5: Exactly why do you say that’s the problem? ASK: Your best

    friend

    W6: What does making this decision imply? ASK: Yourself

    W7: How sound is the reason they’re giving? ASK: Yourself,

    relative to TV commercial

    W8: What’s really the problem here? ASK: A professor

    W9: What evidence would disconfirm our view? ASK: So