Critical Thinking Critical Thinking and The Creative Personality

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  • Slide 1
  • Critical Thinking Critical Thinking and The Creative Personality
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  • Key Questions How do creative people differ? How do creative people differ? What makes someone creative? What makes someone creative? Can anyone be creative? Can anyone be creative? Do you need special skills and characteristics to be an entrepreneur? Do you need special skills and characteristics to be an entrepreneur? Are entrepreneurs born or made? Are entrepreneurs born or made?
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  • Schumpeters Entrepreneur The instrument of change, the agent who introduces innovations: new products, new ways of manufacturing, new sales techniques, new types of equipment The instrument of change, the agent who introduces innovations: new products, new ways of manufacturing, new sales techniques, new types of equipment Creative disruption, technologies or innovations that change the world........... Creative disruption, technologies or innovations that change the world........... Innovation is not new! Innovation is not new! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaE3E aQte78 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaE3E aQte78
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  • The Cultural Diversity Entrepreneurs are: Female Female Immigrant Immigrant Socially oriented Socially oriented Family oriented Family oriented Rurally based Rurally based Young and old Young and old Life style oriented (hobby/part time) Life style oriented (hobby/part time) Serial Entrepreneurs Serial Entrepreneurs
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  • Entrepreneurial Personality Chell, Haworth and Brearley (1994) Opportunistic Opportunistic Innovative Innovative Creative Creative Imaginative Imaginative Ideas people Ideas people Proactive Proactive Agents of change Agents of change
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  • The 10 Ds (Bygrave, 1997) Dreamers Dreamers Decisive Decisive Doers Doers Determined Determined Dedicated Dedicated Devoted Devoted Details Details Destiny Destiny Dollars Dollars Distribute Distribute
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  • Entrepreneurs Experience success and failure Experience success and failure Feel good about themselves, their work and the potential rewards Feel good about themselves, their work and the potential rewards Enjoy a challenge Enjoy a challenge Take pride in their work Take pride in their work Find their work invigorating/energising/ meaningful Find their work invigorating/energising/ meaningful Think the unlikely, do the unreasonable Think the unlikely, do the unreasonable
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  • Desirable and Acquirable Attitudes (Timmons) Commitment and determination Commitment and determination Leadership Leadership Opportunity obsession Opportunity obsession Tolerance of risk, ambiguity and uncertainty Tolerance of risk, ambiguity and uncertainty Creativity, self-reliance & ability to adapt Creativity, self-reliance & ability to adapt Motivation to excel Motivation to excel
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  • The Personality Approach Observations are that: Entrepreneurs are not homogenous Entrepreneurs are not homogenous Gender, age, social class, nationality and education make a difference Gender, age, social class, nationality and education make a difference Environment and cultural influences must also be taken into account Environment and cultural influences must also be taken into account Entrepreneurial decision making is based on the interaction of many factors (motivations, stage in life cycle, personal economic context) Entrepreneurial decision making is based on the interaction of many factors (motivations, stage in life cycle, personal economic context)
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  • A Model of the Entrepreneurial Process ( Source: Moore reproduced in Bygrave, 1994) GROWTH TRIGGERING EVENT IMPLEMENTATION Personal SociologicalPersonalOrganisational Achievement Locus of control Ambiguity tolerance Risk taking Personal values Education Experience Risk taking Job dissatisfaction Job loss Education Age Commitment Networks Teams Parents Family Role models Entrepreneurs Leader Manager Commitment Vision Team Strategy Structure Culture Products Environment Opportunities Role models Creativity Environment Competition Resources Incubator Government policy Environment Competitors Customers Suppliers Investors Bankers Lawyers Resources Government policy INNOVATION
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  • An Economic-Psychological Model Source: Davidsson (1995) PERSONAL BACKGROUND Gender Vicarious experience Education Radical change experience Age GENERAL ATTITUDES Change Compete Money Achieve Autonomy DOMAIN ATTITUDES Payoff Societal contribution Know-how CONVICTION INTENTION SITUATION Current employment status
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  • Do entrepreneurs just behave differently, because they think differently..................and if so, why ?
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  • Critical Attributes for Success (Brannick 1995) Numerical ability 1% Numerical ability 1% Verbal ability 3% Verbal ability 3% Professional marketing qualification 5% Professional marketing qualification 5% Computer literacy 5% Computer literacy 5% Imagination 17% Imagination 17% Observational powers 18% Observational powers 18% Personal judgement 24% Personal judgement 24% Ability to get on with others 27% Ability to get on with others 27%
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  • Entrepreneurs Cognitive Processes (Palich & Bagby 1995) Entrepreneurs do NOT perceive themselves as being more pre- disposed to taking risks than managers Entrepreneurs do NOT perceive themselves as being more pre- disposed to taking risks than managers Entrepreneurs interpret equivocal data in a more positive way than managers Entrepreneurs interpret equivocal data in a more positive way than managers Strengths versus weaknesses Opportunities versus threats
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  • Entrepreneurs Cognitive Processes (Palich & Bagby 1995) What each man wishes, that he also believes to be true - Demonsthenes What each man wishes, that he also believes to be true - Demonsthenes Entrepreneurs categorise situations as having strengths and opportunities, because the positive attributes, are more salient to them Entrepreneurs categorise situations as having strengths and opportunities, because the positive attributes, are more salient to them
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  • Conclusions The identification and exploitation of opportunities is a complex and interactive process The identification and exploitation of opportunities is a complex and interactive process The entrepreneur is just one of many contributing factors The entrepreneur is just one of many contributing factors They can however be the critical catalyst that spots the opportunity and begins the process of firm creation They can however be the critical catalyst that spots the opportunity and begins the process of firm creation
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  • So what is an Entrepreneur? Who is the entrepreneur ? may be the wrong question Who is the entrepreneur ? may be the wrong question Why successful entrepreneurs think the way they do, might be better? Why successful entrepreneurs think the way they do, might be better? Thinking processes can be taught, so we can all be entrepreneurs if we learn how to develop and evaluate opportunities Thinking processes can be taught, so we can all be entrepreneurs if we learn how to develop and evaluate opportunities
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  • Figure 4.12a The original Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG) Market share Market growth What is Critical Thinking?
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  • This matrix is (in my opinion): Subjective, so needs analysis Useful for small and large organisations alike Relatively easy to apply, but improves with discussion and feedback Helps to determine overall positioning
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  • This matrix is (according to Zufan, 2000) identified as: Objective Mainly applicable to large organisations Difficult to apply So, what someone else says or writes is not always agreed, accurate or easily determined - who is right, who is wrong and why?
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  • Critical Thinking Quote (1) "For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of truth; as having a mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the resemblances of things and at the same time, steady enough to fix and distinguish their subtler differences" Francis Bacon (1605)
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  • Critical Thinking Quote (2) Critical thinkers: distinguish between fact and opinion; ask questions; make detailed observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence Ellis, D. Becoming a Master Student (1997)
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  • Two Components of CT 1. A set of skills to process and generate information and beliefs, and 2. The habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behaviour It is contrasted with the mere acquisition and retention of information alone, (because it involves a particular way in which information is sought and treated)
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  • Critical Thinking No one is a critical thinker all the time everyone has blind spots and tendencies towards self-delusion For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long endeavour
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  • Critical Thinking Allows: Judgement of a sources credibility Conclusions to be reached, as well as identification of the reasons and assumptions behind them Judgement of the quality of an argument, including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence Development and defence o