Cracker ProcessingCracker Processing – Biscuit ... ProcessingCracker Processing – Biscuit TechnologyBiscuit

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  • Cracker ProcessingCracker Processing Biscuit TechnologyBiscuit TechnologyMihaelos N. MihalosMondelz Global LLCNorth America Region Biscuit Research, Development & QualityEast Hanover, NJApril 29, 2014

  • Cracker Process Unit Operations

    2

  • Raw Material Processes

    H d S d & Cl d Mill d FlHarvested Stored & Cleaned Milled Flour

    Harvested Stored & Cleaned Milled & Processed Corn Syrup

    Harvested Cleaned & Processed Refined & Ground Sugar

    Harvested Cleaned & Processed Pressed Oil

    3

  • Mixing: Formulationg Dough Types

    Mixing Process

    4

  • Mixing

    The goal of mixing: To evenly distribute the ingredients

    T f i di i h i ibl hi bl To transform ingredients into a cohesive, extensible, machinabledough that can be sheeted or laminated into a continuous sheet prior to cutting

    The goal is achieved by controlling: Formulation

    Order of ingredient addition Order of ingredient addition to the mixer

    Mixing duration (length ofmixing time for each stage)g g )

    Speed of mixer blades (RPM) Final dough temperature

    5

  • Mixing: Formulation

    Products are categorized by the balance of flour, sugar, fat & water

    High levels of sugar & fat,relative to flour

    Dough remains more fluid

    Grahamsg

    & less structure is developed

    High levels of water & flour, f f Butter/Sodalow levels of sugar & fat

    Dough develops a firm structure by gluten development

    Butter/Soda

    6

  • Formulation

    The Major Ingredients used are:

    Very Very St LVeryHigh

    VeryLow

    Strong LowCrackers

    High Medium Medium Medium

    Snacks

    Medium SlightlyHigher

    MediumMedium

    7

  • Upright Mixer

    8

  • Mixing: Dough Types

    Crackers Fermented doughs (sponge + dough)

    Firm but extensible dough with relatively low sugar and fat

    Soda/Saltine Crackers

    y g

    Chemically leavened doughs Softer & more extensible with

    d t d f t Buttermoderate sugar and fat

    Sweet Chemically leavened doughs Higher sugar that softens the dough but

    ButterCrackers

    Higher sugar that softens the dough butremains extensible due to high temperaturethat aids in developing gluten Graham

    Crackers

    9

  • Mixing ProcessgChemically Leavened

    10

  • Mixing: Chemically Leavened

    The goal is:

    Stage 1 Sometimes Called Cream Up

    g To uniformly disperse minor ingredients into

    a fat, sugar, or water mixture

    Ingredients added include but not limited to: Ingredients added include but not limited to:

    Flavors

    Misc.Misc.DryDry

    IngredientsIngredientsFlavors g ed e tsg ed e ts

    11

  • Mixing: Chemically Leavened

    The goal is:

    Stage 2 Sometimes Combined with Stage 1

    g Complete cream up stage Combine fat phase with water phase

    I di dd d i l d b li i d Ingredients added include but not limited to:

    ++Stage 1Stage 1 AmmoniaBicarbonate++

    12

  • Mixing: Chemically Leavened

    The goal of mixing:

    Stage 3

    g g To evenly distribute the ingredients To transform ingredients into a cohesive extensible machinable

    dough that can be sheeted or laminated into a continuous sheetdough that can be sheeted or laminated into a continuous sheet prior to cutting

    Add flour and remaining leaveners + enzymesThis is the stage when dough is developed This is the stage when dough is developed

    Ingredients added include but not limited to:

    CAP SODAStage 2Stage 2 ++13

  • Mixing: Fermented Doughs

    Stage 1 - Sponge Stage: Provides unique flavor and flaky texture

    2-stage mixing process (Crackers)

    Provides unique flavor and flaky texture to the finished product thru microbial fermentation (yeast & bacteria)

    Partial addition of ingredients (i.e., flour, water, yeast bacteria)

    Combine approximately 20-40% of the flourwith water and other ingredients for initialfermentation of approximately 18-20 hoursfermentation of approximately 18 20 hours

    Stage 2 Dough-up Stage:

    Final Fermentation Stage 4 to 6 hours

    Incorporate balance of ingredients to form a cohesive dough for machining

    Resting Stage prior to machining

    14

  • Biscuit Forming:gCrackers - Sheeting

    15

  • Cracker Forming: Sheeting Line

    1

    8 Stripping Conveyor9 Topping Conveyor

    1 Dough Dump2 Feed Chute

    10 Topper11 Pan-on Conveyor12 Oven Band

    3 Feed Rolls4 Gauging/Reduction5 Relax Apron6 Cutting

    16

    6 Cutting7 Scrap Return

  • Cracker Forming: Three Roll SheeterRear Discharge Rear Discharge 3-Roll SheeterFront Discharge

    3-Roll Sheeter

    1

    Compression Chamber2

    23

    4

    1. Hopper: Collects the dough from the Pre-Sheeter

    ++ ++

    2. Forcing Rolls: Force the dough from the hopper to the Compression Roll

    Feed Rolls: 1 grooved roll is more usual. It prevents an impression on the final product

    3. Main Roll: Fixed position roll permits the gap in/out of the Compression Chamber to be adjusted

    4. Finishing Roll: Guides dough sheet from the sheeterSmooth surface ensures no impression on final productSmooth surface ensures no impression on final product

    17

  • Cracker Forming: Four Roll Sheeters4-Roll Sheeter,

    4-Roll Sheeter, with 2 Pressure Cavities

    1

    with 1 pressure cavity

    2

    3

    4

    1. Hopper: Collects the dough from the Pre-Sheeter

    ++ ++

    pp g

    2. Feed Rolls: 2 grooved Rolls allow the dough to be more evenly pulled through the Hopper

    3. Pressure: Pressure in the gap helps to:g p pCavity - Produce a smooth edged, even sheet widthCompression - Prevent the build up of old dough in the SheeterChamber - Consistent density of sheet

    4. Finishing Roll: Smooth rolls guide a more even, relaxed dough sheet f h Shfrom the Sheeter

    18

  • Cracker Forming: Laminators

    The goal is to achieve layering of dough to develop a light tender texture in the finished producta light tender texture in the finished product

    Strong, firm doughs that are extensible may be sheeted without tearing or crumblingwithout tearing or crumbling

    Prepares an even thickness dough sheet for gaugingdough sheet for gauging and cutting

    19

  • Cracker Forming: Laminators

    Sweep Laminator Produces a continuous layered

    dough sheet

    Cut-sheet Laminator Individual dough sheets

    t ith k if dare cut with a knife and layered on top of each other

    20

  • Cracker Forming: (Trouble Shooting)Adjusting for holes in a sheetAdjusting for holes in a sheet

    C

    Dough leaving the sheeter or laminator has ragged edges, or holes

    Causes: Not enough dough in the hopper or Bridging in the hopper Forcing roll speed too slow or Finishing roll speed too fast Too much dough in hopperoo uc doug oppe Uneven distribution of dough

    To Correct:d h d h h l l Adjust the correct dough hopper level

    Increase forcing roll speeds Decrease finishing roll speeds Check sensors are working correctly

    21

  • Cracker Forming: (Trouble Shooting) Adjusting For Uneven Layers On The Incline Conveyorj g y yUneven layers will: Effect uniformity of dough weight across the band

    This will: Cause thickness variations Color and moisture variations Cause inconsistent stretch (pull) across the sheet width Can result in texture variations

    To correct: Slow down, or speed up Laminator Takeaway Conveyor

    Uneven layers shouldUneven layers should always be corrected! Weights and product color are impacted by

    uneven layers!

    22

    uneven layers!

  • Cracker Forming: (Trouble Shooting) Sweep LaminatorsSweep Laminators

    To correct a short sheet on incline conveyor increase the speed of the sweepsthe speed of the sweeps

    To correct a long sheet reduce the speed of the sweeps

    23

  • Cracker Forming: (Trouble Shooting) Cut Sheet LaminatorsCut Sheet Laminators

    To correct a short sheet increase the period between the sheet being cutthe sheet being cut

    Short

    To correct a long sheet shorten the time between

    sheet

    To correct a long sheet shorten the time between sheet cutting

    24

  • Cracker Forming: Sheet Reduction Auxiliary RollsAuxiliary Rolls

    Compress and reduce laminated layers to a single dough p y g gsheet thickness

    Gradual reduction = less stress on the dough2 1 d ti ti t h ll i t d 2:1 reduction ratio at each roll is suggested

    Number of auxiliary rolls on each line usually vary between 1 and 3

    25

  • Cracker Forming: Sheet ReductionFinal Gauge RollFinal Gauge Roll

    Regulates the finished weight of the productRegulates the finished weight of the product Dough piece weight (too heavy or too light)

    affects the final product moisture Piece weight will affect finished package weights

    (i.e., SALTINES and BUTTER Crackers)

    26

  • Cracker Forming: Sheet Reduction (Trouble Shooting) Adjusting Dough Feed At Final Gauge RollSpeeds of Conveyors and Rolls have to be set to supply the correct amount of dough into the Rolls which they are feeding

    Correct Speed Overfeed/BunchingUnderfeed/Stretching

    or Ragged Edges

    Speeds correctly set In-feed Conveyor (IC)

    delivering correct amount of dough

    Too much dough IC running too fast

    (Overfeed) Dough bunches at

    Too little dough IC running too slow