Text of CONTENTS What is pronunciation? What is pronunciation teaching? Why to teach pronunciation? What to...
CONTENTS What is pronunciation? What is pronunciation teaching? Why to teach pronunciation? What to know to teach? Pronunciation issues Perfection versus intelligibility Problems that can students encounter --What students can hear --The intonation problem When to teach pronunciation? Different materials and some teaching techniques How to teach pronunciation? Steps for teaching pronunciation.
What is pronunciation? The Production of Significant Sound. Significant because it is used as part of a code of a particular language it is used to achieve meaning in contexts of use. Auditory Phonetics = The perception of the sound. Articulatory Phonetics = The production of the sound.
What is pronunciation teaching? Showing where they are made in the mouth,making students aware of where words should be.
4 major reasons to teach pronunciation ( Morley, 1999) functional intelligibility functional communicability increased self-confidence speech monitoring abilities Why teach?
Functional intelligibility: Spoken English in which an accent is not distracting to the listener. Functional communicability: learner s ability to function successfully within the specific communicative situations. Self-confidence: Dependent on the ones mentioned above. Speech monitoring abilities: Good learners listen to the input and try to imitate it. Teach pronunciation to build on
Problems that students can encounter It is very overlooked by teachers, It is overlooked in a lot of coursebooks Difficult to teach in multilingual classes If its not tested, its not important. Some teachers think it iseasy, but it actually needs a lot of work. Its often left until later.
What to teach? Individual sounds (perhaps using the IPA see below) Sound linking Connected speech (perhaps through songs) Weak forms (schwa) Voice get them to imitate English speakers Syllable stress - highlight length, pitch, loudness, & vowel clarity Intonation Minimal pairs Chunking Pausing Rhythm Awareness of varieties of English. Awareness and recognition production will come later
When to teach prounciation Harmer (2000) suggests 4 alternatives Whole lessons (prep needed) Discreet slots (prep needed) Short, separated bits of pron. Work Integrated phases (prep needed) In any lesson (liistning, grammaring, writng etc. ) esp. When you dealwith forms, you may draw sts. attentiton to pron. Opportunistic teaching Esp. during grammar, voc. Teaching it seems natural to allocate time to pron. teaching
Pronunciation issues Teachers give more importance to study grammar and vocabulary Teachers get students to study listening and reading Teachers see that pronunciation teaching will only make things worse Teachers ignore benefits of pronunciation teaching
Actually;Pronunciation teaching makes students aware of different sounds and their features improves their speaking immeasurably allows students to get over serious intelligibility problems
Perfection versus intelligibility Perfection depends very much on sts attitude to how they speak and how well they hear. many cultural factors for perfection for these cultural factors ; language teachers consider intelligiblity as the prime goal of pronunciation teaching..
So what is intelligibility in teaching pronunciation? The students should be able to use pronunciation which is good enough for them to be always understood. When being intelligibility a goal ; it suggest that some pronunciation features are more important than others; some sounds,stressing words and phrases and intonation. Realism is required: perfection is unnecessary and largely unobtainable.
What students can hear? While learning English, if students have similar sounds in their mother tongue, they may be confused and misleaded.
The intonation problem Intonation is a problem or not?
Many people and teachers; find intonation difficult to hear 'tunes' or identify the rising and falling tones. --giving opportunuties by using tape --or through the way we ourselves model them.
The key to successful pronunciation teaching,not much getting students produce correct sounds,but listen and notice how english is spoken. --Noticing is so important for pronunciation teaching.
The use of different materials and some teaching techniques
Why we use the phoenemic alphabet ? Aware of the different phoenemes Dictionaries For pronunciation games and tasks But you should not forget that you r students proficiency level is important when deciding to use of phoenemic alphabet.
How can we use vocal organ chart? t is used for showing how we can produce sounds So; students understand better Help to noticing
Minimal pairs; What are minimal pairs? pairs of words that have one phonemic change between them. How can we use them in our lessons?
Lets look at the example; Ship and chip Contrasting two sounds is very popular way of getting students to concentrate on specific aspects of pronunciation Sounds// and /t/