Know WHAT We Teach. Know WHO We Teach. “Our best understanding of how people learn is that they begin with past knowledge, understanding, and skill and extend those to new levels of complexity or sophistication . . Image from: creative commons (public domain). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Can differentiate by content (what they need to learn), process (what will I have them do/what level of challenge is required), or product (how will they show me what they know)keeping in mind the students readiness, interest, and learning style. You can vary instructional/management strategies by (see small words in wordle)1Know WHAT We TeachIdentify the curriculum, list what is essential, consider the end pointwhat are the standards or benchmarks to be incorporated; how can I move content around to create depth?2Know WHO We TeachAssessment is key to DI; the starting point of any effective instruction; the more we know about the student, the more success the student will likely achieve; academic levelsreading levelslearning stylesinterestsREADINESS for what were about to teach3Our best understanding of how people learn is that they begin with past knowledge, understanding, and skill and extend those to new levels of complexity or sophistication.
Image from: creative commons (public domain)Further, we learn best when the work we do is a little too hard for us.
Image from: Creative CommonsWhat that means is that we have a sense of what the task calls for and the gaps in our capacity to do what it asks of us.
Image from: Creative Commons
When these gaps are not present (in other words, when we can do a task effortlessly) we do not learn because we do not stretch what we already know.
Image from: www.flickr.com/photos/medilldc/5489375111/Similarly, when the gaps are too great, we cannot span them and do not learn.
Image From: www.flickr.com/photos/cayusa/Learning takes place when we have to stretch a manageable amount and do so.
photo by Lina Menazzi on FlickrReadiness-based differentiation attempts to design student work at varied levels of challenge so that each student has to stretch a manageable amount and is supported in doing so.
From: Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Gide for Differentiating Curriculum by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Carolyn Cunningham Eidson
Image from: www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/1142207245/Differentiation means providing gifted students with different tasks and activities than their age peerstasks that lead to real learning for them.
10Knowing STRATEGIES To Teach
CompactingCondensing learning into a shorter time period.CompactingFour Steps to Successful CompactingIdentify the learning objectives that all students must learn.Offer a pretest opportunity if appropriate for subject.Plan and offer curriculum extensions.Eliminate all drill, practice, and review for students who show mastery.
Independent StudyStudents choose their topic and product from a list.Contract is signed by student, parent, and teacher.Students are responsible for completing a work log. All work is done during class time.Flexible GroupingA third grade math exampleObj: develop concept of areaMaterials: TM 192-197; Math Masters 36 (10 copies)Procedure: 1. Mental Math; Math Message 2. MAD Minute 3. review concept of area (SRB 136) 4. estimate area of classroom 5. group work
Anchor activities (choice board)123PumpkinsLw/me (do Reteach on TM 197)WB 75Fact practiceCornMWB 75w/me (review WB 75)Fact practiceSquashHpacketWB 75w/me (review packet)After a pre-assessment st. are grouped in small groups according to the skill they are currently working on; teacher works w/small group while the other students are self-managed; groups stay together until the project or unit of study is completed; management is the keyto be established early on!16Tiered AssignmentsAn exampleDont try to reinvent the wheelGet together and pool your thoughts and ideasTalk to teachers above and below your grade levelNOT EVERYTHING needs to be tiered!
When the spread of readiness is large; find or create assignments/lessons for specific groups of students that respectfully challenge them at a level that will allow them to grow and learnSometimes we need to start from scratch and create; however, often these kinds of lessons and assignments are included in our TM alreadyStart slowly by doing only a fewadd to that and watch your bag of materials grow!17Most Difficult FirstChoose the five most difficult problems.Students may choose to work only those problems.If they are able to complete them without missing more than one, they are done.If they miss more than one, they need to complete the entire assignment.Blooms TaxonomyWhy find it and dust it off?
Think DotsSteps:Create six learning tasks for the numbers on the die.List the tasks in a 2x3 cell table which include dots relating to the sides of a die. Students roll the die and complete the learning task from the corresponding dot If the first roll is something the student doesnt want to do, s/he can roll a second time.
Sources:Cubing/ThinkDOTSboe.ming.k12.wv.us/teachers/di/di_docs/strategies_cubing_think_dots/CubingThinkdotpp.ppt Defining US: Lewis & Clark Expeditionhttp://chnm.gmu.edu/fairfaxtah/b80.html
Things to consideressential contentrespectful, challenging workgive the opportunity to self-select tasksRememberYou are already doing a lot of this and you ARE differentiating now. Consider how you can tweak something you are already doing or add something new!29For more informationDebra_Sowers@swsd.k12.pa.us Melissa_Wilson@swsd.k12.pa.usPennsylvania Association for Gifted Education (PAGE)www.giftedpage.orgwww.hoagiesgifted.org(just google) daretodifferentiate