Constructivism: A Holistic Approach to Teaching and Learning

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  • Constructivism:AHolisticApproachtoTeachingandLearning

    JanetGiesenFacultyDevelopmentandInstructionalDesignCenterNorthernIllinoisUniversity

  • Introductions

    Yourname Yourdepartmentorunit Yourexperiencesorknowledgeofconstructivism

    Whyhaveyoujoinedustoday?

  • Overview

    Learningcycle Constructivism

    Learningtheory Process Instructionalstrategy

    Classroomapplications Instructorandstudentroles

  • LearningCycleor5Es

    Evaluate

    Engage

    Explore

    Explain

    Extend

  • Howwouldyoudefineconstructivism?

  • Adefinitionofconstructivism

    Fundamentally,constructivismsaysthatpeopleconstructtheirownunderstandingandknowledgeoftheworldthroughexperiencingthingsandreflectingonthoseexperiences.

    Source:ThirteenEdOnline(2004)

  • Constructivismisalearningtheory

    Learningisanactiveprocess Knowledgeisconstructedfrom(andshapedby)experience

    Learningisapersonalinterpretationoftheworld

    Sources:Christie(2005);Kruse(n.d.)

  • Constructivismisalearningtheory

    Emphasizesproblemsolvingandunderstanding

    Usesauthentictasks,experiences,settings,assessments

    Contentpresentedholistically notinseparatesmallerparts

    Sources:Christie(2005);

  • Constructivismisaprocess theinstructor

    Adaptcurriculumtoaddressstudentssuppositions

    Helpnegotiategoalsandobjectiveswithlearners Poseproblemsofemergingrelevancetostudents Emphasizehandson,realworldexperiences Seekandvaluestudentspointsofview Socialcontextofcontent

    Sources:Christie(2005);Honebein(1996)

  • Constructivismisaprocess theinstructor

    Providemultiplemodesofrepresentations/perspectivesoncontent

    Createnewunderstandingsviacoaching,moderating,suggesting

    Testingshouldbeintegratedwiththetaskandnotaseparateactivity

    Useerrorstoinformstudentsofprogresstounderstandingandchangesinideas

    Sources:Christie(2005);Honebein(1996)

  • Constructivismisaprocess thestudent

    Helpdevelopowngoalsandassessments Createnewunderstandings(viacoaching,moderating,suggesting)

    Controllearning(reflecting)

    Source:GrennonBrooks&Brooks,1999

  • Constructivismisaprocess thestudent

    Memberofcommunityoflearners Collaborateamongfellowstudents Learninasocialexperience appreciatedifferentperspectives

    Takeownershipandvoiceinlearningprocess

  • TraditionalClassroom Constructivist Classroom

    Beginswithpartsofthewhole emphasizes basicskills

    Beginswiththewhole expandingtoparts

    Strict adherencetofixedcurriculum

    Pursuitofstudent questions/interests

    Textbooksandworkbooks Primarysources/manipulativematerials

    Instructorgives /studentsreceive

    Learningisinteractionbuildingonwhatstudentsalready know

    Instructorassumesdirective,authoritativerole

    Instructor interacts/negotiateswithstudents

    Assessment viatesting/correctanswers

    Assessmentviastudent works,observations,pointsofview,tests.Processisasimportantasproduct

    Knowledge isinert Knowledgeisdynamic/changes withexperiences

    Studentsworkindividually Studentsworkin groups

    Thirteen Ed Online (2004).

  • Constructivismisaninstructionalstrategy

    Involvescollaborationbetweeninstructors,studentsandothers(communitymembers)

    Tailoredtoneedsandpurposesofindividuallearners

    Featuresactive,challenging,authenticandmultidisciplinarylearning

    Source:Christie(2005)

  • Constructivismisaninstructionalstrategy

    Constructivismcanhelpstudents Pursuepersonalinterestsandpurposes Useanddevelophisorherabilities Buildonhisorherpriorknowledgeandexperiences

    Developlifelonglearning

    Source:Christie(2005)

  • Constructivismisaninstructionalstrategy

    Constructivismencouragesinstructorstoprovideforeachstudents Preferredlearningstyle Rateoflearning Personalinteractionswithotherlearners

    Source:Christie(2005)

  • Applyingconstructivismintheclassroom

    Poseproblemsthatareorwillberelevanttostudents

    Structurelearningaroundessentialconcepts Beawarethatstudentspointsofvieware

    windowsintotheirreasoning

    Source:ThirteenEdOnline,2004

  • Applyingconstructivismintheclassroom

    Adaptteachingtoaddressstudentssuppositionsanddevelopment

    Assessstudentlearningincontextofteaching

    Source:ThirteenEdOnline,2004

  • Implementingconstructivisminanonlinesetting

    Individualityandchoiceinpracticaltasks;negotiatedreporttitles

    PracticaltasksuseInternettocreateWebpages,conceptmaps,etc.

    Videosreplace(some)lectures ExamsreplacedbyreportsonissueorresearchonInternetresources

    Workinpairs,groups Blackboardsupported

    Source:http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/aa/landt/lt/talwt/materials/examplesofconstructivism.pdf

  • Studentcenteredvs.instructordominatedlearningenvironment

    Instructor Student

    Facilitatorofknowledge Adaptivelearner

    Colearner/collaborator Collaborator/colearner

    Developerofinstruction Codeveloperofgoalsandobjectives

    Reflectiveinstructor Knowledgeseeker

    Discovery facilitator Knowledgecreator

    Negotiatorofknowledge Reflective learner

    Teammember Learningthroughdiscovery

    Informationreceiver Negotiator ofknowledge

    Coach/facilitator Teammember

    Activelearner

    Responsiblelearner

    Mediateownlearning

  • Constructivismsummary

    ShiftsemphasisfromteachingtolearningIndividualizesandcontextualizesstudentslearningexperiencesHelpsstudentsdevelopprocesses,skillsandattitudes

    ConsidersstudentslearningstylesFocusesonknowledgeconstruction,notreproductionUsesauthentictaskstoengagelearners

    Providesformeaningful,problembasedthinkingRequiresnegotiationofmeaningRequiresreflectionofpriorandnewknowledgeExtendsstudentsbeyondcontentpresentedtothem

    Sources:Christie(2005);Clarkson&Brook(n.d.);MurphycitingJonassen,1994

  • TakeWorkshopQuiz

  • Selectedresources

    Christie, A. (2005). Constructivism and its implications for educators. http://alicechristie.com/edtech/learning/constructivism/index.htm

    Clarkson, B., & Brook, C. (n.d.). I cant understand why I didnt pass: Scaffolding student activities. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/pdf/clarkson.pdf

    Grabowski, B. (2004). Generative learning contributions to the design of instruction and learning. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.), pp. 719-743. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

    Grennon Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Honebein, Peter. C. (1996). Seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments. In Wilson, Brent. G. (Ed.). (1996) Constructivist learning environments: case studies in instructional design. Educational Technology Publications Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

    Lorsbach, A. (n.d.). The learning cycle as a tool for planning science instruction. http://www.coe.ilstu.edu/scienceed/lorsbach/257lrcy.htm

    Murphy, E. (1997).Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning.

    http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

    http://alicechristie.com/edtech/learning/constructivism/index.htmhttp://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/pdf/clarkson.pdfhttp://www.coe.ilstu.edu/scienceed/lorsbach/257lrcy.htmhttp://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

  • Workshoprelatedlinks

    ConstructivistChecklist(Howconstructivistconceptsmightbeoperationalizedinaninstructionalsetting)http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle4.html

    DataAnalysisandProbability(simulations)http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/category_g_4_t_5.html

    VirtualFrogDissection(simulation)http://froggy.lbl.gov/cgibin/dissect

    VisualConstructivisminDistanceLearning(Insightintothepromiseconstructivismoffersforachievementofqualityindistancelearning)http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/JAN02_Issue/article03.html

    http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle4.htmlhttp://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/category_g_4_t_5.htmlhttp://froggy.lbl.gov/cgi-bin/dissecthttp://www.usdla.org/html/journal/JAN02_Issue/article03.html

    Constructivism: A Holistic Approach to Teaching and LearningIntroductionsOverviewLearning Cycle or 5 EsHow would you define constructivism?A definition of constructivismConstructivism is a learning theoryConstructivism is a learning theoryConstructivism is a process the instructorConstructivism is a process the instructorConstructivism is a process the studentConstructivism is a process the studentSlide Number 13Constructivism is an instructional strategyConstructivism is an instructional strategyConstructivism is an instructional strategyApplying constructivism in the classroomApplying constructivism in the classroomImplementing constructivism in an online settingSlide Number 20Constructivism summaryTake Workshop QuizSelected resourcesWorkshop-related links