Text of Classical, Folk, Popular. Hindustani and Carnatic
Classical, Folk, Popular
Hindustani and Carnatic
Based on the raga, which is a melodic scale. It can be major or minor. A raga must contain a minimum of 5 notes. melodic framework for improvisation and composition. Improvisation within the notes of the raga. Influenced by Arab and Persian music (but not Muslim culture). Instrumental role important. Tala a metric cycle with a specific number of beatsfrom 3 to 128that recur in the same pattern throughout a musical performance.
Based on a system of ragas and talas. Lyrics are spiritual Devotional content Philosophical Emphasis on vocal music. When played on instruments, must be in a vocal style. Completely melodic, with improvised sections.
Varying number of strings, but usually 17 total. 3-4 playing strings 3-4 drone strings Rest are sympathetic Sympathetic strings are not played, but vibrate when certain notes are played on other strings. The strings are plucked with a wire finger plectrum called mizrab.
A pair of drums. Right made of wood. Left made of metal, usually brass.
Imported from Europe during 19 th century. Hand pumped bellows. Other harmoniums can be foot pumped, allowing both hands to play and provide harmony. Indian music has no chords and musicians sit on the floor, therefore only the hand pumped harmoniums are used today.
7 strings, 4 playing and 3 drone. No sympathetic strings. No plectrum, finger picking. Used as a main melodic instrument, not to accompany voice.
Clay pot instrument. Two sounds High struck on side Low struck on top (mouth)
Introduced by Western culture. Played holding between the shoulder and foot. It is played in unison where the passage is composed but imitates the voice or main melody instrument in the improvised passages.
Drone accompaniment 4 strings Precision tuning is achieved by inserting bits of wool or silk between the strings and lower bridge and by adjusting small beads attached to the strings. Fretless
In Carnatic music, the musicians and audience can use a hand clapping system to count the beats. There are many different versions depending on how many beats you are counting.
A vocal way to count rhythm. Padhant is a system of spoken words created for each sound or bol that the tabla makes. These different words are then used to form patterns that when heard a player can then play on the drums.
Art India.net - http://www.artindia.net/hindustani.html http://www.artindia.net/hindustani.html Hindu Online - http://hinduonline.co/HinduCulture/IndianMusic.html http://hinduonline.co/HinduCulture/IndianMusic.html Fantastic Website! Tons of info - http://raag- hindustani.com/http://raag- hindustani.com/ Carnatic Instruments - http://www.angelfire.com/musicals/kallidaihari /instruments_in_carnatic.htm http://www.angelfire.com/musicals/kallidaihari /instruments_in_carnatic.htm Hindustani Instruments - http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_musi c/hindustani_sangeet.html http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_musi c/hindustani_sangeet.html