Chinese-English bi-scriptural reading: cognitive component skills across orthographies. Xiuli Tong & Catherine McBride-Chang (2010) Reading & Writing (23) 293-310 Presented by Gabrielle Jones 9/22/10 PSY525 Professor Sue Guarnsey. Learning to read…. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chinese-English bi-scriptural reading: cognitive component skills across orthographies
Chinese-English bi-scriptural reading: cognitive component skills across orthographiesXiuli Tong & Catherine McBride-Chang (2010)Reading & Writing (23) 293-310Presented by Gabrielle Jones 9/22/10PSY525 Professor Sue Guarnsey1Learning to readReading route characterized by the written system (Bialystock, Majumder, & Martin, 2003)Word reading vary across languages (Wade- Wooley & Kirby, 2007; Koda, 2000)Specific educational practices (Leong et al., 2005; Shu et al., 2003)Word reading across alphabetic and non alphabetic languages. Phonological awarenessMorphological awarenessOrthographic knowledge
CharactersEnglishPinyin mothermasheta older sisterjiejie younger sistermeimeigirlfriendnupengyouma = female =This gives you an idea of what Chinese looks like. Here you see the word for mother represented in Traditional (in blue) and Simplified (in green) as well as in Pinyin. (in red) You notice its spatial architecture
What is interesting is that there has been an scriptural evolution of the written form . First you see the radical and it represents a picture. (10 % of the Chinese characters are iconic or picture like in nature) This radical means female and when standing alone it is pronounced nu as in the French u.
So you see how those radicals will appear in different words to represent different things. Notice how in Pinyin, they are are all pronounced differently and only once does the nu show up (in the case of girlfriend).
However there are other characters with the radical nu that has nothing to do with the act of being a female that I did not put up on the slide. examples are exert, strive, anger, rage, slave servant,
This is not an exhaustive explanation of the language since Chinese has a number of homophones for one character
Hearing children must learn pinyin before they learn the characters in first grade then they transition into characters over 2nd/3rd grades. Interesting that they are exposed to an alphabetic script before being exposed to the characters.
How do deaf Chinese children learn to read? Since the literature is scarce- mainly in Chinese and the initiation of international collaboration, in order for me to answer those questions, it was important to draw from Chinese students who lived in China.3Pinyin: Tonal representation
Chinese is a tonal language. Every tone indicates a different meaning for example ma with a high pitch will be mother, ma with a rising tone means hemp, ma with a descending and rising tone means horse and lastly ma with a descending tone means to scold. For a deaf person what does Pinyin mean and how can they recognize the differences? (Move lips and see if they can figure it out) You can imagine the challenge of lipreading. However the good news is that the characters show the differences, visual distinction between the characters, this in itself will help identifiying its uniqueness.4More about RadicalsSemantic Radicals tend to be in positions either left or top (Larger repertoire of semantic radicals -7,000 morphemes in Mandarin)Phonetic Radicals tend to be in the right or bottom positions (1,300 different spoken syllables in Mandarin for example)Phonetic radicals are not consistent (Shu et al., 2002): hong2 - red : ji4ang1 while they both have the same right radical, they do not sound the same and neither are related to the semantic radical gong which means work7,000 characters representing morphemes in Mandarin (Li et al., 2002)1,300 different spoken syllables in Mandarin (Chao, 1976)a spoken syllable in Chinese may represent many different morphemes whereas a character in Chinese mostly represents a distinct morpheme.
5What common components are involved in bi-scriptal reading? Phonological awareness and orthographic experience in Chinese influences process of learning to read English (Cheung, Chan & Chong, 2007; Gottardo, Chiappe, Yan, Siegel & Gu, 2006; Leong et al., 2005; Wang & Geva, 2003; Wang et al., 2005)Chinese Phonological processing associated with Chinese pseudo-word reading and English word reading (Gottardo et al., 2001)Chinese children learning English as L2 outperformed native English speaking children on pseudo-word spelling (Wang & Geva, 2003)Visual Orthographic memory skills
To what extent does 6ParticipantsNative Hong Kong Cantonese speaking children5 upper middle class primary schools 163 2nd graders (mean age = 96.6 mos)163 5th graders (mean age = 132.65)Bilingual English and Chinese curriculumChildren are taught to read in Chinese at age of 3-4 and English at the age of 4-5 years old through the look and say method not phonics.
7Lexical Word MeasuresChinese Word Recognition 61 item Character recognition test27 single character words & 34 two character words150 item test Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD)All two character wordsAll tests were arranged in increasing difficulty. Words were represented alone top to bottom/left to rightEnglish Word Reading60 English high frequency words (K and primary school)All tests were arranged in increasing difficultySTOP WHEN CHILDREN FAILED 15 ITEMS CONSECUTIVELY IN THE FIRST TEST OR 2ND TEST8Cognitive MeasuresRavens Progressive MatricesGeometric design with a portion missingPhonological Awareness (PA)syllable deletion 29 three syllable words (real and nonsense words) delete first, final or middle syllable = Lemon tea without tea would be lemonsyllable onset deletion- 22 itemsDelete the initial sound from the syllable po4 children would say o4
Ravens Progressive Matrices- measure Non verbal intelligence24 items increasing difficulty Set A and BGeometric design with one portion missing and 6 option patterns.
Morphological awreness 23 sentence scenario
STOP WHEN CHILDREN FAILED 15 ITEMS CONSECUTIVELY IN THE FIRST TEST OR 2ND TEST
They had to find the correct missing portion. 9Cognitive MeasuresMorphological Awareness (MA)Morphological construction 27 3-sentence scenariosDescribed an object/concept and create a new concept using the lexical compounding drawerballHomophone production 14 items1st part: Target morpheme/monosyllable shown- asked to form new words using target morpheme within 10sec 2nd part: generate words that included homophones of target monosyllable within 10 sec.
Meaning and Written form are differentGenerate homophones for given monosyllable
Chinese Morphological Awareness would involveModifier Compounds 34% of Leung and Lee 2002, Coordinative Compounds 19 % (2 characters of similar meaning)Supplement Compounds Verb followed by adverb.
English prefixes and suffixes- verb to noun, tense markers inflections derivatives10Visual Configuration Discrimination (VOS)Discriminate real non lexical radicals and stroke patterns from a set of misspelling and incorrect non lexical radicals
Cognitive Measures11Chinese Word Reading
12Within Language Associations MA was uniquely associated with Chinese character recognition in both gradesVOS strongly associated with Chinese word reading across grades
Results13English Word Reading
14Cross Language Associations PA measured in Chinese strongly associated with English word reading in both gradesStrong crossover effect of Chinese VOS on English word readingNo cross-linguistic transfer from Chinese MA to English word reading
Results15Both within and cross language AssociationsPhonological Awareness (PA), Morphological Awareness (MA) and visual-orthographic skills (VOS) improved with age.
Results16DiscussionChinese children whose L1 is Chinese and learning to read English as L2 adopt a visual orthographic-based strategy Discrimination of different graphic patterns stem from Chinese character recognition skills (Huang & Hanley, 1995; Siok & Fletcher) Spatial versus LinearInstructional practices influencing reading strategies- Look and say methodDoes the different types of morphological awareness inhibit the transfer?17Perfetti,C., Anderson, R.C & Leung, C.K
Toronto, July 2010Reading Chinese Research 18