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    2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

    Defining Scope and ConstructingWork Breakdown Structures

    (WBS)

    Chapter 6Contemporary Project Management

    Kloppenborg

    At the end of this chapter

    Describe the scope planning and definitionprocesses.

    Create a project scope management plan.

    Create a project scope statement. Create a change control process. Describe what a WBS is and demonstrate why it

    is vital to project planning and control.

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    At the end of this chapter Describe work packages and how they are used

    for planning and control. Compare and contrast different methods of

    developing a WBS. Given project information, individually develop a

    WBS for a small sample project. Working as a team, develop a WBS for a real

    project. Create a numbering system for a WBS.

    Scope Planning

    Plan the teams efforts

    Scope planning the process of creating a project scopemanagement plan. PMBOK Guide Scope planning the process of creating a project scopemanagement plan. PMBOK Guide

    Project scope management plan the document thatdescribes how the project scope will be defined, developed,and verified; how the work breakdown structure will becreated and defined; and how the project scope will bemanaged and controlled by the project team.PMBOK Guide

    Project scope management plan the document thatdescribes how the project scope will be defined, developed,and verified; how the work breakdown structure will becreated and defined; and how the project scope will bemanaged and controlled by the project team.PMBOK Guide

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    Scope Planning Scope planning = product scope + project scope

    Identify and organize all project work Use the scope management plan as the basis

    for all other work

    Product scope the features and functions thatcharacterize a product, service, or result. PMBOK Guide Product scope the features and functions thatcharacterize a product, service, or result. PMBOK Guide

    Project scope the work that must be performed todeliver a product, service, or result. PMBOK Guide Project scope the work that must be performed todeliver a product, service, or result. PMBOK Guide

    Project Scope Management PlanWork Processes

    Develop a detailed project scope statement Create the work breakdown structure and

    describe how it will be maintained and approved

    Specify how formal verification and acceptanceof the completed project deliverables will beobtained

    Control how changes to the approved projectscope will be proposed, accepted, and managed

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    Scope Definition Reasons for scope definition How to define scope Project Scope Statement the output from

    scope definition

    Scope Definition

    Determine deliverables What work is necessary to create the

    deliverables

    What assumptions/constraints will influence theproject work

    Scope definition the process of developing a detailedproject scope statement as the basis of future projectdecisions. PMBOK Guide

    Scope definition the process of developing a detailedproject scope statement as the basis of future projectdecisions. PMBOK Guide

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    Reasons for Scope Definition All other planning is based on the project scope Aid to preventing scope creep

    How to Define Scope

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    Clarify Project Objectives Ensure the project team understands project

    objectives Review the project charter Describe expected project benefits Describe problems the project is attempting to

    overcome

    List Potential Deliverables

    Clarified objectives lead to final deliverables List intermediate deliverables

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    Gather Stakeholder Input Listen to internal and external customers

    Use Voice of the Customer (VOC) techniques Elicit benefits/features in customers language Team member placed in the customer situation

    Complete a customer needs worksheet Ask the customer how they will judge the quality

    of the project For information systems projects, use a joint

    application design (JAD) session to elicitcustomer requirements

    Gather Stakeholder Input

    Questions to guide discussion: What do we not understand about the request? What is the business reason for the request?

    What is the impact of not providing this feature? What action items need to be accomplished if we dothis?

    What impact will this have on other parts of theproject or elsewhere?

    Create a prototype

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    State Scope & Establish ProjectBoundaries

    Product and project scope What is being created and what work is involved Decide which features/work elements are in

    scope and which are out of scope Promise only what can be delivered Clearly state project assumptions

    Create a Baseline Scope Statement

    Examine scope definition statements forcompleteness

    Validate scope with the sponsor, a customer,

    and/or other stakeholders

    baseline the approved time phased plan plus or minusapproved project changes Usually used with amodifier. PMBOK Guide

    baseline the approved time phased plan plus or minusapproved project changes Usually used with amodifier. PMBOK Guide

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    Project Scope Statement the outputfrom scope definition

    Project Objectives

    Why is the project being undertaken? What is the benefit to be achieved or

    problem/issue to be overcome by the project? How will the project stakeholders decide

    whether to accept the project deliverables? What target values will the project deliverables

    need to achieve? How will the project be measured? What tradeoffs of scope, quality, cost, or

    schedule will be acceptable?

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    Project Scope Description What characteristics do the project deliverables

    need to possess? Are there appearance expectations?

    Project Boundaries

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    Establish Change Control Projects are conducted in an atmosphere of

    uncertainty Document potential changes to a project with a

    change requestChange control system a collection of formallydocumented procedures that define how projectdeliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed,

    and approved. PMBOK Guide

    Change control system a collection of formallydocumented procedures that define how projectdeliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed,

    and approved. PMBOK Guide Change request request to expand or reduce the projectscope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedure,modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules Only formallydocumented changes are processed and only approvedchange requests are implemented. PMBOK Guide

    Change request request to expand or reduce the projectscope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedure,modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules Only formallydocumented changes are processed and only approvedchange requests are implemented. PMBOK Guide

    Change Request Form

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    Work Breakdown Structure What is a WBS? Why use a WBS? WBS Formats Work Packages How to construct a WBS

    What is the WBS?

    A tool used to progressively divide project workinto smaller pieces

    Identify deliverables

    What work do we need to perform to create thisdeliverable?

    A framework used as a basis for furtherplanning, execution, and control

    Activity definition the process of identifying the specificschedule activities that need to be performed to produce thevarious project deliverables. PMBOK Guide

    Activity definition the process of identifying the specificschedule activities that need to be performed to produce thevarious project deliverables. PMBOK Guide

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    Why use a WBS? One of the most essential project management

    tools Adds discipline and visibility to project planning Basis for planning schedule, resources, cost,

    quality, and risk Useful in determining where and why problems

    occur Helpful in project communications

    WBS Formats

    Indented outline form Organizational chart format Free format

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    WBS - Indented Outline Format

    WBS in Org Chart Format

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    WBS in Free Format

    Work Packages

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    Work Packages An element at the lowest level The basis for all subsequent planning and

    control activities The point from which

    Work activities are defined Schedule is formed

    Resources are aligned Control features will be developed

    Work package a deliverable at the lowest level of eachbranch of a WBS. The work package includes the scheduleactivities and schedule milestones required to