Text of Cellular Respiration South Carolina Standard B-3.2- The student will be able to summarize the basic...
Cellular Respiration South Carolina Standard B-3.2- The student will be able to summarize the basic aerobic and anaerobic processes of cellular respiration and interpret the chemical equation
What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process of long term, slow production, of ATP for cellular energy Ultimate goal is to convert chemical energy in nutrients into chemical energy stored in ATP. ATP can then release energy for metabolic processes such as active transport, protein synthesis and muscle contraction
Formula for Cellular Respiration: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 >>>> 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 The Reactants? The Products?? Any food (organic) molecule (C,P,L) can be processed and broken down as a source of energy to produce ATP molecules
Glycolysis First stage-takes place in the cytoplasm Glucose molecule is broken down into pyruvic acid and ATP Series of reactions using enzymes 4 molecules of ATP are produced for a net gain of 2 ATP. 4 molecules of ATP are produced for a net gain of 2 ATP. Products of Glycolysis are Pyruvic Acid, NADH, & ATP
Aerobic Respiration Most of the Pyruvic Acid produced during Glycolysis continues on the pathway of aerobic respiration- which takes place in the mitochondria It is chemically transformed and releases CO 2, H 2 O and ATP Aerobic Respiration produces almost 20 times as much ATP as Glycolysis alone.
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle: Krebs Cycle: Pyruvic acid from glycolysis travels to mitochondria where it is broken down releasing Carbon Dioxide, water, 4 NADH, ATP and FADH 2 Also known as Citric acid Cycle because it is the first compound formed in this reaction.
Krebs Cycle Cont.. Carbon Dioxide is released as waste and becomes part of the atmosphere thus available for plants to use for photosynthesis.
The Electron Transport Chain 2 nd step of Aerobic Respiration. Series of chemical reactions that takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. H 2 O is produced as waste The ETC uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP.
ETC cont.. ATP synthase uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP. End result of Cellular Respiration is 36 ATP- which is energy used for cellular metabolism
Anaerobic Respiration- Fermentation: Anaerobic process- Absence of O 2 Energy is released from food without Oxygen Not as efficient and results in a lot fewer ATP 2 types of fermentation: Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvic acid from glycolysis + NADH is converted to Lactic Acid and NAD+ Produced in your muscles during rapid exercise when enough Oxygen is not reaching your tissues. Cells are rapidly producing ATP through this process. Form of Anaerobic Respiration
Alcoholic Fermentation: Occurs in yeasts and some bacterias Pyruvic acid from Glycolysis is combined with NADH to produce alcohol, CO 2 and NAD+ This is what causes bread to rise. The alcohol produced - evaporates when the bread is baked. Form of anaerobic respiration
How is this used? Alcoholic Fermentation is used to make beer, wine, bread and ethanol added to gasoline. Lactic Acid Fermentation plays an essential role in the manufacture of food products such as yogurt and cheese.
Advantages and Disadvantages to Cellular Respiration Advantages- it sustains energy production much longer than Glycolysis and fermentation. Produces a lot more ATP. Disadvantage- It is much slower than Glycolysis and fermentation. Glycolysis produces 1000s of ATP in milliseconds, but it quickly fills all available NAD+ molecules.
Advantages and Disadvantages to Fermentation Advantage- Fermentation can release energy without oxygen. Disadvantage- Produces ATP for only 20-30 seconds and lactic acid causes painful side effects