Respiration. Breathing and Respiration Cellular Aerobic Respiration Efficiency of Respiration Cellular Anaerobic Respiration Respiration of Carbohydrate,

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09_02.jpgOutline – Cellular Respiration
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CO2
O2
Bloodstream
Lungs
O2
CO2
172.bin
Glucose molecules broken down to CO2
Glucose loses electrons and hydrogen Oxidation
Oxygen gains electrons and hydrogen Reduction
Cells tap energy from electrons
Cells bank energy in ATP
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C6H12O6
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Transferring Energy in the cell
Oxidation - Enzyme removes electrons from substrate
Reduction - Electrons in Hydrogen Transferred to NAD+
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AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis
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Reduces coenzyme NAD+
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis
ATP
Glucose
using ATP.
into two three-carbon intermediates.
Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis
3. Energy Payoff: ATP is formed
4. Pyruvate is formed
P
Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis
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Enzyme
Adenosine
Cellular Respiration Stage 2: Chemical Grooming of Pyruvate
Pyruvate is oxidized:
Acetyl CoA is transferred to the mitochondrion
CO2
Pyruvate
NAD+
Cellular Respiration Stage 3: Citric Acid Cycle
Oxaloacetate
CoA
Stage 3: Citric Acid Cycle
Completely oxidizes “glucose” to CO2
Produces a small amount of ATP
Supplies electrons to last stage of cellular respiration by reducing Coenzymes FAD & NAD
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Mitochondrion Structure
Stage 4: Oxidative Phosphorylation
Protons are transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane
ATP is synthesized by Chemiosmosis
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Stage 4: Oxidative Phosphorylation
ATP Synthesis by Chemiosmosis
Stage 4: Oxidative Phosphorylation
Protons are transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane
ATP is synthesized by Chemiosmosis
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Stage 4: Oxidative Phosphorylation
Occurs in the mitochondria
Uses the energy released by electrons to pump H+ across a membrane
Harnesses the energy of the H+ gradient through chemiosmosis, producing ATP
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Oxidative Phosphorylation Connection
Rotenone blocks the movement of electrons
Oligomycin blocks H+ flow through ATP synthase
DNP allows H+ to leak through the membrane
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H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
O2
H2O
P
ATP
NADH
NAD+
FADH2
FAD
Rotenone
Cyanide,
Figure 6.11
Genus: Derris
Young Man Dies after Using a Diet Pill containing Dinitrophenol (DNP)
oligomycin from the fungus
Streptomyces
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Roots of genus Derris are source of rotenone, a naturally occurring insecticide and fish killer. Guy is pounding roots to extract the pesticide.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary: Aerobic Cellular Respiration
FADH2
Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
Uses glycolysis alone to produce small amounts of ATP
Types of fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
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Lactate
NAD+
NADH
NADH
NAD+
ATP
ADP +
Pyruvate
GLYCOLYSIS
P
Glucose
Alcohol Fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to CO2 and ethanol
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NAD+
NADH
NADH
NAD+
GLYCOLYSIS
ADP +
P
ATP
Glucose
Pyruvate
CO2
Ethanol
Fuels for Respiration
Glycolysis or citric acid cycle
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OXIDATIVE
PHOSPHORYLATION
Fuel for respiration comes from photosynthesis
All organisms