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GOAL 4 BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY CONTINUED. VOCAB Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Reactants Products Reaction Rate ATP Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration

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Goal 4 Biology


Cellular RespirationPhotosynthesisReactantsProductsReaction RateATPAerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration Lactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic Fermentation


CarbohydratesCelluloseGlucoseStarchGlycogenCellulosea polysaccharide (C6H10O5)xof glucose units that constitutes the chief part of the cell walls of plants, occurs naturally in such fibrous products as cotton and kapok, and is the raw material of many manufactured goods (as paper, rayon, andcellophane)Glucosea crystalline sugar C6H12O6;specifically: the sweet colorless soluble dextrorotatory form that occurs widely in nature and is the usual form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by animalsStarcha white odorless tasteless granular or powdery complex carbohydrate (C6H10O5)xthat is the chief storage form of carbohydrate in plants, is an important foodstuff, and is used also in adhesives and sizes, in laundering, and in pharmacy and medicineGlycogen: a white amorphous tasteless polysaccharide (C6H10O5)xthat is the principal form in which glucose is stored in animal tissues and especially muscle and liver tissueProteinsInsulinEnzymesHemoglobinInsulina protein pancreatic hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is essential especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood and that wheninsufficientlyproduced results in diabetes mellitusa substance that your body makes and uses to turn sugar into energyEnzymesany of numerous complex proteins that are produced by living cells and catalyze specific biochemical reactions at body temperaturesHemoglobin an iron-containing respiratory pigment of vertebrate red blood cells that consists of a globin composed of four subunits each of which is linked to a heme molecule, that functions in oxygen transport to the tissues after conversion to oxygenated form in the gills or lungs, and that assists in carbon dioxide transport back to the gills or lungs after surrender of its oxygen: the part of blood that contains iron, carries oxygen through the body, and gives blood its red colorLipidsPhospholipidsSteroids

Phospholipidsany of numerous lipids (as lecithins andphosphatidylethanolamines) in whichphosphoricacid as well as a fatty acid is esterified to glycerol and which are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of cell membranesSteroidsany of various chemical compounds that include many hormones (as anabolic steroids)Nucleic AcidsDNARNADNAany of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate, and that in eukaryotes are localized chiefly in cell nucleidnaNitrogen BasesA- AdenineT-ThymineG- GuanineC- CytosineDNA PairingA-TG-C

RNAa substance in the cells of plants and animals that helps make proteinsany of various nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with the control of cellular chemical activities Typesmessenger rna,ribosomal rna,transfer rnaRNaNitrogen BasesAdenineUracil (no T)GuanineCytosine

Cells and EnergyATPATPUsed by the cell for energyadenosine triphosphateStored in cellsProduced in high amounts through cellular respirationPhotosynthesisProcess in which plants make their own foodHappens in the chloroplastRate affected byReactantsTemperaturepHLightFormulaPhotosynthesisChloroplastSugar maker

Cellular RespirationProcess in which sugars are broken down and used to turn ADP into ATPAerobicHappens in Mitochondria (sugar breaker)FormulaFactors affecting rateCrash

Anaerobic RespirationTypesLactic acid fermentationAlcohol fermentation