cduffy/bpc/ME2.docxWeb viewAn app will typically be written in Java and compiled into Java Virtual Machine-compatible byte-code or “.class” files. Unlike the Oracle Java Virtual Machine, the Dalvik Virtual Machine doesn’t run .class files, instead it runs Dalvik ...

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The Android FrameworkLinux

Here we have a simple diagram of the Android Framework. At the bottom we see (in red) the Linux kernel. Traditionally a Linux 2.6.x kernel with some additional architecture changes made by Google was used but since the launch of android 4.0 a Linux 3.x kernel is used.

Linux is used to interact with hardware via standard Linux drivers and provides a hardware abstraction layer to the rest of the framework. Linux also used to provide memory management, process management and security setting etc. As Linux runs on multiple devices, porting of android to new hardware remains relatively painless.

Libraries

The next layer is the Androids native libraries. It is this layer that enables the device to handle different types of data. These libraries are written in C or C++ language and are specific for a particular hardware.

Some of the important native libraries include the following:

Surface Manager: It is used as a compositing window manager with off-screen buffering. Off-screen buffering means you cant directly draw into the screen, but your drawings go to the off-screen buffer. There it is combined with other drawings and form the final screen the user will see. This off screen buffer is the reason behind the transparency of windows.

Media framework: Media framework provides different media codecs allowing the recording and playback of different media formats

SQLite: SQLite is the database engine used in android for data storage purposes

WebKit: It is the browser engine used to display HTML content

OpenGL: Used to render 2D or 3D graphics content to the screen

Android Runtime

Android Runtime consists of Dalvik Virtual machine and Core Java libraries.

Dalvik Virtual Machine

Dalvik is the process Java Virtual Machine in Google's Android operating system. It is the software that runs the apps on Android devices. Dalvik is thus an integral part of Android, which is typically used on mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers as well as more recently on embedded devices such as smart TVs and media streamers.

An app will typically be written in Java and compiled into Java Virtual Machine-compatible byte-code or .class files. Unlike the Oracle Java Virtual Machine, the Dalvik Virtual Machine doesnt run .class files, instead it runs Dalvik Executable or .dex files. Much like an .exe in Microsoft Visual Studio, .dex files are built from .class file at the time of execution, using a Just- In-Time (JIT) compiler to convert the byte-code into machine code. This has been proven to provide higher efficiency in low resource environments. Also the Dalvik VM is register based while the Oracle JVM is stack based. Since the operands for instructions are largely implicit, the object code will tend to be smaller. This is important if you're going to be downloading the code over a slow network link.

Due to the virtual machine Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, the Play Store displays all required permissions: a game may need to enable vibration or save data to an SD card, for example, but should not need to read SMS messages or access the phonebook. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.

The Dalvik VM also allows multiple instance of Virtual machine to be created simultaneously providing security, isolation, additional memory management and threading support.

Core Java Libraries

Android is based on Apache Harmony developed by the Apache Software Foundation, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries. These are different from Java SE and Java ME libraries. However these libraries provide most of the functionalities defined in the Java SE libraries.

(Oracle recently sued Google for copyright infringement. Oracle where awarded an agreed settlement of 0 for a total of nine copied lines but lost the case).

Application Framework

These are the blocks that applications directly interact with. These programs manage the basic functions of a phone like resource management or voice call management for example.

Important blocks of Application framework are:

Activity Manager: Manages the activity life cycle of applications

Content Providers: Manage the data sharing between applications

Telephony Manager: Manages all voice calls. Telephony manager is also used to provide access voice calls in applications.

Location Manager: Location management, using GPS or cell tower

Resource Manager: Manage the various types of resources we use in our Application

Applications

Applications are the top layer in the Android architecture and this is where apps fit. Several standard applications come pre-installed with every device, such as:

SMS client app

Dialer

Web browser

Contact manager

It is also possible to write an app which replaces any existing system app. That is, you are not limited in accessing any particular feature. You are practically limitless and can so whatever you want to do with android (as long as the user of an app permits it). So Android opens endless opportunities for developers.

Embedded Linux Graphics

When you install Linux on a desktop PC, you normally choose from among a few "standard" graphics support components. You'll likely use the X Window system as the display interface foundation (with associated Linux drivers to control the hardware) .

But how does it work?

X uses a clientserver model: an X server communicates with various client programs. That is to say in X windows the users terminal acts as the server and the applications are the clientsthis often confuses new X users, because the terms appear reversed. But X takes the perspective of the application, rather than that of the end-user: X provides display and I/O services to applications, so it is a server; applications use these services, thus they are clients.

X uses a clientserver model: an X server communicates with various client programs. The server accepts requests for graphical output (windows) and sends back user input (from keyboard, mouse, or touch-screen). The server may function as:

An application displaying to a window of another display system

A system program controlling the video output of a PC

A dedicated piece of hardware.

X only provides a protocol and graphics primitive definitions. It deliberately contains no specification for user interface design, such as buttons, menus, or window title bar styles. Instead, application software such as window managers (twm in X Windows), GUI widget toolkits (GTK+) and desktop environments (GNOME), or application-specific graphical user interfaces define and provide such details. As a result, there is no typical X interface and several desktop environments have been popular among users.

But the typical desktop Linux "graphics stack" isn't well suited to embedded Linux applications. As we can see Embedded devices frequently have highly constrained resources and can afford neither the program storage space nor the memory footprint of desktop graphics software. For example, embedded devices may easily have as little as 2 to 16 MB of Flash disk from which to load programs, and 4 to 32 MB of RAM memory in which to run them. But the typical desktop graphics components are notorious resource hogs (see table)

All that memory costs money, requires board space, and consumes power. Then too, embedded systems frequently have unique needs that can't be met by desktop graphics system components. These include the requirement for a customized look and feel, control over what functions are available to users, speed of loading, unusual display or input device characteristics, etc.

To satisfy the demands of the rapidly emerging embedded Linux marketplace, a growing number of graphics support projects and products have sprung up. Targeted environments run the full gamut -- including fixed, portable, and mobile systems -- and the applications range from hand-held consumer products like PDAs and cell phones, to medical instruments, factory automation, and commercial airlines cockpit displays.

Dillo-- Dillo is a very small (less than 300KB), fast, Open Source multi-platform web browser that's written completely in C and built on GTK+ libraries. Dillo's high efficiency and minimal library dependencies make it quite suitable for embedded apps. Dillo can be teamed up with an embedded webserver to completely eliminate the need for a window manager in an embedded device.

DirectFB-- DirectFB is a thin library that provides developers with hardware graphics acceleration, input device handling and abstraction, integrated windowing system with support for translucent windows and multiple display layers on top of the Linux Framebuffer Device. It is a complete hardware abstraction layer with software fallbacks for every graphics operation that is not supported by the underlying hardware.

The Familiar Project-- this open source PDA Linux project, which is an offshoot of the activities at handhelds.org, has collected together all of the key components of a complete Linux-based PDA computing platform. The Familiar distribution currently includes a Blackbox-based window manager, Agenda Computing's Fltk+ based PIM applications, an embedded Python implementation, system configuration and settings backup utilities, OpenSSH client and server, and a Debian-based ARM kernel.

FBUI-- FBUI is a tiny GUI that resides inside the Linux kernel. The key concepts of FBUI are that firstly it is small; secondly that it is spartan, which is good; thirdly that it is just another driver; and fourthly that drivers belong in the kernel, not in userspace.

GGI project-- the "General Graphics Interface" project is dedicated to development of fast, stable, open-source cross-platform multimedia API systems. Designed from the ground up with environments such as embedded systems in mind, GGI is fast, clean, abstract, dynamically modular and highly optimizeable.

GPE Palmtop Environment-- this project aims to provide a Free Software GUI environment for palmtop/handheld computers running the GNU/Linux operating system. GPE uses the X Window System, and the GTK+ widget toolkit.

GtkFB-- beginning with version 2.0, GTK+ will support rendering directly to the Linux framebuffer instead of using the X Window System. This is good for embedded systems and devices with limited resources, because it eliminates the overhead of an X server, while still taking advantage of the power of GTK+ and the large base of existing programs.

handhelds.org PDA support-- want to create your own unique Linux PDA implementation? handhelds.org is for you! Early this year, Compaq created the Open Handheld Program, an initiative designed to stimulate innovation and research on handheld devices that resulted from the company's "Itsy" pocket computer project. To support this initiative, Compaq created handhelds.org -- a vendor neutral website dedicated to open source handheld development. Not surprisingly, Compaq's iPAQ PDA is used as the base platform for all these activities and, consequently, a iPAQ Linux port is available as freely available open source software.

Matchbox (The Nokia 770 and N800 Linux based internet tablets use Matchbox window manager as part of the Maemo platform used on the devices). A small foot-print window manager and associated applications, designed specifically for resource-constrained X11-enabled devices such as handheld computers, PDA's, set-top boxes, and consumer devices where display size, storage, CPU bandwidth, and input mechanisms are limited. Matchbox includes a window manager, a panel, a desktop, a shared utility library, and a number of small panel applications.

Microwindows-- an Open Source project aimed at bringing the features of modern graphical windowing environments to smaller devices and platforms. Microwindows applications can be built and tested on the Linux desktop, as well as cross-compiled for the target device.

NxZilla(formerly nanozilla) -- a set of libraries that allow Mozilla to be used with a NanoX server from the Microwindows project.

OpenGL ES-- a light-weight, royalty-free embedded graphics standard that provides graphics API profiles for a broad range of embedded systems and devices, including handheld wireless devices, automotive and avionics displays, and multimedia consumer devices such as advanced digital TVs, set-top boxes, and game consoles.

OpenGUI-- a fast, 32-bit, high-Level C/C++ graphics & windowing library/GUI built upon a fast, low-level x86 asm graphics kernel. It is under LGPL license. OpenGUI provides 2D drawing primitives and an event-driven windowing API for easy application development.

PicoGUI-- small, portable client/server GUI designed to work on many types of hardware including handheld computers. Like the X Window System, it has a flexible client-server architecture. Unlike X, however, fonts, bitmaps, widgets, and anything else the application needs are built directly into the server. This sacrifices a small decrease in flexibility for an increase in speed and a large decrease in size.

Qt/Embedded-- provides a full graphics stack, from the hardware interface to a full GUI toolkit. Although the API is identical to the popular Qt/X11 and Qt/Windows products, Qt/Embedded is not based on X11 and therefore it has substantially reduced memory requirements. Memory demands can be tuned to the range of 800 KB to 3 MB in ROM (Intel x86). Qt/Embedded is available as open source software, under the GNU General Public License (GPL), or can be licensed on other terms from its originator, Trolltech.

Simple DirectMedia Layer-- an open source cross-platform multimedia development API/library designed to provide fast access to the graphics framebuffer and audio device. SDL is currently being applied to a number of Embedded Linux implementations such as Microwindows.

Tiny-X-- a small footprint X Window server implementation for embedded systems. It was developed by Keith Packard of the XFree86 Core Team, sponsored by SuSE. The goal was to create something that would work well in a small memory footprint and, importantly, be robust in near out-of-memory situations. Typical X servers based on Tiny-X can fit in less than 1MB on x86 CPUs. The project has since forked into several projects, includingKDrive,SmallX, andIntegrated Tiny-X.

ViewML-- a freely available, open source web browser targeted specifically at the embedded Linux platform. Currently, ViewML along with it's interface requires 2.1 MB of RAM, with a disk image of only 760K.

WML Browser-- a project, sponsored by 5NINE...

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