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Bolesti respiratornih organa

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Bolesti respiratornih organa

Text of Bolesti respiratornih organa

  • Gimnazija Rizah Odeki Zavidovii

    Zeniko-dobojski kanton

    kolska 2014/15. godina

    MATURSKI RAD IZ BIOLOGIJE

    Tema: Bolesti respiratornih organa

    Mentor: Uenik:

    Belma Poli, prof. Anel Mehanovi, IV2 (prirodno izborno podruje)

    Zavidovii, maj, 2015.

  • 2

    SADRAJ

    1.UVOD.............................................................................................................................5

    2.BOLESTI GORNJIH DINIH PUTOVA......................................................................7

    2.1.PREHLADA.....................................................................................................7

    2.1.1.Znakovi i simptomi.....................................................................................7

    2.1.2.Uzronici.....................................................................................................7

    2.1.2.1.Virusi......................................................................................................7

    2.1.2.2.Drugi uzroci............................................................................................8

    2.1.3.Patofiziologija..............................................................................................8

    2.1.4.Dijagnoza.....................................................................................................8

    2.1.5.Lijeenje......................................................................................................9

    2.1.6.Prevencija....................................................................................................9

    2.2.FARINGITIS....................................................................................................10

    2.2.1.Uzronici....................................................................................................10

    2.2.2.Simptomi....................................................................................................10

    2.2.3.Lijeenje.....................................................................................................11

    2.3.LARINGITIS...................................................................................................12

    2.3.1.Akutni laringitis.........................................................................................12

    2.3.1.1.Uzronici...............................................................................................12

    2.3.1.2.Akutni obini laringitis.........................................................................12

    2.3.1.3.Akutni edematozni laringitis.................................................................13

    2.3.1.4.Krup......................................................................................................13

    2.3.2.Hronini laringitis......................................................................................15

    2.3.2.1.Uzronici...............................................................................................15

    2.3.2.2.Hronini kataralni laringitis..................................................................15

    2.3.2.3.Hronini hiperplastini laringitis..........................................................15

    2.3.2.4.Hronini hiperplastini i ulcerozni laringitis........................................16

    2.3.2.5.Lijeenje................................................................................................16

    3.BOLESTI DONJIH DINIH PUTOVA...............................................................17

    3.1.HOPB...............................................................................................................17

    3.1.1.Akutni bronhitis.........................................................................................18

    3.1.1.1.Uzronici...............................................................................................19

    3.1.1.2.Simptomi...............................................................................................19

    3.1.1.3.Dijagnoza...............................................................................................19

    3.1.1.4.Lijeenje.................................................................................................19

    3.1.2.Hronini bronhitis.......................................................................................20

    3.1.2.1.Simptomi................................................................................................20

    3.1.2.2.Lijeenje.................................................................................................20

    3.1.3.Emfizem......................................................................................................21

    3.1.3.1.Simptomi................................................................................................21

    3.1.3.2.Lijeenje.................................................................................................21

    3.2.ASTMA.............................................................................................................22

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    3.2.1.Uzronici.....................................................................................................22

    3.2.2.Patofiziologija.............................................................................................23

    3.2.3.Simptomi.....................................................................................................23

    3.2.4.Prevencija....................................................................................................24

    3.2.5.Lijeenje......................................................................................................24

    3.3.PNEUMONIJA.................................................................................................25

    3.3.1.Uzronici.....................................................................................................25

    3.3.2.Simptomi.....................................................................................................26

    3.3.3.Lijeenje......................................................................................................26

    3.3.4.Prevencija....................................................................................................27

    3.4.TBC...................................................................................................................28

    3.4.1.Uzronik......................................................................................................28

    3.4.2.Simptomi.....................................................................................................28

    3.4.3.Patofiziologija.............................................................................................29

    3.4.4.Dijagnoza....................................................................................................30

    3.4.5.Lijeenje......................................................................................................30

    3.4.6.Prevencija....................................................................................................30

    3.5.RAK PLUA....................................................................................................31

    3.5.1.Uzronici.....................................................................................................31

    3.5.2.Tipovi raka plua.........................................................................................31

    3.5.3.Simptomi.....................................................................................................32

    3.5.4.Dijagnoza....................................................................................................33

    3.5.5.Lijeenje......................................................................................................33

    4.ZAKLJUAK........................................................................................................35

    LITERATURA.........................................................................................................36

  • 4

    Slika 1. Sistem respiratornih organa

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    1.UVOD

    Respiratorni sistem organa sastoji se od gornjih dinih putova: nosa, drijela i grkljana

    (zagrijavanje, vlaenje, ienje i dezinfekcija zraka), i donjih dinih putova:dunika, dunica

    i dvaju plunih krila s plunom maramicom (pleurom). Plua (lat. Pulmo) imaju dva pluna

    krila, lijevo se sastoji od dva renja, desno je neto vee i tee, lijevo dijeli prsni ko sa srcem,

    tee zajedno 1,2 kg. Svako pluno krilo obavijeno je tankom dvolisnom opnom-pleurom.

    Vanjski list pleure (porebrica) oblae rebra s unutarnje strane prsnoga koa. Unutarnji list

    pleure oblae pluna krila te tako odvaja plua od ostalih organa u prsnoj upljini. Zavrne

    dijelove dunica ine bronhioli koji zavravaju plunim mjehuriima(Slika 1.). Plua odrasle

    osobe imaju vie od 300 miliona mjehuria. Zbog alveolarne grane, plua su mehka i

    spuvasta. Pluni mjehurii obavijeni su kapilarnom mreom ogranaka plune arterije, koja je

    krvlju dopremila iz tijela CO2 radi razmjene s kisikom. Strujanjem kroz nos