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Bio Investigatory

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    Department of BIOLOGY

    This is to certify that Riya Mandal, astudent of class 12 Bhas successfullycompleted this project during the

    academic year 2015-16 undeMrs G B!arat!i for practical examconducted by "I##$% &e' Del!i

    #i(nat)re of e*ternal e*aminer si(nat)re of +iolo(y tea!er

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    "$&O.L%DG%M%&/In the accomplishment of this projec

    successfully, many people have bestowed upon m

    their blessings and hearty support, I would like t

    thank all the people concerned with this project.

    Firstly, I would like to thank God for thsuccessful completion of this project. Then I woul

    like to thank our respected Principal for providin

    us with all the lab facilities to complete ou

    project. I would also like to thank rs. G.!harath

    our biology teacher for her valuable guidance ansupport.

    "ast but not least I would like to thank m

    parents and classmates for their help and suppor

    whenever re#uired.

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    I&D% $%R/II$"/% "$&O.L%DG%M%&/ I&/ROD$/IO& #IG "&D #YM3/OM# $"#%#

    DI"G&O#I# $L"##II$"/IO& /R%"/M%&/ BIBLIOGR"34Y

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    INTRODUCTION

    Congenital heart defect (CD!" also #no$n aa congenital heart anomaly or congenital heardisease" is a problem in the structure of the heartthais present at birth% &igns and symptoms depend o

    the speci'c type of problem% &ymptoms can ary fromnone to life threatening% )hen present they mainclude rapid breathing" bluish s#in" poor $eight gainand feeling tired% It does not cause chest pain% *oscongenital heart problems do not occur $ith othediseases% Complications that can result from heardefects include heart failure%

    The cause of a congenital heart defect is ofteun#no$n% Certain cases may be due to infectionduring pregnancysuch as rubella" use of certaimedications or drugs such as alcoholor tobaccoparents being closely related" or poor nutritionastatus or obesityin the mother% aing a parent $ita congenital heart defect is also a ris# factor%

    number of genetic conditions are associated $itheart defects including Do$n syndrome" Turnesyndrome" and *arfan syndrome% Congenital heardefects are diided into t$o main groups, cyanotiheart defectsand non-cyanotic heart defectsdepending on $hether the child has the potential tturn bluish in color% The problems may inole th

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birthhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanosishttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failurehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubellahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobaccohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesityhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marfan_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birthhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanosishttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failurehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubellahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobaccohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesityhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marfan_syndromehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-cyanotic_heart_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart
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    interior $alls of the heart" the heart ales" or thlarge blood esselsthat lead to and from the heart%

    Congenital heart defects are partly preentablthrough rubella accination" the adding of iodinetsalt" and the adding of acid to certain food products&ome defects do not need treatment% Other may be.ectiely treated $ith procedures or heart surgery

    Occasionally a number of operations may bneeded% Occasionally heart transplantationire/uired% )ith appropriate treatment outcomes" ee$ith complex problems" are generally good%

    eart defects are the most common birth defect% I0123 they $ere present in 34%3 million peoplglobally% They a.ect bet$een 4 and 56 per 2"111 li

    births depending upon ho$ they are diagnosed% +bou7 to 28 per 2"111 cause a moderate to seere degreof problems% Congenital heart defects are the leadincause of birth defect-related deaths% In 0123 theresulted in 303"111 deaths do$n from 377"111 deathin 2881%

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_valveshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vesselshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubella_vaccinationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodinehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_surgeryhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_transplantationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_defecthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_valveshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vesselshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubella_vaccinationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodinehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_surgeryhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_transplantationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_defect
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    o$ the ealthy eart)or#s

    The normal heart is a strong" hard-$or#ing pummade of muscle tissue% It9s about the si:e of person9s 'st

    The heart has four chambers% The upper t$

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    chambers are the atria" and the lo$er t$o are thentricles (;igure +!% The chambers are separated ba $all of tissue called the septum%

    0% The pulmonary (pulmonic! ale" bet$een the righentricle and the pulmonary artery>

    3% The mitral ale" bet$een the left atrium and lefentricle> and

    4% The aortic ale" bet$een the left entricle anthe aorta%

    ?ach ale has a set of @[email protected] (also called lea=etsor cusps!% The mitral ale normally has t$o =aps> theothers hae three%

    ealthy heart blood =o$ patterns

    The normal blood =o$ is a cycle that =o$s li#e this

    - - -

    http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Your-Aorta-The-Pulse-of-Life_UCM_475411_Article.jsphttp://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Your-Aorta-The-Pulse-of-Life_UCM_475411_Article.jsp
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    Next $e $ill loo# at each step%

    ;rom the body to the heart, ;igure < belo$ sho$dar# bluish blood" lo$ in oxygen" =o$ing bac# to thheart after circulating through the body% It returns tthe heart through eins and enters the right atrium

    This chamber empties blood through the tricuspiale (

    ;rom the heart to the lungs,The right entricle pumpthe blood under lo$ pressure through the pulmonar

    ale into the pulmonary artery% ;rom there the bloogoes to the lungs $here it gets fresh oxygen (C!%

    ;rom the lungs to the heart, +fter the blood irefreshed $ith oxygen" it9s bright red% Then it returnto the left heart through the pulmonary eins to thleft atrium% ;rom there it passes through the mitraale (D! and enters the left entricle%

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    ;rom the heart to the body , The left entricle pumpthe red oxygen-rich blood out through the aortic alinto the aorta (?!% The aorta ta#es blood to the body9general circulation% The blood pressure in the lefentricle is the same as the pressure measured in tharm%

    &IBN& +ND &*TO*&

    Di(ital l)++in('it! yanotinail +eds in an ad)lt 'it! tetra lo(y of allot

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_clubbinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanosishttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetralogy_of_Fallothttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_clubbinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanosishttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetralogy_of_Fallot
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    &igns and symptoms are related to type and seeritof the heart defect% &ymptoms fre/uently are presenearly in life" but it is possible for some CDs to gundetected throughout life% &ome children hae n

    signs $hile others may exhibit shortness obreath" cyanosis" fainting" heart murmur" undedeelopment of limbs and muscles" poor feeding ogro$th" or respiratory infections% Congenital heardefects cause abnormal heart structure resulting iproduction of certain sounds called heart murmuThese can sometimes be detected by auscultationho$eer" not all heart murmurs are caused bcongenital heart defects%

    +&&OCI+T?D &*TO*&

    Congenital heart defects are associated $ith aincreased incidence of some other symptoms" togethe

    being called the E+CT?RA association,

    E F Eertebral anomalies

    + F +nal +rtesia

    C F Cardioascular anomalies

    T F Tracheoesophageal 'stula

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmurhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmurhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auscultationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VACTERL_associationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebral_anomalieshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anal_atresiahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular_anomalieshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tracheoesophageal_fistulahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmurhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmurhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auscultationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VACTERL_associationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebral_anomalieshtt