Basic Neuron

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Basic Neuron. Expanded Neuron. Perceptron Learning Algorithm. First neural network learning model in the 1960’s Simple and limited (single layer models) Basic concepts are similar for multi-layer models so this is a good learning tool Still used in many current applications (modems, etc.). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CS 478 - Perceptrons1

1CS 478 - Perceptrons2Basic Neuron

2CS 478 - Perceptrons3Expanded Neuron

3CS 478 - Perceptrons4Perceptron Learning AlgorithmFirst neural network learning model in the 1960sSimple and limited (single layer models)Basic concepts are similar for multi-layer models so this is a good learning toolStill used in many current applications (modems, etc.)4CS 478 - Perceptrons5Perceptron Node Threshold Logic Unitx1xnx2w1w2wnz

5CS 478 - Perceptrons6Perceptron Node Threshold Logic Unitx1xnx2w1w2wnz

Learn weights such that an objective function is maximized. What objective function should we use? What learning algorithm should we use?6What parameters and objective functionCS 478 - Perceptrons7Perceptron Learning Algorithmx1x2z

.4-.2.1x1x2t01.1.3.4.87CS 478 - Perceptrons8First Training Instance.8.3z

.4-.2.1net = .8*.4 + .3*-.2 = .26=1x1x2t01.1.3.4.88CS 478 - Perceptrons9Second Training Instance.4.1z

.4-.2.1x1x2t01.1.3.4.8net = .4*.4 + .1*-.2 = .14=1Dwi = (t - z) * c * xi 9CS 478 - Perceptrons10Perceptron Rule LearningDwi = c(t z) xiWhere wi is the weight from input i to perceptron node, c is the learning rate, tj is the target for the current instance, z is the current output, and xi is ith inputLeast perturbation principle Only change weights if there is an errorsmall c rather than changing weights sufficient to make current pattern correctScale by xiCreate a perceptron node with n inputsIteratively apply a pattern from the training set and apply the perceptron ruleEach iteration through the training set is an epochContinue training until total training set error ceases to improvePerceptron Convergence Theorem: Guaranteed to find a solution in finite time if a solution exists

10Author uses y-t and thus negates the delta wCS 478 - Perceptrons11

11CS 478 - Perceptrons12Augmented Pattern Vectors1 0 1 -> 01 0 0 -> 1Augmented Version1 0 1 1 -> 01 0 0 1 -> 1Treat threshold like any other weight. No special case. Call it a bias since it biases the output up or down.Since we start with random weights anyways, can ignore the - notion, and just think of the bias as an extra available weight. (note the author uses a -1 input)Always use a bias weight12Author uses -1 into bias, any real difference (back to being a threshold weight), but since starts random anyway, will make no difference, though the final weight will be negated by comparison

CS 478 - Perceptrons13Perceptron Rule ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 013CS 478 - Perceptrons14ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 110 0 0 014CS 478 - Perceptrons15ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 110 0 0 0001 1 1 11 0 1 111 1 1 115CS 478 - Perceptrons16ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 110 0 0 0001 1 1 11 0 1 111 1 1 1310 0 0 00 1 1 101 1 1 116CS 478 - Perceptrons17ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 110 0 0 0001 1 1 11 0 1 111 1 1 1310 0 0 00 1 1 101 1 1 1310 -1 -1 -10 0 1 101 0 0 017CS 478 - Perceptrons18ExampleAssume a 3 input perceptron plus bias (it outputs 1 if net > 0, else 0) Assume a learning rate c of 1 and initial weights all 0: Dwi = c(t z) xiTraining set0 0 1 -> 01 1 1 -> 11 0 1 -> 10 1 1 -> 0

PatternTargetWeight VectorNetOutputDW0 0 1 100 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 110 0 0 0001 1 1 11 0 1 111 1 1 1310 0 0 00 1 1 101 1 1 1310 -1 -1 -10 0 1 101 0 0 0000 0 0 01 1 1 111 0 0 0110 0 0 01 0 1 111 0 0 0110 0 0 00 1 1 101 0 0 0000 0 0 0

18CS 478 - Perceptrons19Training Sets and NoiseAssume a Probability of Error at each bit

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 -> 0 1 1 0i.e. P(error) = .05

Or a probability that the algorithm is applied wrong (opposite) occasionally

Averages out over learning19CS 478 - Perceptrons20

If no bias then the hyperplane must go through the origin 20What if no bias?CS 478 - Perceptrons21Linear Separability21CS 478 - Perceptrons22Linear Separability and GeneralizationWhen is data noise vs. a legitimate exception22CS 478 - Perceptrons23Limited Functionality of Hyperplane23How to Handle Multi-Class OutputThis is an issue with any learning model which only supports binary classification (perceptron, SVM, etc.)Create 1 perceptron for each output class, where the training set considers all other classes to be negative examplesRun all perceptrons on novel data and set the output to the class of the perceptron which outputs highIf there is a tie, choose the perceptron with the highest net valueCreate 1 perceptron for each pair of output classes, where the training set only contains examples from the 2 classes Run all perceptrons on novel data and set the output to be the class with the most wins (votes) from the perceptronsIn case of a tie, use the net values to decideNumber of models grows by the square of the output classesCS 478 - Perceptrons24Use next slide as example24CS 478 Perceptrons25UC Irvine Machine Learning Data BaseIris Data Set4.8,3.0,1.4,0.3,Iris-setosa5.1,3.8,1.6,0.2,Iris-setosa4.6,3.2,1.4,0.2,Iris-setosa5.3,3.7,1.5,0.2,Iris-setosa5.0,3.3,1.4,0.2,Iris-setosa7.0,3.2,4.7,1.4,Iris-versicolor6.4,3.2,4.5,1.5,Iris-versicolor6.9,3.1,4.9,1.5,Iris-versicolor5.5,2.3,4.0,1.3,Iris-versicolor6.5,2.8,4.6,1.5,Iris-versicolor6.0,2.2,5.0,1.5,Iris-viginica6.9,3.2,5.7,2.3,Iris-viginica5.6,2.8,4.9,2.0,Iris-viginica7.7,2.8,6.7,2.0,Iris-viginica6.3,2.7,4.9,1.8,Iris-viginica

25Objective Functions: Accuracy/ErrorHow do we judge the quality of a particular model (e.g. Perceptron with a particular setting of weights)Consider how accurate the model is on the data setClassification accuracy = # Correct/Total instancesClassification error = # Misclassified/Total instances (= 1 acc)For real valued outputs and/or targetsPattern error = Target outputErrors could cancel each otherCommon approach is Squared Error = S(ti zi)2 Total sum squared error = S Pattern Errors = S S (ti zi)2 For nominal data, pattern error is typically 1 for a mismatch and 0 for a matchFor nominal (including binary) output and targets, SSE and classification error are equivalentCS 478 - Perceptrons26Mean Squared ErrorMean Squared Error (MSE) SSE/n where n is the number of instances in the data setThis can be nice because it normalizes the error for data sets of different sizesMSE is the average squared error per patternRoot Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is the square root of the MSEThis puts the error value back into the same units as the features and can thus be more intuitiveRMSE is the average distance (error) of targets from the outputs in the same scale as the features

CS 478 - Perceptrons27CS 478 - Perceptrons28Gradient Descent Learning: Minimize (Maximze) the Objective FunctionSSE:Sum SquaredErrorS (ti zi)20Error LandscapeWeight Values28How could you create such a graph Sample, too many weight settings to completely fill in in general, but the abstract notion is importantCS 478 - Perceptrons29Goal is to decrease overall error (or other objective function) each time a weight is changedTotal Sum Squared error one possible objective function E: S (ti zi)2Seek a weight changing algorithm such that is negativeIf a formula can be found then we have a gradient descent learning algorithmDelta rule is a variant of the perceptron rule which gives a gradient descent learning algorithmDeriving a Gradient Descent Learning Algorithm

29CS 478 - Perceptrons30Delta rule algorithmDelta rule uses (target - net) before the net value goes through the threshold in the learning rule to decide weight update

Weights are updated even when the output would be correctBecause this model is single layer and because of the SSE objective function, the error surface is guaranteed to be parabolic with only one minimaLearning rateIf learning rate is too large can jump around global minimumIf too small, will work, but will take a longer timeCan decrease learning rate over time to give higher speed and still attain the global minimum (although exact minimum is still just for training set and thus)

30Batch vs Stochastic UpdateTo get the true gradient with the delta rule, we need to sum errors over the entire training set and only update weights at the end of each epochBatch (gradient) vs stochastic (on-line, incremental)With the stochastic delta rule algorithm, you update after every pattern, just like with the perceptron algorithm (even though that means each change may not be exactly along the true gradient)Stochastic is more efficient and best to use in almost all cases, though not all have figured it out yet

Why is Stochastic bet ANATOMY AND DIAGNOSTIC USE OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS BASIC PATHWAY: 2 NEURON ARC All two neuron pathways:
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