Bangladesh: Country status of
implementation towards the
Dr. Nurun Nahar
Bangladesh Planning Commission
Ministry of Planning, Bangladesh
Md. Reazat Hossain
Rajshahi City Corporation, Rajshahi
Ministry of Local Government, Rural &
23 June 2017
Name: Peoples Republic of Bangladesh
Population: 162 million Area: 143,998 Sq Km Capital: Dhaka Language: Bengali Religion: Islam Life expectancy: Male 69 years & Female 70 years Source: World Bank
Goldman Sachs: BRICS and beyond
(2007) Included in the Next-11 emerging markets
after the BRICS countries JP Morgan Report Frontier Five (2007)
Included in their Frontier Five as a potential
Bangladesh achieved 5 out of 8 MDGs by 2015. Now a
whole-of government approach with strong leadership from
Bangladesh received UN FAO awards for outstanding
progress in fighting poverty & hunger (2013)
South-South Award for achievement in women & childrens
The UNs Champions of the Earth Award (Sept
Climate Change and Bangladesh
"To come to Bangladesh is to see that climate change is most severely affecting the people who have contributed least to causing the problem" said Mary Robinson, an international personality of environmental movement and a renowned proponent of safe earth, during a keynote speech at a roundtable meeting on 'Climate Change: Rights and Justice' hosted by BRAC University in the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka.
The rising concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are bringing considerable changes to climate for example rise in global mean temperature by 0.4-0.8C and average annual rate in sea level by 1-2 mm in the last century.
Bangladeshs vulnerability to CC
Bangladesh is the largest delta of the world. Its rivers and floodplains, which make up 80% of the country, support life, livelihoods and the economy.
The country faces major inter-related delta challenges in water safety, food security and socio-economic development and is prone to natural calamities such as floods, cyclones, and droughts.
The mean economic cost of climate change by 2100 is about 9% of GDP under business as usual (BAU) scenario- investment-GDP ratio needs to be increased by 4% (ADB, 2014)
The government is implementing a wide range of measures to make Bangladesh more resilient to Climate Change
Climate Change: Bangladesh Context
Not only temperature, change in the global climate has adverse effect on Bangladesh seasonal change and its foreseeable trend has raised the question of absolute existence of Bangladesh.
Due to Sea Level Rise, salt water is encroaching further and further inland leading to the devastating upset of our nature.
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of the threat to climate
change. IPCC report suggests, a one-metre rise in sea levels would flood 29846
sq km (total area of Bangladesh is 147570 sq km) of Bangladesh and make 14.8
million people landless.
Bangladesh's population is 160 million and per capita greenhouse emission is
0.32. This contribution to global carbon emissions (0.35%) is less than its share
in world GDP.
But it is paying higher prices for the consequences of climate change associated
with higher GHG concentration in the atmosphere.
The frequency and intensity of natural disasters has rapidly increased.
The total loss and damage from climate induced disasters and hazards have
negative impact on GDP growth
Country Change and Bangladesh
Insights and recommendations on implementing
and achieving INDC of Bangladesh
In September 2015, Bangladesh
submitted its Intended Nationally
Determined Contribution (INDC) to the
UN Framework Convention on Climate
The INDC describes Bangladeshs plans
for tackling greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions and adapting to unavoidable
In the INDC, Bangladesh committed to
reduce GHG emissions in the power,
industry and transport sectors by 5%
below business-as-usual GHG
emissions by 2030.
15% below business-as-usual GHG
emissions by 2030 if sufficient and
appropriate support is received from
INDC formulation (continued)
Present government of Bangladesh has made a new wave in the reformation of environmental policy to save Bangladesh.
Current potential demand of energy in Bangladesh is more than 7000 MW where supply is around 4500 MW.
The economy of Bangladesh has been growing at a rate of 6-7 percent from last few years . Target growth by 2020 is 8%
These are causing rise in energy demand which in turn increases Green House Gas (GHG) emission.
Bangladesh's GHG emission from energy sector is relatively low as most of the power is generated from natural gas which causes low carbon emission.
The current contribution of renewable energy is 1%
The government is planning to increase the share of renewable sources in total power generation by 10% in 2020.
Collaboration among national and
international policies Government of Bangladesh is the main stakeholder of taking protective
measurement against climate change.
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Agency (SREDA), established as a focal point for sustainable energy development and promotion, sustainable energy comprising renewable energy and energy efficiency.
SREDA supports capacity building, technology development, and market development sufficient to boost the share of electricity generated from renewable energy technologies.
All power utilities, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), other interested government departments, private agencies and NGOs are to develop renewable energy development programmes for implementation throughout the country.
However, under the both vertical and horizontal integration, Government is encouraging private sectors to form Public-Private Partnership to expedite control of emission of GHG and implement alternative sources of renewable energy.
Perspective Plan (2010-2021)
Five Year Plans:
6th FYP (2010-2015)
7th FYP (2016- 2021
NAPA 2008, BCCSAP 2009 (now being updated)
Climate finance-BCCTF, BCCRF, NDA for GCF, CPEIR
NDC Sector Action Plans
Relevant policy scenario
Sectoral policies to achieve goals
INDC builds on existing strategies and programs of
Bangladesh like Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and
Action Plan (BCCSAP), Power Sector Master Plan, National
Sustainable Development Strategy, National Adaptation Plan
(NAP), National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) etc.
The BCCSAP, which is currently being reviewed and updated,
includes Programme ten under Theme five, which covers
Improving energy consumption pattern in transport sector and
options for mitigation.
Specific actions under Theme five include : (1) promotion of low cost public transport modes such as rapid transit,
(2) reducing the use of fossil fuels by improving the efficiency of energy
(3) review of political, institutional and fiscal planning and
(4) substitution of bio-fuels, fossil fuels as appropriate.
Bangladesh Government with the help of Private
Organizations declared that Kyoto protocol objectives related
to global warming cannot be accomplished only through
control measures that physically reduce the volume of
emissions, but also through absorption / sequestration
mechanisms that remove the gases from the atmosphere.
Due to vulnerability of Bangladesh for climate change,
Government decided to reduce GHG emission from its own
There are different policy intervention instruments for
reducing greenhouse gas emission: creation of property
rights, market based incentives (a tax, emission trading
scheme), different forms of regulation, subsidies etc.
Climate Fiscal Framework can bring about the necessary
policy for NDC implementation.
Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)
Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)
Regulations are most common form of interventions to reduce
GHG emission like renewable energy target, light bulbs,
specifying production technology or input to use or not to use
The most common strategy which is an excellent example for
the whole world in this connection is to introduce and expand
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are in use throughout the
country with over 600,000 household-level installations having
capacity of about 35 MW.
For the proliferation of solar energy, Bangladesh is re