Bangladesh: Country status of implementation towards ?· Bangladesh: Country status of implementation…

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  • Bangladesh: Country status of

    implementation towards the

    INDC

    Country partners

    Dr. Nurun Nahar

    Deputy Chief

    Programming Division

    Bangladesh Planning Commission

    Ministry of Planning, Bangladesh

    Md. Reazat Hossain

    Executive Engineer

    Rajshahi City Corporation, Rajshahi

    Ministry of Local Government, Rural &

    Co-operatives, Bangladesh

    23 June 2017

  • Country profile

    Name: Peoples Republic of Bangladesh

    Population: 162 million Area: 143,998 Sq Km Capital: Dhaka Language: Bengali Religion: Islam Life expectancy: Male 69 years & Female 70 years Source: World Bank

  • Current Context

    Goldman Sachs: BRICS and beyond

    (2007) Included in the Next-11 emerging markets

    after the BRICS countries JP Morgan Report Frontier Five (2007)

    Included in their Frontier Five as a potential

    emerging market

    Bangladesh achieved 5 out of 8 MDGs by 2015. Now a

    whole-of government approach with strong leadership from

    PMO.

    Bangladesh received UN FAO awards for outstanding

    progress in fighting poverty & hunger (2013)

    South-South Award for achievement in women & childrens

    health (2013)

    The UNs Champions of the Earth Award (Sept

    2015)

    3 8/3/2017

  • 4

    Climate Change and Bangladesh

    "To come to Bangladesh is to see that climate change is most severely affecting the people who have contributed least to causing the problem" said Mary Robinson, an international personality of environmental movement and a renowned proponent of safe earth, during a keynote speech at a roundtable meeting on 'Climate Change: Rights and Justice' hosted by BRAC University in the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka.

    The rising concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are bringing considerable changes to climate for example rise in global mean temperature by 0.4-0.8C and average annual rate in sea level by 1-2 mm in the last century.

  • Bangladeshs vulnerability to CC

    Bangladesh is the largest delta of the world. Its rivers and floodplains, which make up 80% of the country, support life, livelihoods and the economy.

    The country faces major inter-related delta challenges in water safety, food security and socio-economic development and is prone to natural calamities such as floods, cyclones, and droughts.

    The mean economic cost of climate change by 2100 is about 9% of GDP under business as usual (BAU) scenario- investment-GDP ratio needs to be increased by 4% (ADB, 2014)

    The government is implementing a wide range of measures to make Bangladesh more resilient to Climate Change

    8/3/2017 5

  • Climate Change: Bangladesh Context

  • 7

    Not only temperature, change in the global climate has adverse effect on Bangladesh seasonal change and its foreseeable trend has raised the question of absolute existence of Bangladesh.

    Due to Sea Level Rise, salt water is encroaching further and further inland leading to the devastating upset of our nature.

    Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of the threat to climate

    change. IPCC report suggests, a one-metre rise in sea levels would flood 29846

    sq km (total area of Bangladesh is 147570 sq km) of Bangladesh and make 14.8

    million people landless.

    Bangladesh's population is 160 million and per capita greenhouse emission is

    0.32. This contribution to global carbon emissions (0.35%) is less than its share

    in world GDP.

    But it is paying higher prices for the consequences of climate change associated

    with higher GHG concentration in the atmosphere.

    The frequency and intensity of natural disasters has rapidly increased.

    The total loss and damage from climate induced disasters and hazards have

    negative impact on GDP growth

    Country Change and Bangladesh

  • 8

    Insights and recommendations on implementing

    and achieving INDC of Bangladesh

  • INDC formulation

    In September 2015, Bangladesh

    submitted its Intended Nationally

    Determined Contribution (INDC) to the

    UN Framework Convention on Climate

    Change (UNFCCC).

    The INDC describes Bangladeshs plans

    for tackling greenhouse gas (GHG)

    emissions and adapting to unavoidable

    climate change.

    In the INDC, Bangladesh committed to

    reduce GHG emissions in the power,

    industry and transport sectors by 5%

    below business-as-usual GHG

    emissions by 2030.

    15% below business-as-usual GHG

    emissions by 2030 if sufficient and

    appropriate support is received from

    developed countries.

  • 10

    INDC formulation (continued)

    Present government of Bangladesh has made a new wave in the reformation of environmental policy to save Bangladesh.

    Current potential demand of energy in Bangladesh is more than 7000 MW where supply is around 4500 MW.

    The economy of Bangladesh has been growing at a rate of 6-7 percent from last few years . Target growth by 2020 is 8%

    These are causing rise in energy demand which in turn increases Green House Gas (GHG) emission.

    Bangladesh's GHG emission from energy sector is relatively low as most of the power is generated from natural gas which causes low carbon emission.

    The current contribution of renewable energy is 1%

    The government is planning to increase the share of renewable sources in total power generation by 10% in 2020.

  • 11

    Collaboration among national and

    international policies Government of Bangladesh is the main stakeholder of taking protective

    measurement against climate change.

    Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Agency (SREDA), established as a focal point for sustainable energy development and promotion, sustainable energy comprising renewable energy and energy efficiency.

    SREDA supports capacity building, technology development, and market development sufficient to boost the share of electricity generated from renewable energy technologies.

    All power utilities, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), other interested government departments, private agencies and NGOs are to develop renewable energy development programmes for implementation throughout the country.

    However, under the both vertical and horizontal integration, Government is encouraging private sectors to form Public-Private Partnership to expedite control of emission of GHG and implement alternative sources of renewable energy.

  • 8/3/2017 12

    Lon

    g Te

    m P

    lan

    Perspective Plan (2010-2021)

    Me

    diu

    m t

    erm

    Pla

    ns

    Five Year Plans:

    6th FYP (2010-2015)

    7th FYP (2016- 2021

    Clim

    ate

    Ch

    ange

    :

    NAPA 2008, BCCSAP 2009 (now being updated)

    National Communications,

    NAP (ongoing)

    Climate finance-BCCTF, BCCRF, NDA for GCF, CPEIR

    NDC Sector Action Plans

    SDG Mapping

    Relevant policy scenario

  • Sectoral policies to achieve goals

    INDC builds on existing strategies and programs of

    Bangladesh like Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and

    Action Plan (BCCSAP), Power Sector Master Plan, National

    Sustainable Development Strategy, National Adaptation Plan

    (NAP), National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) etc.

    The BCCSAP, which is currently being reviewed and updated,

    includes Programme ten under Theme five, which covers

    Improving energy consumption pattern in transport sector and

    options for mitigation.

    Specific actions under Theme five include : (1) promotion of low cost public transport modes such as rapid transit,

    (2) reducing the use of fossil fuels by improving the efficiency of energy

    usage,

    (3) review of political, institutional and fiscal planning and

    (4) substitution of bio-fuels, fossil fuels as appropriate.

  • 14

    Bangladesh Government with the help of Private

    Organizations declared that Kyoto protocol objectives related

    to global warming cannot be accomplished only through

    control measures that physically reduce the volume of

    emissions, but also through absorption / sequestration

    mechanisms that remove the gases from the atmosphere.

    Due to vulnerability of Bangladesh for climate change,

    Government decided to reduce GHG emission from its own

    end.

    There are different policy intervention instruments for

    reducing greenhouse gas emission: creation of property

    rights, market based incentives (a tax, emission trading

    scheme), different forms of regulation, subsidies etc.

    Climate Fiscal Framework can bring about the necessary

    policy for NDC implementation.

    Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)

  • 15

    Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)

    Regulations are most common form of interventions to reduce

    GHG emission like renewable energy target, light bulbs,

    specifying production technology or input to use or not to use

    etc.

    The most common strategy which is an excellent example for

    the whole world in this connection is to introduce and expand

    SOLAR Energy.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are in use throughout the

    country with over 600,000 household-level installations having

    capacity of about 35 MW.

    For the proliferation of solar energy, Bangladesh is regarded

    as the second highest country in the world.

  • 16

    Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)

  • 17

    Finances for INDC implementation

    Wind Energy has also made some inroads but its potential is

    mainly in coastal areas, and offshore islands with strong

    wind regimes. These coastal settings afford good

    opportunities for wind-powered pumping and electricity

    generation. Presently there are 2 MW of installed wind

    turbines at Feni and Kutubdia.

    Bangladesh has strong potential for biomass gasification

    based electricity. More common biomass resources available

    in the country are rice husk, crop residue, wood, jute stick,

    animal waste, municipal waste, sugarcane etc.

  • 18

    Opportunities

    Bangladesh governments favorable attitude toward

    renewable energy is demonstrated by the preferred tax and

    duty treatment of such equipment.

    Government has supported energy investments by

    establishing IDCOL (Infrastructure Development Company

    Ltd), an independent (private) finance body and a key

    driver in financing power plants and renewable energy

    investments.

  • PIM Stakeholders

    Office of the CAG

    19

    Prime Ministers Office NEC

    ECNEC

    Strategic

    Guidance

    Planning Commission Ministry of

    Planning M/O

    Finance

    GED Program

    ming Division

    4 Sector Divisions

    IMED Foreign Aided

    Projects Audit Direc. (FAPAD)

    ERD FD

    Line Ministries and Divisions

    Autonomous Bodies Agencies/Departments

    Project Design

    and

    Implementation

    BBS

    Resource

    mobilization,

    budgeting

    PPP Office

    BOI

    BEZA

    Strategic

    planning, budgeting apprais

    al

    8/3/2017 Local governments

    INGO/NGO/CSO Private sector

  • Fund allocation in ADP

    Annual Development Programme (ADP)

    ( 30% of national budget)

    17 Sectors

    Water Others RD and RI Agriculture

    Development Assistances

    Local Government Institutes (LGI):

    Urban LGI, Rural LGI

    irrigation Crops Forest Livestock &

    Fisheries

    8/3/2017 20

  • LG system in Bangladesh

    8/3/2017 21

  • Budgets and Expenditure Findings from CFF

    During FY 2011/14 the allocation of climate dimension budget was an average 21.79% of total budget, 3.9% of GDP.

    The government spends a significant portion of its development budget on climate related projects (47.63% of ADP and 12.65% of non-development budget)

    40% of climate dimension projects on average are financed non-development budget and 60% from ADP

    Over the period 2011/14, 80% of all climate-related projects were financed from domestic resources and 20% from external resources

    Ministry of Agriculture spend 24.8% and Local Government Division spend 18.58% of their budget on climate dimension projects/programmes

    The average amount spend for the theme 5 of BCCSAP 2009, mitigation and low carbon, is 4.24% of total budget

    Annual sum of US$1bn or just over 1% of GDP spent on adaptation

    8/3/2017 22

    MOF is undertaking project to implement the CFF and promote a climate-

    finance readiness.

  • Mechanism to link climate finance to the local level

    Climate change has a highly localized dimension in Bangladesh.

    Ultimately people at the local level will have to face its consequences. There is a need to decentralize climate planning and finance to the local level.

    Complexity of development and climate finance has resulted in several types of funding mechanisms. But analysis and tracking down of such funds to climate sensitive investments at the local level is absent.

    Presently, the issue of climate change has not been fully addressed in the Medium Term Budgetary framework (MTBF) and the Annual Development Program (ADP) processes in Bangladesh.

    The government strategy is to integrate climate change challenges and opportunities into its national development plan/budget/programmes and local governments development plans.

    8/3/2017 23

  • Structure of the LCFF of a Union Parishad (UP)

    1. Mission statement and main activities of UP

    2. Existing strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Union

    3. Institutional and financial capacity of the UP to address the mission

    4. Elaborated description of quantity and expenditure of action based activity/programme related to DRR, LED, CCA,

    5. Priority based 5-year work plan for the Union Parishad

    6. Elaborate description of the source of finance/funding of the 5-year plan

    7. Sector based activities and implication of Finance in UP

    8. Authority for implementing different components and 5 years work plan

    9. Monitoring plan of climate and disaster related activities/programmes result

    LGD is implementing LOGIC project with support from UNDP

    8/3/2017 24

  • 8/3/2017 25

    Activities regarding climate change for the Fulchari Union Parishad: Construction, renovation, and uplifting of the

    roads Construction and renovation of bridges and

    culverts Uplifting homesteads, construction, and uplifting

    the base of tube wells and sanitary toilets Renovation of educational institutions, uplifting

    their base and providing furniture and medicine Campaigning towards broadcast of disaster,

    construction of shelter centres, and ensuring a relief system

    Creating employment opportunities for people with disability

    Some features of the LCFF of Fulchari Union

    Parishad Long-term mission statement of union parishad Building an effective environment for the citizens

    of the union with a view to ensuring a safe and promising standard of life

    Reducing the per capita poverty rate among rural people

    Creating a safe and enriched cultural environment for citizens of the union

  • Conservation and climate-smart agriculture approaches (global) that can

    increase farmers productivity and adaptation to climate change, while also

    providing mitigation benefits.

    Conserving existing carbon stocks (in forests, peatlands, wetlands, and

    soil) by avoiding carbon stock degradation and enhancing carbon

    sequestration in soils, biota and long-lived products

    Reducing CH4 or N2O emissions from livestock systems, for example

    through improved feed and forage, animal health, manure management

    and grazing management

    Avoiding N2O emissions through efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer in

    croplands

    Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from i...

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