Bangladesh: Country status of
implementation towards the
Dr. Nurun Nahar
Bangladesh Planning Commission
Ministry of Planning, Bangladesh
Md. Reazat Hossain
Rajshahi City Corporation, Rajshahi
Ministry of Local Government, Rural &
23 June 2017
Name: Peoples Republic of Bangladesh
Population: 162 million Area: 143,998 Sq Km Capital: Dhaka Language: Bengali Religion: Islam Life expectancy: Male 69 years & Female 70 years Source: World Bank
Goldman Sachs: BRICS and beyond
(2007) Included in the Next-11 emerging markets
after the BRICS countries JP Morgan Report Frontier Five (2007)
Included in their Frontier Five as a potential
Bangladesh achieved 5 out of 8 MDGs by 2015. Now a
whole-of government approach with strong leadership from
Bangladesh received UN FAO awards for outstanding
progress in fighting poverty & hunger (2013)
South-South Award for achievement in women & childrens
The UNs Champions of the Earth Award (Sept
Climate Change and Bangladesh
"To come to Bangladesh is to see that climate change is most severely affecting the people who have contributed least to causing the problem" said Mary Robinson, an international personality of environmental movement and a renowned proponent of safe earth, during a keynote speech at a roundtable meeting on 'Climate Change: Rights and Justice' hosted by BRAC University in the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka.
The rising concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are bringing considerable changes to climate for example rise in global mean temperature by 0.4-0.8C and average annual rate in sea level by 1-2 mm in the last century.
Bangladeshs vulnerability to CC
Bangladesh is the largest delta of the world. Its rivers and floodplains, which make up 80% of the country, support life, livelihoods and the economy.
The country faces major inter-related delta challenges in water safety, food security and socio-economic development and is prone to natural calamities such as floods, cyclones, and droughts.
The mean economic cost of climate change by 2100 is about 9% of GDP under business as usual (BAU) scenario- investment-GDP ratio needs to be increased by 4% (ADB, 2014)
The government is implementing a wide range of measures to make Bangladesh more resilient to Climate Change
Climate Change: Bangladesh Context
Not only temperature, change in the global climate has adverse effect on Bangladesh seasonal change and its foreseeable trend has raised the question of absolute existence of Bangladesh.
Due to Sea Level Rise, salt water is encroaching further and further inland leading to the devastating upset of our nature.
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of the threat to climate
change. IPCC report suggests, a one-metre rise in sea levels would flood 29846
sq km (total area of Bangladesh is 147570 sq km) of Bangladesh and make 14.8
million people landless.
Bangladesh's population is 160 million and per capita greenhouse emission is
0.32. This contribution to global carbon emissions (0.35%) is less than its share
in world GDP.
But it is paying higher prices for the consequences of climate change associated
with higher GHG concentration in the atmosphere.
The frequency and intensity of natural disasters has rapidly increased.
The total loss and damage from climate induced disasters and hazards have
negative impact on GDP growth
Country Change and Bangladesh
Insights and recommendations on implementing
and achieving INDC of Bangladesh
In September 2015, Bangladesh
submitted its Intended Nationally
Determined Contribution (INDC) to the
UN Framework Convention on Climate
The INDC describes Bangladeshs plans
for tackling greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions and adapting to unavoidable
In the INDC, Bangladesh committed to
reduce GHG emissions in the power,
industry and transport sectors by 5%
below business-as-usual GHG
emissions by 2030.
15% below business-as-usual GHG
emissions by 2030 if sufficient and
appropriate support is received from
INDC formulation (continued)
Present government of Bangladesh has made a new wave in the reformation of environmental policy to save Bangladesh.
Current potential demand of energy in Bangladesh is more than 7000 MW where supply is around 4500 MW.
The economy of Bangladesh has been growing at a rate of 6-7 percent from last few years . Target growth by 2020 is 8%
These are causing rise in energy demand which in turn increases Green House Gas (GHG) emission.
Bangladesh's GHG emission from energy sector is relatively low as most of the power is generated from natural gas which causes low carbon emission.
The current contribution of renewable energy is 1%
The government is planning to increase the share of renewable sources in total power generation by 10% in 2020.
Collaboration among national and
international policies Government of Bangladesh is the main stakeholder of taking protective
measurement against climate change.
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Agency (SREDA), established as a focal point for sustainable energy development and promotion, sustainable energy comprising renewable energy and energy efficiency.
SREDA supports capacity building, technology development, and market development sufficient to boost the share of electricity generated from renewable energy technologies.
All power utilities, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), other interested government departments, private agencies and NGOs are to develop renewable energy development programmes for implementation throughout the country.
However, under the both vertical and horizontal integration, Government is encouraging private sectors to form Public-Private Partnership to expedite control of emission of GHG and implement alternative sources of renewable energy.
Perspective Plan (2010-2021)
Five Year Plans:
6th FYP (2010-2015)
7th FYP (2016- 2021
NAPA 2008, BCCSAP 2009 (now being updated)
Climate finance-BCCTF, BCCRF, NDA for GCF, CPEIR
NDC Sector Action Plans
Relevant policy scenario
Sectoral policies to achieve goals
INDC builds on existing strategies and programs of
Bangladesh like Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and
Action Plan (BCCSAP), Power Sector Master Plan, National
Sustainable Development Strategy, National Adaptation Plan
(NAP), National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) etc.
The BCCSAP, which is currently being reviewed and updated,
includes Programme ten under Theme five, which covers
Improving energy consumption pattern in transport sector and
options for mitigation.
Specific actions under Theme five include : (1) promotion of low cost public transport modes such as rapid transit,
(2) reducing the use of fossil fuels by improving the efficiency of energy
(3) review of political, institutional and fiscal planning and
(4) substitution of bio-fuels, fossil fuels as appropriate.
Bangladesh Government with the help of Private
Organizations declared that Kyoto protocol objectives related
to global warming cannot be accomplished only through
control measures that physically reduce the volume of
emissions, but also through absorption / sequestration
mechanisms that remove the gases from the atmosphere.
Due to vulnerability of Bangladesh for climate change,
Government decided to reduce GHG emission from its own
There are different policy intervention instruments for
reducing greenhouse gas emission: creation of property
rights, market based incentives (a tax, emission trading
scheme), different forms of regulation, subsidies etc.
Climate Fiscal Framework can bring about the necessary
policy for NDC implementation.
Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)
Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)
Regulations are most common form of interventions to reduce
GHG emission like renewable energy target, light bulbs,
specifying production technology or input to use or not to use
The most common strategy which is an excellent example for
the whole world in this connection is to introduce and expand
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are in use throughout the
country with over 600,000 household-level installations having
capacity of about 35 MW.
For the proliferation of solar energy, Bangladesh is regarded
as the second highest country in the world.
Sectoral policies to achieve goals (cont.)
Finances for INDC implementation
Wind Energy has also made some inroads but its potential is
mainly in coastal areas, and offshore islands with strong
wind regimes. These coastal settings afford good
opportunities for wind-powered pumping and electricity
generation. Presently there are 2 MW of installed wind
turbines at Feni and Kutubdia.
Bangladesh has strong potential for biomass gasification
based electricity. More common biomass resources available
in the country are rice husk, crop residue, wood, jute stick,
animal waste, municipal waste, sugarcane etc.
Bangladesh governments favorable attitude toward
renewable energy is demonstrated by the preferred tax and
duty treatment of such equipment.
Government has supported energy investments by
establishing IDCOL (Infrastructure Development Company
Ltd), an independent (private) finance body and a key
driver in financing power plants and renewable energy
Office of the CAG
Prime Ministers Office NEC
Planning Commission Ministry of
4 Sector Divisions
IMED Foreign Aided
Projects Audit Direc. (FAPAD)
Line Ministries and Divisions
Autonomous Bodies Agencies/Departments
planning, budgeting apprais
8/3/2017 Local governments
INGO/NGO/CSO Private sector
Fund allocation in ADP
Annual Development Programme (ADP)
( 30% of national budget)
Water Others RD and RI Agriculture
Local Government Institutes (LGI):
Urban LGI, Rural LGI
irrigation Crops Forest Livestock &
LG system in Bangladesh
Budgets and Expenditure Findings from CFF
During FY 2011/14 the allocation of climate dimension budget was an average 21.79% of total budget, 3.9% of GDP.
The government spends a significant portion of its development budget on climate related projects (47.63% of ADP and 12.65% of non-development budget)
40% of climate dimension projects on average are financed non-development budget and 60% from ADP
Over the period 2011/14, 80% of all climate-related projects were financed from domestic resources and 20% from external resources
Ministry of Agriculture spend 24.8% and Local Government Division spend 18.58% of their budget on climate dimension projects/programmes
The average amount spend for the theme 5 of BCCSAP 2009, mitigation and low carbon, is 4.24% of total budget
Annual sum of US$1bn or just over 1% of GDP spent on adaptation
MOF is undertaking project to implement the CFF and promote a climate-
Mechanism to link climate finance to the local level
Climate change has a highly localized dimension in Bangladesh.
Ultimately people at the local level will have to face its consequences. There is a need to decentralize climate planning and finance to the local level.
Complexity of development and climate finance has resulted in several types of funding mechanisms. But analysis and tracking down of such funds to climate sensitive investments at the local level is absent.
Presently, the issue of climate change has not been fully addressed in the Medium Term Budgetary framework (MTBF) and the Annual Development Program (ADP) processes in Bangladesh.
The government strategy is to integrate climate change challenges and opportunities into its national development plan/budget/programmes and local governments development plans.
Structure of the LCFF of a Union Parishad (UP)
1. Mission statement and main activities of UP
2. Existing strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Union
3. Institutional and financial capacity of the UP to address the mission
4. Elaborated description of quantity and expenditure of action based activity/programme related to DRR, LED, CCA,
5. Priority based 5-year work plan for the Union Parishad
6. Elaborate description of the source of finance/funding of the 5-year plan
7. Sector based activities and implication of Finance in UP
8. Authority for implementing different components and 5 years work plan
9. Monitoring plan of climate and disaster related activities/programmes result
LGD is implementing LOGIC project with support from UNDP
Activities regarding climate change for the Fulchari Union Parishad: Construction, renovation, and uplifting of the
roads Construction and renovation of bridges and
culverts Uplifting homesteads, construction, and uplifting
the base of tube wells and sanitary toilets Renovation of educational institutions, uplifting
their base and providing furniture and medicine Campaigning towards broadcast of disaster,
construction of shelter centres, and ensuring a relief system
Creating employment opportunities for people with disability
Some features of the LCFF of Fulchari Union
Parishad Long-term mission statement of union parishad Building an effective environment for the citizens
of the union with a view to ensuring a safe and promising standard of life
Reducing the per capita poverty rate among rural people
Creating a safe and enriched cultural environment for citizens of the union
Conservation and climate-smart agriculture approaches (global) that can
increase farmers productivity and adaptation to climate change, while also
providing mitigation benefits.
Conserving existing carbon stocks (in forests, peatlands, wetlands, and
soil) by avoiding carbon stock degradation and enhancing carbon
sequestration in soils, biota and long-lived products
Reducing CH4 or N2O emissions from livestock systems, for example
through improved feed and forage, animal health, manure management
and grazing management
Avoiding N2O emissions through efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer in
Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from i...