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  • Study Report

    On Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production

    in SAARC Countries: Bangladesh Country Report

    Prepared by Engr. Anwar Hossain Khan

    Bangladesh

    4 April 2013 SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

  • Study Report On

    Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in SAARC Countries: Bangladesh Country Report

    7 April 2013

    SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

  • Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh

    Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 2 SECTION 1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, SCOPES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY ............. 4

    1.1 INTRODUCTION TO COUNTRY .................................................................................................................. 4 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ..................................................................................................................... 5 1.4 SCOPE OF WORKS .................................................................................................................................... 5 1.5 METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................................... 6

    SECTION 2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ............................................................................................. 7

    2.1 PRESENT ECONOMIC CONDITION ............................................................................................................. 7 2.2 LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE PLAN ............................................................................................................. 7 2.3 ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BRICK MANUFACTURING .................................................................................. 8

    SECTION 3 ........................................................................................................................................................... 9 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ............................................................................................... 9

    3.1 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................................... 9 3.2 SOCIAL ISSUES......................................................................................................................................... 9 3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ...................................................................................................................... 11 3.4 WAY FORWARD ..................................................................................................................................... 13

    SECTION 4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 BRICK MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH .................................................................... 14

    4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 14 4.2 PREPARATION OF CLAY ......................................................................................................................... 14 4.3 PUGGING OR TEMPERING OF CLAY ......................................................................................................... 15 4.4 MOULDING OF BRICKS ........................................................................................................................... 16 4.5 DRYING OF BRICKS................................................................................................................................ 17 4.6 BURNING OF BRICKS ............................................................................................................................. 18

    SECTION 5 ......................................................................................................................................................... 20 BRICK KILNS IN BANGLADESH ................................................................................................................. 20

    5.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 20 5.2 BULLS TRENCH KILN (BTK) ................................................................................................................ 20 5.3 FIXED CHIMNEY KILN (FCK) ................................................................................................................ 22 5.4 HABLA OR ZIGZAG KILN ....................................................................................................................... 23 5.5 HOFFMAN KILN (NATURAL GAS) .......................................................................................................... 24 5.6 SUMMARY OF IN-USE TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................................... 27

    ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES .............................................................................. 29 6.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 29 6.2 THE VERTICAL SHAFT BRICK KILN (VSBK) ......................................................................................... 29 6.3 ZIGZAG KILN ......................................................................................................................................... 33 6.4 HOFFMAN (COAL) KILN ........................................................................................................................ 33 6.5 HOFFMAN (NATURAL GAS) KILN .......................................................................................................... 40 6.6 FCK RETROFIT (IFCK) ......................................................................................................................... 40 6.7 OBSERVATIONS ON NEW AND RETROFITTED TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................ 42

    SECTION 7 ......................................................................................................................................................... 53 ECONOMIC AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES .................... 53

    i

  • Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh

    7.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 53 7.2 ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................................... 53 7.3 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA) .......................................................................................................... 54 7.4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................... 60 7.4 RESULT OF COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 60 7.5 ENERGY SAVING POTENTIALS OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................... 61

    SECTION 8 ......................................................................................................................................................... 62 BRICK SECTOR LEGISLATION ................................................................................................................... 62

    8.1 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 8.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE .............................................................................................................. 62 8.3 BRICK SECTOR RULES, REGULATIONS, ACTS ETC. ............................................................................... 62

    SECTION 9 ......................................................................................................................................................... 66 BARRIERS TO PRIVATE INVESTMENT .................................................................................................... 66

    9.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 66 9.2 TECHNICAL BARRIERS ........................................................................................................................... 66 9.3 INVESTMENT BARRIERS ......................................................................................................................... 67 9.4 INSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY BARRIERS ...................................................................................... 67 9.5 OTHER BARRIERS ............................................................