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<ul><li><p> Study Report </p><p>On Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production </p><p>in SAARC Countries: Bangladesh Country Report </p><p>Prepared by Engr. Anwar Hossain Khan </p><p>Bangladesh </p><p>4 April 2013 SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan </p></li><li><p>Study Report On </p><p>Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in SAARC Countries: Bangladesh Country Report </p><p>7 April 2013 </p><p>SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan </p></li><li><p>Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh </p><p>Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 2 SECTION 1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, SCOPES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY ............. 4 </p><p>1.1 INTRODUCTION TO COUNTRY .................................................................................................................. 4 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ..................................................................................................................... 5 1.4 SCOPE OF WORKS .................................................................................................................................... 5 1.5 METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................................... 6 </p><p>SECTION 2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ............................................................................................. 7 </p><p>2.1 PRESENT ECONOMIC CONDITION ............................................................................................................. 7 2.2 LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE PLAN ............................................................................................................. 7 2.3 ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BRICK MANUFACTURING .................................................................................. 8 </p><p>SECTION 3 ........................................................................................................................................................... 9 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ............................................................................................... 9 </p><p>3.1 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................................... 9 3.2 SOCIAL ISSUES......................................................................................................................................... 9 3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ...................................................................................................................... 11 3.4 WAY FORWARD ..................................................................................................................................... 13 </p><p>SECTION 4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 BRICK MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH .................................................................... 14 </p><p>4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 14 4.2 PREPARATION OF CLAY ......................................................................................................................... 14 4.3 PUGGING OR TEMPERING OF CLAY ......................................................................................................... 15 4.4 MOULDING OF BRICKS ........................................................................................................................... 16 4.5 DRYING OF BRICKS................................................................................................................................ 17 4.6 BURNING OF BRICKS ............................................................................................................................. 18 </p><p>SECTION 5 ......................................................................................................................................................... 20 BRICK KILNS IN BANGLADESH ................................................................................................................. 20 </p><p>5.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 20 5.2 BULLS TRENCH KILN (BTK) ................................................................................................................ 20 5.3 FIXED CHIMNEY KILN (FCK) ................................................................................................................ 22 5.4 HABLA OR ZIGZAG KILN ....................................................................................................................... 23 5.5 HOFFMAN KILN (NATURAL GAS) .......................................................................................................... 24 5.6 SUMMARY OF IN-USE TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................................... 27 </p><p>ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES .............................................................................. 29 6.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 29 6.2 THE VERTICAL SHAFT BRICK KILN (VSBK) ......................................................................................... 29 6.3 ZIGZAG KILN ......................................................................................................................................... 33 6.4 HOFFMAN (COAL) KILN ........................................................................................................................ 33 6.5 HOFFMAN (NATURAL GAS) KILN .......................................................................................................... 40 6.6 FCK RETROFIT (IFCK) ......................................................................................................................... 40 6.7 OBSERVATIONS ON NEW AND RETROFITTED TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................ 42 </p><p>SECTION 7 ......................................................................................................................................................... 53 ECONOMIC AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES .................... 53 </p><p>i </p></li><li><p>Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh </p><p>7.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 53 7.2 ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................................... 53 7.3 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA) .......................................................................................................... 54 7.4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................... 60 7.4 RESULT OF COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 60 7.5 ENERGY SAVING POTENTIALS OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................... 61 </p><p>SECTION 8 ......................................................................................................................................................... 62 BRICK SECTOR LEGISLATION ................................................................................................................... 62 </p><p>8.1 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 8.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE .............................................................................................................. 62 8.3 BRICK SECTOR RULES, REGULATIONS, ACTS ETC. ............................................................................... 62 </p><p>SECTION 9 ......................................................................................................................................................... 66 BARRIERS TO PRIVATE INVESTMENT .................................................................................................... 66 </p><p>9.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 66 9.2 TECHNICAL BARRIERS ........................................................................................................................... 66 9.3 INVESTMENT BARRIERS ......................................................................................................................... 67 9.4 INSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY BARRIERS ...................................................................................... 67 9.5 OTHER BARRIERS .................................................................................................................................. 68 </p><p>SECTION 10 ....................................................................................................................................................... 69 NATIONAL COAL POLICY AND PRESENT SITUATION OF COAL INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH .............. 69 SECTION 11 ....................................................................................................................................................... 71 EXPERIENCES, EXPERTISE AND BEST AVAILABLE PRACTICES FOR SHARING WITH OTHER MEMBER COUNTRIES ................................................................................................................................... 71 SECTION 12 ....................................................................................................................................................... 72 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................. 72 </p><p>12.1 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................................... 72 12.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 72 </p><p>REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 74 </p><p>ii </p></li><li><p>Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh </p><p>List of Table TABLE 1: MAIN ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BANGLADESHS BRICK SECTOR (2011) ............................ 8 TABLE 2 : ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PARTICULATE EMISSION AND GHG EMISSION FROM BRICK KILNS .................................................................................................................................................... 12 TABLE 3 : CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY .................................................................................... 15 TABLE 4: EXISTING BRICK KILN TECHNOLOGIES IN BANGLADESH (2012) ..................................... 19 TABLE 5: A COMPARISON OF THE THREE KILNS BEING USED IN BANGLADESH ........................... 27 TABLE 6: COMPARISON OF SCALES OF OPERATION, CONSTRAINTS IN OPERABILITY, QUALITY OF BRICKS AND EMISSIONS FOR IN-USE BRICK TECHNOLOGIES .......................................................... 27 TABLE 7: FUEL CONSUMPTION AND PARTICULATE AND CO2 EMISSIONS FROM KILN TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................................................................................... 42 TABLE 8: SUMMARY OF VARIOUS CONSTRAINTS AND ABILITY TO MEET CURRENT AND FUTURE EMISSION STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................ 51 TABLE 9: COST -BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 56 TABLE 10: ESTIMATED HEALTH-DAMAGE COST FROM AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY BRICK KILNS 57 TABLE 11: AVOIDED MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY BY ADOPTING ALTERNATIVE KILN TYPES ...... 58 TABLE 12: ESTIMATED ANNUAL COST OF CO2 EMISSIONS BY KILN TYPE AND BRICK (2009)........ 59 TABLE 13: SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (PRESENT VALUE 2009) ............................................. 59 TABLE 14: ESTIMATED NET BENEFITS AT CHANGES IN DISCOUNT RATES (TK/1000 BRICKS) ....... 60 TABLE 15: ENERGY SAVING POTENTIALS OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES ................................... 61 TABLE 16: SUMMARY OF THE LEGISLATIONS ON BRICK BURNING AND AIR POLLUTION IN BANGLADESH ....................................................................................................................................... 63 TABLE 17: COAL RESERVE IN BANGLADESH ..................................................................................... 69 </p><p>iii </p></li><li><p>Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in Bangladesh </p><p>List of Figure FIGURE 1: YOUNG CHILDREN AT A BRICK FACTORY ............................................................................. 10 FIGURE 2: : CHILDREN CARRYING BRICKS AT A BRICK FACTORY ......................................................... 11 FIGURE 3: DISTRIBUTION OF BRICKFIELDS IN BANGLADESH ............................................................... 14 FIGURE 4: MANUAL PUGGING &amp; PUGG MILL ........................................................................................ 15 FIGURE 5: JAW CRUSHER ...................................................................................................................... 16 FIGURE 6: HAND MOULDING ................................................................................................................ 17 FIGURE 6A: HAND MOULDING .............................................................................................................. 17 FIGURE 7: DRYING OF BRICKS IN THE SUN ............................................................................................ 18 FIGURE 8: TUNNEL DRYERS.................................................................................................................. 18 FIGURE 9 :...</p></li></ul>

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