Bahan Kajian MK. Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.des.2013 MENUJU PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN
Hierarchical system A four-tier system was adopted for the evaluation of sustainable development within the community. Its components were: 1.Principles of sustainable development; 2.Criteria of sustainable development; 3.Indicators derived from criteria; 4.Verifiers to measure specific strategic actions, whose qualitative or quantitative values allow comparison of results over time. The next step was to identify the principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers covering the following three areas of evaluation: socio- economics; ecology and the environment; and community culture and self-management. Each of these three areas has its own respective principles of sustainability, just as each principle has its own criteria, each of which has its indicators and, lastly, its relevant verifiers.
A principle provides the framework for sustainable forest development. It constitutes a fundamental law or truth as the basis for a rationale or action, and provides the justification for the criteria, indicators and verifiers generated. For the purposes of the study, a principle was considered an achievable goal in the social and ecological process of sustainable development. The hierarchical system in the evaluation model comprised the following basic principles of sustainability.
Principle 1: Respect and concern for community life favour sustainable development. This is an ethical principle. It means that development should not take place to the detriment of other external groups not linked to the community in question. Externalities are common in virtually every area of economic activity. They are defined as third party (or spill- over) effects arising from the production and/or consumption of goods and services for which no appropriate compensation is paid. http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/externalities/what_are_externalities.htm
Principle 2: The harmonious development of people, natural resources and the environment is what sustains the quality of human life. What is really demanded of development is that it better the quality of people's lives. Economic growth is an important component of development, but cannot be a goal in itself. Sustainable development is only real if it makes the life of the community better in every sense. https://community.accelrys.com/community/accelrys_blog/blog/201 0/06/02/pareto-optimization In fact, given our stated goals, the only formulations of even tentative interest are those depicted by the blue points. These are the Pareto-optimal points, which together make up the Pareto front, named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto. The points on the Pareto front are said to dominate the other points.Vilfredo Pareto
Principle 3: Conservation and protection of biodiversity and the environment favour sustainable development. Conservation-based development necessarily includes deliberate action to protect the structure, functions and diversity of ecosystems and of the environment. Sub-objectives associated with the community objective of resource conservation and their associated importance scores. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol5/iss2/art24/
Principle 4: Forest ecosystem management must not exceed the capa- city of the ecosystem. The limits of ecosystem functioning vary from one ecosystem to another. Policies need to bring the number of people and their livelihoods into balance with the capacity of the ecosystem. This capacity must be developed through careful management designed to provide quality goods and services in a sustainable way. Furthermore, the continuous interaction among people, natural resources and the environment must be managed to cause the least possible damage to the ecosystem.
Principle 5: The culture of the community must be in line with sustainable development. People need to re- examine their values and behaviour. The community should promote values that support the new ethics, and do away with those incompatible with a sustainable way of life. Interaction of the human social system with the ecosystem http://gerrymarten.com/human-ecology/chapter01.html
Principle 6: Community self- management and ownership are fundamental for sustainable development. Properly informed, motivated, committed and responsible communities can and must contribute to the decisions affecting them and play a crucial role in sustainable development Five Modalities Model of Community Development http://tedshelton.blogspot.com/2010/11/five-modalities-model-of- community.html
11 www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5189e/y5189 e05.htm
Sustainable State Project 1.Joint project between Local government and State Government 2.Creates goals and indicators to identify and track important sustainability issues 3.Integrates academic, private sector, governmental and citizen expertise 4.Links government programs to ensure implementation 5.Broad Target Audience - accessible and informative to all New Jerseyans 6.Comprehensive - covering economy, environment, and society
13 New Jersey Future 1.14 year-old nonprofit organization 2.Work with government and business 3.Designed NJs Sustainable State goals and indicators process 4.Develop and advocate solutions to NJs sustainable development and land use issues regulatory compliance
14 The risk management approach allows companies to save money by anticipating and avoiding expenditures arising from environmental damage, and by minimizing the cost of complying with future legislation. In addition, operating costs can be reduced through waste minimization, pollution prevention and the elimination of health & safety hazards.
Netherlands Green Plan 1.To achieve sustainability in one generation 2.Sets measurable goals 3.Tracks progress toward meeting goals 4.Utilizes integrated planning, across governments, departments and industry sectors, to achieve the goals 5.Widely recognized and supported by citizens
16 What Did We Learn? Seeing Things Differently Is The First Step Toward Doing Things Differently Without Clear Goals for the Future, and a System to Track Progress, You are Just Spinning Your Wheels www.bsdglobal.com/sd_journey.asp
Sustainable business strategies Business strategies for sustainable development mark the final phase in the journey. The aim is to seek win-win situations which can achieve environmental quality, increase wealth, and enhance competitive advantage. Companies integrate sustainable development into their business strategies. Sustainable development is a natural extension of many corporate environmental policies. In the pursuit of economic, environmental and community benefits, management considers the long-term interests and needs of the stakeholders.
Sustainable business strategies Sustainable development strategies uncover business opportunities in issues which, in earlier stages of the journey, might be regarded as costs to be borne or risks to be mitigated. Results include new business processes with reduced external impacts, improved financial performance, and an enhanced reputation among communities and stakeholders. For the business enterprise, sustainable development means adopting strategies and activities that meet the needs of the enterprise and its stakeholders today while protecting, sustaining and enhancing the human and natural resources that will be needed in the future.
20 Sustainable development and environmental protection compared Similarities: By protecting the environment we support sustainable development. A healthy environment means clean air, unpolluted water and healthy soil, which are necessary for the survival of future generations. The preservation of natural resources supports sustainability. Many environmental concepts like reuse and recycling allow us to save natural resources for future generations. Environmental training and education support sustainable development. While working to protect the environment we learn more about the world around us and improve our ability to identify solutions for sustainable development.
21 Sustainable development and environmental protection compared Differences: Environment is just one of the components embedded in the concept of sustainable development. Society and economy are equally important. Although it is necessary to protect the environment it is not always sufficient, since a healthy environment does not necessary mean a prosperous society or a healthy economy. Sustainable development is a goal of the entire society. Thus a participatory approach is an integral part of sustainability Sustainable development explores the relationships between environmental, social and economic benefits. Environmental protection is often limited to the impact on nature. Environmental protection implies reducing adverse effects, not necessarily allowing future generations to inherit the same amount of natural, social and economic wealth as their predecessors. Whereas environmental protection is often regulate