Azerbaijani Russian CS

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    AZERBAIJANI-RUSSIAN CODE-SWITCHING AND CODE-MIXING:

    FORM, FUNCTION, AND IDENTITY

    by

    KENNETH ZUERCHER

    Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

    The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements

    for the Degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON

    December 2009

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    UMI Number: 3391399

    All rights reserved

    INFORMATION TO ALL USERSThe quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.

    In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscriptand there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,

    a note will indicate the deletion.

    UMI 3391399Copyright 2010 by ProQuest LLC.

    All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected againstunauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.

    ProQuest LLC789 East Eisenhower Parkway

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    Copyright by Kenneth Zuercher 2009

    All Rights Reserved

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    iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    It would be impossible for me to list everyone who has participated in and

    contributed to this dissertation. To start off, I would like to thank my wife Lis and our

    children Reiner, Laurence, and Claire. I appreciate your putting up with me while

    bringing this project to completion. I would also like to thank my committee: Laurel

    Stvan, David Silva, Jala Garibova, and Pete Smith. Your assistance and advice has been

    and will be invaluable. Thank you for your contributions to my present and future

    success. Next I would like to thank the Azerbaijani University of Languages in Baku for

    lending me your vice rectors time (Jala Garibova) and sponsoring my visas in 2006 and

    2007. Thanks to Aynura Garabayli for your help in checking transcriptions and

    consulting on numerous points of interpretation. Without you this project would have

    been impossible. Thanks as well to all those who participated in the study. Your names

    have been changed in the text that follows, but I know who you are and I appreciate the

    time you spent recording data and discussing it with me. Lastly, I would like to thank the

    God of the universe who created such an amazing diversity of human beings and this

    curse called language through which we live our social lives. Blessed be His Name.

    September 24, 2009

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    ABSTRACT

    AZERBAIJANI-RUSSIAN CODE-SWITCHING AND CODE-MIXING:

    FORM, FUNCTION, AND IDENTITY

    Kenneth Zuercher, PhD.

    The University of Texas at Arlington, 2009

    Supervising Professor: Laurel S. Stvan

    From incorporation into the Russian Empire in 1828, through the collapse of the

    U.S.S.R. in 1991 governmental language policies and other socio/political forces

    influenced the Turkic population of the Republic of Azerbaijan to speak Russian. Even

    with changes since independence Russian use including various kinds of code-

    switching and code-mixing continues. This dissertation studies the language situation

    in Azerbaijan through a detailed analysis of naturally occurring conversational data.

    Approaches include corpus analysis of the transcribed data to show relative amounts of

    Azerbaijani and Russian, linguistic description of the types of code-switching and code-

    mixing, quantitative analysis of variation between subjects, and sequential analysis of a

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    v

    few subjects to demonstrate ways in which code-switching/mixing can be used to

    construct social identities in contemporary Azerbaijan.

    Subjects use of Russian content words varied from 11.2% to 97.2%. While some

    conversational turns contained only Russian, code-switching/mixing within turns and

    clauses was common, with nominal insertion and peripheral alternation of adverbial

    elements occurring most frequently. Congruent lexicalization (Muysken 2000) also

    occurs in stative clauses with the data showing evidence for a zero copula in Azerbaijani

    as well as Russian. Russian and code-switching/mixing can be used to construct a range

    of social identities. The case studies in this dissertation show subjects avoiding Russian

    use to conform to social norms in some family domains and professional contexts, using

    substantial Russian and Russian code-mixing in private domains when appropriate for the

    situation and interlocutor, as well as using Russian to contest traditional gender roles and

    portray themselves as modern and free of stereotypes.

    The results of this analysis do not contradict recent theoretical and descriptive

    work on code-switching/mixing (Muysken 2000, Myers-Scotton 2002) but confirm their

    propositions with a new language pair. They also open the door to further research into

    language behavior in the former Soviet space by providing a data oriented description of

    language behavior and linguistic identity construction in Azerbaijan. While

    governmental language policy and planning firmly support the development and use of

    Azerbaijani, Russian use persists in some sectors of society.

    The research for this dissertation was conducted under UT Arlington IRB

    protocol #06.95s following a pilot project conducted under protocol #05.276.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................... iii

    ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... iv

    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ................................................................................ xii

    LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... xiii

    Chapter Page

    1. AZERBAIJAN: SOCIO-HISTORICALAND LINGUISTIC BACKGROUND ........................................................1

    1.1 Historical context .......................................................................1

    1.2 Immigration................................................................................4

    1.3 Language policy, planning, and developmentin Azerbaijan ....................................................................................5

    1.3.1 The Russian Empire: 1828-1918 ................................6

    1.3.2 The U.S.S.R.: 1920-1991 ............................................7

    1.3.3 The Republic of Azerbaijan: 1991-present ...............10

    1.4 Changes in script ......................................................................12

    1.5 Ethnic conflict ..........................................................................14

    1.6 Overview of the following chapters .........................................15

    2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................................17

    2.1 Terminology and definitions: Code-switching

    versus code-mixing ........................................................................17

    2.2 Language and identity ..............................................................19

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    2.3 Theoretical approaches to code-switching

    and code-mixing.............................................................................24

    2.3.1 Constraints ................................................................24

    2.3.2 The Matrix Language Frame model .........................26

    2.3.3 Muyskens typology of code-mixing ........................32

    2.4 Pragmatic approaches to code-switching andcode-mixing ...................................................................................37

    2.4.1 Contextualization and textualization .........................37

    2.4.2 Conversation Analysis ..............................................39

    2.4.3 Perspectives on discourse .........................................42

    2.5 Methodological issues ..............................................................45

    2.5.1 Data collection ..........................................................45

    2.5.2 Transcription theory ..................................................46

    2.5.3 Regulation of research involving

    human subjects ...................................................................47

    2.6 Application to this dissertation project ....................................48

    2.6.1 Data types..................................................................49

    2.6.2 Transcription .............................................................50

    2.6.3 Theoretical orientation ..............................................50

    2.6.4 Micro/macro orientation ...........................................51

    3. AZERBAIJANI AND RUSSIAN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES ........53

    3.1 Introduction: Principles and Parameters grammar ...................53

    3.2 The Azerbaijani linguistic system ............................................55

    3.2.1 Azerbaijani vowel harmony ......................................55

    3.2.2 Word level phenomena:

    Azerbaijani morphology ....................................................57

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    3.2.3 Azerbaijani syntax ....