Automotive Lubricant Testing and Advanced Additive Development.
AutomotiveLubricant Testingand Additive DevelopmentSTP 1501www.astm.orgISBN: 978-0-8031-4505-4STOCK #: STP1501Simon Tung,Bernard Kinker,and Mathias WoydtEditorsASTM InternationalSTP 1501Automotive Lubricant Testing and Additive DevelopmentTung | Kinker | Woydt109343 ASTM OUTSIDE1/4" HT-- PMS 7519 TSTP 1501Automotive Lubricant Testingand Advanced Additive DevelopmentDr. Simon Tung, Mr. Bernard Kinker, and Dr. Mathias Woydt, editorsASTM Stock Number: STP1501ASTM100 Barr Harbor DrivePO Box C700West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959Printed in the U.S.A.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataAutomotive lubricant testing and additive development / Simon Tung, Bernard Kinker,and Mathias Woydt, editors.p. cm. ASTM stock number: STP1501ISBN: 978-0-8031-4505-41. Automobiles--Motors--Lubrication systems. 2. Automobiles--Lubrication. I. Tung,Simon. II. Kinker, Bernard, 1945- III. Woydt, Mathias, 1963- IV. ASTM International.TL214.O5A98 2008629.255--dc222007051559Copyright2008 AMERICANSOCIETY FOR TESTING ANDMATERIALSINTERNATIONAL, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved. This material may notbe reproduced or copied, in whole or in part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic,lm, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of the publisher.Photocopy RightsAuthorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educationalclassroom use, or the internal, personal, or educational classroom use ofspecic clients, is granted by the American Society for Testing and MaterialsInternational ASTM provided that the appropriate fee is paid to the CopyrightClearanceCenter, 222RosewoodDrive, Danvers, MA01923; Tel: 978-750-8400;online: http://www.copyright.com/.Peer Review PolicyEach paper published in this volume was evaluated by two peer reviewers and atleast one editor. The authors addressed all of the reviewers comments to the satisfactionof both the technical editors and the ASTM International Committee on Publications.The quality of the papers in this publication reects not only the obvious efforts oftheauthorsandthetechnical editors,butalsotheworkofthepeerreviewers.Inkeeping with long-standing publication practices, ASTM International maintainsthe anonymity of the peer reviewers. The ASTM International Committee on Publicationsacknowledges with appreciation their dedication and contribution of time and efforton behalf of ASTM International.Printed in Mayfield, PAApril, 2008ForewordThis publication, Automotive Lubricant Testing and Advanced Additive Development,containspeer reviewedpapersfromtheabovesymposium, organizedbycommitteeD02, in December, 2006 at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. This symposium was in conjunc-tionwiththeD02sub-committeeFuelsandLubricants. ThesymposiumCo-Chairswere Dr. Simon Tung, General Motors, Warren, MI, Mr. Bernard Kinker, Rhomax, USA,Horsham, PA, and Dr. Mathias Woydt, BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research andTesting, Berlin, Germany.ContentsOverview viiA Review of Engine Oil Oxidation Bench Tests and Their Application in the Screeningof New Antioxidant Systems for Low Phosphorus Engine OilsV. GATTO,W. MOEHLE, E SCHNELLER, T. BURRIS, T. COBB,AND M. FEATHERSTONE 1Viscometric Temperature Sensitivity of Engine Lubricants at Low Temperatureand Moderately High Shear ConditionsK. O. HENDERSONAND C. P. MAGGI 14No/Low SAP and Alternative Engine Oil Development and TestingM. WOYDT 35Synergistic Tribological Performances of Borate Additive in LubricantsJ.-Q. HU,Y.-Q. HU, G.-L. LIU,AND Y.-H. MA 48The Practice Relevant Pitting TestA New Improved Test Method to EvaluatetheInuenceof Lubricants onthePittingLoadCapacityof CaseCarburized GearsB.-R. HOHN, P. OSTER, T. RADEV,AND T. TOBIE 57ROBOA Bench Procedure to Replace Sequence IIIGA Engine TestB. G. KINKER,R. ROMASZEWSKI,AND P. A. PALMER 66Mechanochemical Additive-Assisted Reconditioning Effects and Mechanism on WornFerrous SurfacesJ. YUANSHENG, Y. HE,AND L. SHENGHUA 79Study of the ZDDP Antiwear Tribolm Formed on the DLC Coating Using AFMand XPS TechniquesT. HAQUE, A. MORINA, A. NEVILLE, R. KAPADIA,AND S. ARROWSMITH 92Validation of Oxidative Stability of Factory Fill and Alternative Engine Oils Usingthe Iron Catalyzed Oxidation TestE. FITAMEN, L. TIQUET,AND M. WOYDT 103Additive and Base Oil Effects in Automatic Particle CountersP. W. MICHAEL,T. S. WANKE,AND M. A. MCCAMBRIDGE 109Design of Functionalized PAMA Viscosity Modiers to Reduce Friction and Wearin Lubricating OilsM. MLLER, J. FAN,AND H. SPIKES 116Surface Characterization Techniques in Wear of MaterialsK. MIYOSHI, K. ISHIBASHI,AND M. SUZUKI 126vOverviewThis book represents the work of several authors at the 1stSymposium organized by D02 to focuson automotive lubricant testing and advanced additive development. This symposium was held atLake Buena Vista, Florida, in conjunction with the meeting in December 2006 of the ASTM D02sub-committee Fuels & Lubricants.In order to help automotive industry meet lower emission standards, higher fuel economy goals,and loger drain intervals associated with a minimization of any adverse effects of lubricants tothe environment, the petroleum industries and the additive suppliers are developing low SAPSsulfated ash, phosphorus and sulfur and high tribological performance lubricants to meet thesechallenges. New developments in powertrain system design and advanced additive formulationare essential in addressing these problems. This ASTM symposium has provided an outstandingforum to discuss how OEMs and lubricant companies are solving real engineering problems toincrease fuel economy and meet emissions legislation together. This symposium publication isfocused on both the chemical and tribological aspects of the functional performance of automo-tive lubricant and testing. In this symposium, recent advances in additive and base oil chemistryand function have been covered in details; product formulation for engine performance and thelink between additive chemistry and emissions have been discussed. Tribological performanceissuessuchasfueleconomyretention, wearprotectionandfrictionreductionaswellastheirretentionover drain, enginedurability, andfuturechallenges, includingadvancedpowertraindevelopments, new lubricant test methods outside of the application, lubricant formulations, andcorrelation between lubricant formulation and engine performance are the key subjects.Papers and presentations are targeted to provide a comprehensive overview of various lubricationtest methods for a typical engine system including the oxidation tests for screening antioxidantsand base oils, bench wear tests, engine sequence test development, and oil condition monitoringtechniques, as well as the major technical issues on lubricant degradation and the surface mecha-nisms of ZDDP tribolms interacted with advanced DLC coatings.Several papers describes the low SAP lubricant development and testing, the impact of additiveandbaseoil onengineoil characteristics, thecurrent industrial standardtests methods forlubricant oxidation stability, surface pitting, and alternative engine oil development. Some of thepapers discuss the synergistic effects of lubricant additive formulation and surface coatings whileothers concentratedonthe coverage of various surface engineeringapplicators inpractice.Thisparticularsurfaceengineeringareacontinuestobethemajoractivityofmanyindustrialresearchers.As inthepast ASTMlubricant symposiumlubricant formulationtechnologywas always acritical focus theme. This ASTM symposium was no exception. The diversity demonstrated inthis symposiumexempliedthecritical roleof thelubricant formulationissues whichwasinuenced by recent automotive hardware changes. Papers ranged from a discussion of low SAPlubricants and validation of oxidation stability for factory ll and alternative engine oils used innewautomotiveemissionsystem. Impact of emissionregulations andhardwarechanges onlubricant formulations also was discussed this symposium. In addition, the additive developmentaddressingsurfaceinteractionstudiesbetweenadvancedmaterialsandlubricantsplaysanim-portant role for automotive hardware changes.viiOn the behalf of all editors and chairs, we would like to thank the outstanding contributions fromall authors and speakers in this symposium for making our 1stautomotive lubricant testing andadditive development symposium very successful. Thank you for your participation. We hope wewill organize another symposium in the near future.Dr. Simon TungGeneral MotorsWarren, MIMr. Bernard KinkerRhomax, USAHorsham, PADr. Mathias WoydtBAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and TestingBerlin, GermanyviiiVincent Gatto,1William Moehle,1Emily Schneller,1Thalan Burris,1Tyler Cobb,1and Mark Featherstone1A Review of Engine Oil Oxidation Bench Tests and TheirApplication in the Screening of New Antioxidant Systems forLow Phosphorus Engine OilsABSTRACT: A review of current oxidation and deposit bench tests used for the evaluation of engine oilperformance will be presented. Some of the more meaningful tests will be utilized to evaluate a number ofantioxidant systems for oxidation and deposit control capabilities in engine oils formulated with 470 ppm ofZDDP-derived phosphorus. The antioxidant components are selected from a series of commonly used andcommercially available materials plus one new developmental component. These components include anorgano-molybdenumcompoundMoDTC, analkylateddiphenylamineNDPA, aconventional hinderedphenolicHPE, a high performance hindered phenolicMBDTBP, and a new multi-functional boronatedMBDTBP. The performance of these fully formulated engine oils will be ranked in the selected bench testsin order to highlight the benets of each antioxidant system under evaluation. The results point to signicantbenetswiththemolybdenum- andboronated-systems, or mixedmolybdenum-/boronated-systems, foroxidationcontrol, whilesystemscontainingNDPAandMBDTBParefavoredmorefor deposit control.Unique and superior performing antioxidant systems will be recommended for scree