This annotated bibliography includes summaries of key publications
on “Future Skills” which were selected based on their influence,
their timeliness, and their geographic coverage from our more
extensive list of references. Search our Future Skills Reference
The current list is not exhaustive and will be regularly updated.
Comments and suggestions are welcome.
July 22nd, 2019
Advisory Council on Economic Growth. (2017). Learning nation: Equipping Canada’s workforce with skills
for the future. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada
Arntz, M., Gregory, T., Zierahn, U. (2016). The risk of automation for jobs in OECD countries: A
comparative analysis. Working Paper No. 189. Paris, France: OECD Publishing
Bakhshi, H., Downing, J., Osborne, M., Schneider, P. (2017). The future of skills: Employment in 2030.
London, UK: NESTA. Retrieved from https://media.nesta.org.uk/documents/the_future_of_skills_
Belt, V., Campbell, M., Giles, L. (2010). Skills for jobs: Today and tomorrow. The National Strategic Skills
Audit for England 2010: Volume 2: The Evidence Report. London, UK: UKCES
Berger, T., Frey, C. (2016). Structural transformation in the OECD: Digitalisation, deindustrialisation and
the future of work. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 193. Paris, France: OECD
Breene, K. (2016). What is the future of work? Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum (WEF)
Chandy, L. (2017). The future of work in the developing world: Brookings Blum Roundtable 2016
post-conference report. Washington, DC: Global Economy and Development at Brookings
The Conference Board of Canada. (2019). Building connections: Platforms for the future of education and
skills in Canada. Ottawa, ON: The Conference Board of Canada
Conway, S., Campbell, C., Hardt, R., Loat, A., and Sood, P. (2016). Building the workforce of tomorrow:
A shared responsibility. Toronto, ON. Government of Ontario
Deloitte and Human Resources Professional Association (HRPA). (2017). The intelligence revolution:
Future-proofing Canada’s workforce. Toronto, ON: Deloitte
Dharmaratne, V., Hamel, R., Harrop, D., Lauer, R. Moore, C., Qi, A., Xie, A., and Robertson, W. (2018).
The future of work: Final report. Canada Beyond 150. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada.
Elsheikhi, A., Balliester, T. (2018). The future of work: A literature review. Research Department Working
Paper No. 30. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office
EY. (2017). The upside of disruption: Megatrends shaping 2016 and beyond. New York, NY: EY
Frey, C., Osborne, M. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254-280
Hagel, J., Schwartz, J., and Bersin, J. (2017). Navigating the future of work: Can we point business, workers,
and social institutions in the same direction. Deloitte Review, Issue 21. New York: NY: Deliotte
Hawksworth, J., Berriman, R., and Goel, S. (2018), Will robots really steal our jobs?. UK: PwC
International Labour Organization (ILO). (2019). Global commission on the future of work: Work for a brighter
future. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization (ILO)
Lamb, C. (2016). The talented Mr. Robot: The impact of automation on Canada’s workforce. Toronto, ON:
Brookfield Institute for Innovation + Entrepreneurship
Lewis, P., and Norton, J. (2016). Identification of “hot technologies” within the O*NET® System. Raleigh, NC:
National Center for O*NET Development
Manyika, J., Chui, M., Miremadi, M., Bughin, J., George, K., Willmott, P., and Dewhurst, M. (2017). A future
that works: Automation, employment, and productivity. New York: NY: McKinsey&Company
Manyika, J., Lund, S., Chui, M., Bughin, J., Woetzel, J., Batra, P., Ko, R., Sanghvi, S. (2017). Jobs lost, jobs
gained: Workforce transitions in a time of automation. New York, NY: McKinsey&Company
McGuinness, S., Pouliakas, K., and Redmond, P. (2017). How useful is the concept of skills mismatch?
Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization (ILO)
McKay, C., Pollack, E., and Fitzpayne, A. (2019). Automation and a changing economy - Part 1: The case for
action. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute’s Future of Work Initiative.
McKay, C., Pollack, E., and Fitzpayne, A. (2019). Automation and a changing economy - Part 2: Policies for
shared prosperity. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute’s Future of Work Initiative.
Munro, D. (2019). Skills, training and lifelong learning. Brave New Work: Key Issues Series:1. Ottawa, ON:
Public Policy Forum
New Zealand Productivity Commission (2019). Technological change and the future of work: Issues paper.
Wellington, New Zealand: The New Zealand Productivity Commission
Oschinski, M., Wyonch, R. (2017). Future shock? The impact of automation on Canada’s labour market.
Commentary 472. Toronto, ON: C.D. Howe Institute
Pennington, A. (2019). Workplace policy reform in New Zealand: What are the lessons for Australia?
Canberra, ACT: The Centre for Future Work at the Australia Institute
Policy Horizons Canada. (2019). The future of work: Five game changers. Ottawa, ON: Government of
Royal Bank of Canada (2018). Humans wanted: How Canadian youth can thrive in the age of disruption.
Toronto, ON: Royal Bank of Canada
Schneider, P., Bakhshi, H., and Armstrong, H. (2017). The future of skills: Trends impacting on US and UK
employment in 2030. London, UK: NESTA
Shook, E., Knickrehm, M., and Sage-Gavin, E. (2018). Putting trust to work: Decoding organizational DNA -
Trust, data, and unlocking value in the digital workplace. n.p., USA: Accenture
Styr, C. and Dickerson, D. (2018). Making Room: Reflections on diversity & inclusion in the future of work.
Teaneck, NJ: Cognizant
Tan, C. (2017). Lifelong learning through the SkillsFuture movement in Singapore: Challenges and prospects.
International journal of lifelong education, 36(3), 278-291
White, S., Lacey, A., Ardanaz-Badia, A. (2019). The probability of automation in England: 2011 and 2017.
Newport, UK: Office for National Statistics
World Economic Forum (WEF) and Boston Consulting Group (2018). Eight futures of work: Scenarios and
their implications. White Paper. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum (WEF)
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2016). The future of jobs: Employment, skills and workforce strategy for the
fourth industrial revolution. Global Challenge Insight Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2019). Towards a reskilling revolution: Industry-led action for the future of
work. Centre for New Economy
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2018). The future of jobs report 2018. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic
Wyonch, R. (2018). Risk and readiness: The impact of automation on provincial labour markets. Commentary
499. Toronto, ON: C.D. Howe Institute
Citation Advisory Council on Economic Growth. (2017). Learning nation:
Equipping Canada’s workforce with skills for the future. Ottawa,
ON. Government of Canada.
Summary This report reviews the findings of a number of other key
reports on the future of work and applies their approaches to
the Canadian context in order to describe the future of work
in Canada. The report identifies a number of technological
drivers of these changes, including artificial intelligence.
Based on this analysis, the authors suggest that as many as 2
million Canadians could lose their jobs by 2030. Critically, they
also argue that these new developments can produce new
opportunities as well as losses and highlight the key changes
that must be made in order for Canadians to take advantage of
these opportunities. Specifically, the report recommends that
a third pillar be added to Canada’s existing skills development
infrastructure. This third pillar, which would complement
Canada’s traditional education and its system for supporting
workers who leave the workforce, would support working
adults by focusing on adult skills training. This third pillar could
include a number of new initiatives, such as the development
of a Skills Plan for Working Canadians to guide governmental
action. The authors argue that any such skills plan should
focus on  convening a broad conversation and national
commitment to adult skills training;  ensuring a joint effort
by all orders of government;  testing and scaling innovative
and agile programs;  prioritize areas of greatest need, such
as among low-income Canadians;  specifically tailor its
programs for adult learners;  providing seamless access that
is easy and simple for workers. The report also recommends
the establishment of a Lifelong Learning Fund to incentivize
individuals and employers to increase their investments in
skills development, and action by the federal and provincial