ankit mpob

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob








    Submitted to: - Mr. VIKRAM KATYAL Submitted By:-


    Reg. No.:-11006061

    Roll no.:- B49

    Section: - S1002

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob









    7.Organizational Culture And its effect on working style




    10. REFRENCE

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob



    The project is an illuminating journey to the world ofMANAGEMENT PRACTIES AND ORGANISATION

    BEHAVIOUR. co-operation and co-ordination of various people

    is involved in the formation of a project. It is impossible to thank

    each of them individually, but I am making a humble effort

    thank some of them.

    First of all I want to thank my lecturerMr. VIKRAM KATYAL forassigning me such a great project. He not only assigned me a

    responsible role in the project but also showed confidence in

    me throughout the project.

    With my immense reverence I express my sincere thanks to

    Mrs. Rashmi Mittal, Dean Executive of Lovely Professional

    University for giving all of us the best possible support.


  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob



    This is to certify that ANKIT SINGH. is a bonafide student of 1st

    semester of MBA, SECTION-S1002, ROLL NO.-B49 at


    He had undertaken the preparation of the term paper


    This student has been sincere and methodical in the

    development of the project with outstanding merit.


    (Lecturer- MPOB)

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob



    Every Organization has a culture. It has its own cultural forms that

    constitute the expected, supported and accepted way of behaving.

    These norms are mostly unwritten and tell employees the way things

    really are. These influence everyone's perception of the business from

    the chief executive to the lowest rank. Employees from all cadres of

    any organization contribute to the success or failure of the

    organization, to the norms by accepting and supporting them. Recent

    research illuminates the important contribution of organizational

    culture and market orientation to organizational effectiveness. In an

    attempt to increase the conceptual and empirical body of knowledge,

    explores the links between organizational culture, market orientation,

    and marketing effectiveness in the context of strategic marketing

    alliances. Analyzes responses to self-administered questionnaires

    returned by 128 such organizations. The findings suggest that

    organizational culture significantly affects marketing effectiveness,

    although the individual dimensions of organizational culture have

    varying degrees of influence upon the dimensions of marketing

    effectiveness. Among mechanistic or non-adaptive cultural

    dimensions, increased internal culture enhances an internal market

    effectiveness dimension, whereas increased external culture enhances

    an external market effectiveness dimension. This internal/external

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    alignment is not found for the organic or adaptive cultural

    dimensions. This same internal/external alignment is found, however,

    when examining the relationship between market orientation and

    market effectiveness. Internal aspects of market orientation enhance

    an internal market effectiveness dimension, whereas increased

    external orientation enhances an external market effectiveness

    dimension. In the constantly changing business scenario of tough

    competition, economic threats, frequent downsizing and technological

    changes have brought in significant changes not only in the workplace

    but also in the decline of employee morale. The wide job

    opportunities and the increasing war for talent have made companies

    retain their talented employees at any cost by boosting their morale

    through innovative ways as todays employees are no longer attracted

    by the pay or benefits as an inspiring and enthusiastic environment

    that promotes good employee relations, fair treatment and recognition

    for achievement. Companies having high or positive employee morale

    supersede the average companies in terms of increased employee

    retention level, quality products, organizational productivity and the

    companys profits.

    Employee morale is the spirit, enthusiasm, confidence/self-reliance/

    self-esteem of an individual or groups as revealed by their willingness

    to perform assigned tasks, to be engaged, be inspired and render good

    performance. An organizational environment that promotes high

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    employee morale increasingly reaps multifarious benefits of gaining

    motivated employees and a unified workforce that help in the quicker

    achievement of the organizational mission. Besides, it increases the

    creativity and willingness to learn and share knowledge among the

    employees, improves employee and customer engagement, job

    performance, commitment, loyalty and develops among the

    employees a feeling of trust in their leaders and a sense of pride in

    their job. Hence, the significance of instilling and maintaining

    employee morale is highly crucial in todays business as it helps

    retain talent and reduce attrition that has an impact upon the

    companys bottom line and ROI.

    To make an employee have high morale and be enthusiastic about

    his/her job, managers have to set meaningful goals, be fair in praise

    and criticism, install recognition programs, provide unbiased

    feedback, avoid high promises etc. Such a strategy will inspire the

    employees to render optimal performance in the workplace. The facts

    that matter for an employee to work in a high morale organization are

    fair treatment, a sense of achievement in work and feeling proud

    about their employers and good employee relations. Even if one of the

    above factors is missing, the employees are three times less

    enthusiastic and more unproductive than the employees who work in

    firms where all the factors are present. Besides, demoralized

    employees cause increased cost/expense to the company by their

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    indifference to work, absenteeism, work disengagement and negative

    attitudes that spur conflict and confusion in the management. Such

    effects get reflected in the market share and the company also suffers

    from negative image and reputation in the marketplace. Hence, good

    people practices by the company are vital in creating a competitive

    advantage to be a great place to work for.


    The primary strategy of an organization is the maintenance of its

    cultural identity in terms of prevailing values. A virtuous circle from

    the collective experience of success through stabilized values to

    cohesion and efficiency sustains the continuity of culture. But if the

    alternatives allowed for by the culture are unsuited to new problems,

    then the virtuous circle becomes a vicious circle impeding change.

    The result may be apparent cultural change, cultural revolution or

    cultural incrementalism.

    Significant research has focused on the market orientation concept

    and its antecedents in recent years. Nevertheless, the market

    orientation research provides little information concerning the effects

    of national cultural values on the market orientation of companies.

    The conceptual framework presented in this manuscript contributes to

    the extant literature in international business by investigating the role

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    of national cultural values as factors that shape and modify an

    organization's market orientation through its organizational culture.

    Specifically, using Schwartz's cultural value dimensions, the authors

    present a set of propositions regarding the effects of national culture

    on the internalization of market-oriented values and norms, which in

    turn positively affect the implementation of market-oriented


    Stanley Davis commented on this concept as follows: corporate

    culture is the pattern of shared beliefs and values that give the

    member of an institution meaning and provide them with the rules for

    behaviour in their organization.

    Campbell, Dunnelte and Lawler have commented that organizational

    culture is concerned with how employees perceive the six basic

    characteristics such as individual, autonomy, structure, reward,

    consideration and conflict.

    Every organization will have its own word to describe what it mean

    by culture, Some of them are core, ethos, ideology, manner, patterns,

    philosophy, purpose, roots, style, vision and way.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob



    Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by

    members that distinguishes the organization from other organization.

    This system of shared meaning is on closer examination, a set of key

    characteristics that the organization values. The researchers suggest

    that there are seven primary characteristics that in aggregate, capture

    the essence of an organization culture.

    1.Innovation and risk taking:- the degree to which encourage to

    be motivated, innovative and take risk.

    2.Attention to detail:- the degree to which employees expected

    to be exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.

    3.Outcome orientation:- the degree to which management focus

    on result or outcomes rather than on the techniques and

    processes used to achieve those outcomes.

    4.People orientation:- the degree to which the management

    decision take into consideration the effects of outcomes on

    people with in the organization.

    5.Team orientation:- the degree to which the work activities are

    organized around teams rather than individuals.

    6.Aggressiveness:- the degree to which the people are aggressive

    and competitive rather than easygoing.

    7. Stability:- the degree to which the organization activities

    emphasize maintaining the status of the employees.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob



    A growing organization cannot neglect its human side. Employees are

    the real fortune makers who make the organization a strong and

    growing unit. It becomes necessary for management to nurture the

    spirit of oneness and to develop an organizational entity.

    Organizational culture performs four different types of functions.

    (i) The fooling of Organizational identify

    No Organization can grow without strong commitment of its

    employees to the cause of organization. Organizational culture has its

    own ability to attract develop and keep talented people.

    (ii) Collective Commitment

    Organizational development is the result of group efforts. Culture is

    that invisible bond of emotions and feeling that ties employees at

    various levels to develop collective commitment.

    (iii) Socialization of Members

    The organizational culture develops uniform system of promotions,

    remuneration and behaviour patterns which can socialize the

    employees without any group conflicts and ideological clashes.

    (iv) Desired Behavioural Pattern

    The employees must understand their surroundings; they should learn

    to behave according to basic philosophy of business. No organization

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    can succeed for a long if it has not given proper understanding of its

    surroundings to its employees.

    Creating A Positive organizational culture:-

    Its often difficult to separate management fads from lasting changes

    in management thinking, especially early. There is one early trend,

    though, that we think is here to stay: creating a positive organizational


    Creating a positive culture may surround hopelessly nave, or likely a

    deliberate style conspiracy. The one thing that makes us believe this

    trend is here to stay is that there are signs that management practice

    and OB research are converging.

    A positive organizational culture is a cultare is defined as a culture

    that emphasise building on employee strength, rewards more than itpunishes, and emphasise individual validity and growrh.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    Organizational Culture And its effect on working style

    Based on principle of individualization, every individual is unique;

    every organization is constituted by different combinations of

    individuals. This helped to create the idea of different organizational

    cultures. The book 'Organizational Culture and Employee's Morale' is

    an outcome of the research conducted by the author in leading banks

    and throws light on the impact of Organizational Culture on morale of

    employees and directs to study relationship between them.

    About Author:

    Dr. Harinder Biro Kaur Post Graduate in Social Work and Doctorate

    in Organizational Behavior from Punjab School of Management

    studies. She has also done Diploma in Training and Development

    from Indian Society of Training and Development, New Delhi s an

    additional qualification. As far as her achievements are concerned,she had Gold Medal in M.A. (Social work) for standing first in

    Kurukshetra University in the year 1991, Major Sat Prakash Verama

    Gold Medal for standing first in faculty of Social Sciences in

    Kurukshetra University in the year 1991, Silver Medal in Diploma in

    Training and Development, New Delhi.

    Contents :Preface Introduction and Concept Researches in Organizational

    Culture and Employee Morale Objectives and Dimensions of

    Organizational Culture and Employee Morale Organizational Culture-

    An Analysis and Interpretation Employee Morale-An Analysis and

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    Interpretation Organizational Culture and Employee's Morale-A

    Study of Relationship Improvement in Organizational Culture and

    Employee. Employee morale is the relationship that a particularemployee or a group of employees have with their work and the

    organization they work for. High employee morale means that

    employees are happy, and this is reflective in the kind of work they

    produce. On the other hand, low employee morale results in less

    productivity and pessimism among employees. It is important for

    every organization to continually keep employee morale high.


    Employee morale is part of workplace culture and it is important in

    the company. When workers are happy, they tend to be more efficient

    because they enjoy their work. It is important that employees don't

    feel overworked and burdened by their job. Employee morale gauges

    organizational culture and how employers' treatment of their

    employees impact how the employee thinks about the organization as

    a whole.


    First and foremost, better communication improves employee morale.

    Encouraging employees to reason better and communicate their ideas

    effectively will result in better understanding of each other. This also

    develops leadership in employees and teaches them how to be

    assertive. Regular evaluation also helps keep things in check. Top

    management should make it a point to talk sincerely to their

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    employees and staff and build a solution to resolve any issues present.

    Managers should make any expectations known.


    High employee morale results in a highly effective team. A nurturing

    and supportive environment helps employees do their best work and

    share ideas without fear of being ostracized and ridiculed. High

    morale is also an indication of job satisfaction, which helps

    organizations keep employees. Employees are also more aware of

    their environment and will be more forward in asking for help and

    support, thus resolving issues because they get worse.


    The human resources department of a company gauges employee

    morale and participates in activities and events that would help boost

    employee morale. Team-building exercises are particularly important,because when employees are working in harmony, they tend to help

    each other, thus collectively relieving the amount of work that needs

    to be done for the company.

    Expert Insight

    One of the best ways to boost employee morale is to reward hardwork. An employee may sometimes feel burdened by the amount of

    work that needs to get done and could start thinking about the value of

    the work versus the amount of pay he receives. By recognizing thehard work of an individual, employees are more likely to want to

    show their skills and contribute more because they know they are

    appreciated. Recognition, not just monetary compensation, is an

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    incentive that will keep an employee setting higher standards and

    doing more in his job



    The nature of corporate culture that exists in a company is going to

    decide the degree to which the desired results from the employees are

    obtained. Cultural analysis brings to centre stage a rich vein of

    behaviours and stands on its head much

    of the conventional wisdom about organizations. Stories, legends,

    rituals and heroes are key

    elements of organizational functioning and may actually serve more

    important objectives than

    formal decision making. We need to consider in more depth the

    different ways in which

    culture has been used in organization study. Wilson and Rosenfield

    (1990) distinguish two

    schools of thought:

    1. The analytical school stresses the context and history of the

    organization and how culture

    acts as a socializing force controlling the behaviour of members.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    2. The applicable school view culture in terms of obligation to central

    goals and as a

    means of managing successful organizational change. The common

    perceptions of the individual members about the organisation

    determines the types of the Organizational culture, individuals with

    realm of universal truths and are broad enough to accommodate any

    variety of circumstance.

    An organisation culture consists of two primary components.

    (i) The primary value of the organization and

    (ii) The existing management style and systems.

    Employee Morale is a very complex phenomenon and is

    influenced by many factors on the shop floor. Several criteria

    seem important in the determinants of levels of workers Morale

    such as:

    1. Objectives of the organization: Employees are highly motivated

    and their Morale is highly if their individual goal and objectives are in

    tune with organizational goal and objectives.

    2. Organizational design: Organization structure has an impact on the

    quality of labour relation, particularly on the level of Morale. Large

    organization tend to lengthen their channels of vertical

    communication and to increase the difficulty of upward

    communication. Therefore the Morale tends to be lower. Against this

    flat structure increases levels of Morale.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    3. Personal Factors: It is relating to age, training, education and

    intelligence of the employees, time spent by them on the job and

    interest in worth taken by them, affect the Morale of the employees.

    For examples if an employees is not imparted proper training he will

    have low Morale.

    4. Rewards: Employees expect adequate compensation for their

    services rendered to the organization. Good system of wages, salaries,

    promotions and other incentives keep the Morale of the employees


    5. Good Leadership and Supervision: The nature of supervision can

    tell the attitudes of employees because a supervisor is in direct contact

    with the employers and can have better influences on the activities of

    the employees.

    6. Work Environment: The building and it appearance the condition

    of machines, tools, available at work place provision for safety,

    medical aid and repairs to machinery etc. all have an impact on their


    7. Compatibility with fellow employees: Man being a social animal

    finds his words more satisfying if he feels that he has the acceptance

    and companionship of his fellow workers. If he has confidence in his

    fellow worker and faith in their loyalty his Morale will be high.

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    8. Job Satisfaction: If the job gives an employee an opportunity to

    prove his talents and grow personality, he will certify like it and he

    will have high morale.

    9. Opportunity to share profit: one of the requirements of high morale

    is possibility and opportunity of progress in any concern. All worker

    should be given an opportunity of the progress and earn high wages

    without any discrimination.

    These two components significantly determine the degree to which

    the desired result from the employees is obtained. The value system

    to which the employees support directly or indirectly or by their

    behaviour indicates the direction in which organizations are likely to

    move in the future. A strong culture is a powerful lover for guiding

    behaviour. It helps the employees to do their job better.

    The essence of the organizational culture can be stated in its five

    characteristics namely.

    (i) Individual autonomy

    (ii) Organizational Structure

    (iii) Reward organisation

    (iv) Consideration and

    (v) Conflict

    Organizationals culture is concerned with how employees perceive

    each of the five characteristics slated above whether it may be

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    positive or negative. An effective culture is a system of informal

    rules that spell out how employees are behaving most of the time. It

    also enables people to feel better about what they do, so they are more

    likely to work harder. It provides a sense of common direction and

    guidelines for day to day behaviours.


    Culture helps the organization to accomplish what it desires to

    achieve. The corporate culture as a management programme has

    great motivating impact to motivate employees to improve their own

    and organizational performance.

    Morale is psychological concept. Morale is not a cause but rather the

    effect or result of many going awry. Morale drifters from person to

    person, industry to industry, level of education age, nature of work

    etc. Morale may be range from very high to very low.

    By this study it is clear that various faction which influences morale

    and productivity of the employees each as Social Security measures,

    welfare facilities, salary status, Bonus, heath condition, shift system

    and recognition of work are getting much importance.

    To conclude employee morale plays very important role in every

    organization. Good employee morale helps to success of the

    organization. Unless an employee has poor morale if always a

  • 8/3/2019 ankit mpob


    possibility of employee disharmony and also affect smooth running of

    the organization.

    Improving employee morale and motivation is a critical concern for

    managers in order to increase productivity. This paper discusses

    employee morale and motivation, including a review of literature

    describing views on extrinsic versus intrinsic motivators and some of

    the debates regarding motivation in general. The paper closes with a

    classification of methods for managers on improving employee

    morale and motivation in five categories: monetary rewards; work-life

    balance; career-oriented benefits; entertainment; and status enhancing.



    2.Source: Corporate Social Responsibility Survey 2002 India

    (United Nations Development Programme, British Council, CII,