AN EXPERIMENT IN HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM
The experiment in reconstruction here recorded was made in Barrs Hill Girls Grammar School, Coventry, between the years 1934 and 1948. During these years, we, the two history teachers, followed a wide school syllabus with text-books, library books, tests, mapwork, essays and external examina- tions. But we felt that a more imaginative approach was necessary to demonstrate that history is the story of real people, individuals with problems which do not always find much space in text-books. An approach through some form of play-acting seemed natural ; costumes and acting help to re-create the past, unusual words are so much easier to under- stand if they are actually used in speech, and there is a fascina- tion in using the very words uttered on some historic or special occasion. We found, however, that published books of history plays did not meet our demand. These plays often contain an extraneous vein of comedy or love interest, as though ordinary routine or extraordinary incidents were not in themselves exciting enough. As plays, they .often sacrificed historical accuracy to dramatic necessities. The spontaneous turning of a lesson into a play-acting scene, a method all teachers must use at times, was not enough. If done too much, this makes the pupil disinclined to tackle stiff learning. We wanted to re- produce scenes from the past, using where possible the actual words spoken or symbols used and demonstrating the inherent interest of such episodes. We wanted to reproduce in slow motion some event which, though mentioned only briefly in the text-book, had given rise to questions and comments in class. This reproduction would not be planned ahead, but would arise from our own lessons and would be prepared by all of us, teachers and taught. During the preparation we were all seekers for historical knowledge. Our usual school course was full of opportunities for this treatment.
To illustrate this method we have mentioned five examples, in which the method of preparation and presentation varied according to the age of the form and the nature of the subject. The titles are :-
A Manorial Court of the Middle Ages ;
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Coventry City Council in Tudor times and at the present day; The Early Growth of Coventry ; Three famous Trials of the French Revolution ; Extracts from Debates leading to the Repeal of the Corn Laws ;
Some of these were exercises based on sixth form studies by girls taking the Higher School Certificate examination. The others were arranged with second year forms.
* * * * ' A Manorial Court of the Middle Ages ' was based on the
history lessons of two terms and the incidents were put into dramatic shape in four scenes as the subjects arose during the lessons. It was performed by the whole form, a second year one, average age 12 years. The theme developed after explana- tions had been given of the nature of the manor and the meaning of such terms as tithing, freeholder, fealty, heriot and serfdom, attached, respite and jury. Examples of the various forms of trials for offences had been discussed. The first two court scenes are supposed to occur consecutively in the thirteenth centufy and afford an opportunity for the bailiff to follow up, at the second court, judgments given at the first one. The names of persons and places are actual thirteenth- century names.
IA. EXTRACT FROM PROCEEDINGS IN A MANORIAL COURT IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
Bailif: William of the Water is attached because he dug white earth in the way between Keresley and Foleshill to the hurt of his neighbours at Keresley.
(Clerk calls William forward.) Stmard: William, is this true ? William: It is not true. I ask that an enquiry be made. Steward: Let an enquiry be made and William shall be in
respite until the next Court.
IB. EXTRACT FROM PROCEEDINGS IN THE SECOND COURT IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
Beadle: Silence. Oyez, oyez, oyez. All who have business with the Lord of the Manor draw near.
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Richard of the Well: William of the Water has broken his leg and is unable to come.
Bai lg : William of the Water is in respite from the last Court while an enquiry is being made into the digging of white earth.
Richard of the Well: I represent William. Steward: Has the enquiry been made ? Leader of the Jury: We find that the digging caused grievous
hurt to Williams neighbours. Their land was damaged and their pasture ruined.
Steward: William shall restore the ground and pay a fine of four pence.
[NOTE. We do not know what the white earth was or why William dug it. But suggestions led to profitable discussions about the work of the potter and the fuller.]
The last two courts are supposed to be held in the fourteenth century. The earlier one before the Black Death showed the the thange in status of the villein, commutation and the movement to the town. The later one, after the Black Death, is concerned with the depopulation in the village and the search for villeins.
11. EXTRACT FROM PROCEEDINGS IN A MANORIAL COURT IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY-THE SECOND COURT
Bailif: Edmund Banty who held half a messuage of land is dead. There comes Margery, his wife, to take these tenements and there falls to the lord a heriot, value two shillings.
Steward: Margery, do you take the lands for the term of your life, according to the custom of the Manor and with the services due ?
Margery: I cannot pay the heriot. All my cattle have died and I have nothing to give.
(Steward consults with Bailiff.) Steward: Remembering the calamity of the Plague, I will
(Bailiff calls Margery forward. Margery receives from Steward a white wand, kneels and places her hands between the Stewards hands.)
release you from the heriot.
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Margery: So help me God and all His Saints, I swear from this day forth to be true and faithful to the Lord Mountjoy and to owe fealty for the land I hold of him. I do become his man from this day forth of life and limb and earthly honour.
The teacher used the standard works on the English manorial system. There are many printed texts of manorial rolls and records to be consulted in the Historical Association Library. The girls used the Quennell History of Everyday Things, and many illustrated history books for children were in the form library ; these provided a guide for costumes and setting. The girls managed the costumes themselves with the aid of the school property box. Usually the best speakers took important parts and the other parts were taken in any order, e.g., as the girls sat in class. There was constant action and though there were many speeches there were also some periods of silent ceremonial which were very impressive. The production took place on the floor of the school hall, as it was not intended that it should be regarded as a stage performance. The beadle and bailiff stood on a higher level than the body of the court and remained standing during the proceedings, representing the dominance of law and order in the court. Any audience there might be (and the scenes were not produced primarily for an audience) had to get in where it could, e.g. on the smaller hall platform. The teacher wrote and assigned the parts. The speeches were not necessarily learnt by heart though most of the speakers preferred to commit their parts to memory. As f a r as possible the traditional form of the court phrasing was used. But, of course, there had to be some adaptation of speech and incident. It will easily be seen that there is plenty of work, sometimes dificult investigation, sometimes mere copying behind an apparently simple reconstruction. The work was a co-operative one and was usually fluid until the day of production. It was indeed never written as a complete text until after it had been performed.
* * * * The Tudor city council scene arose out of the sixth-form
lessons on Tudor local government. The Coventry Leet Book in the edition prepared by Mary Dormer Harris was used to provide episodes and actual names. Frederick SmithsSix Hundred Years
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of Municipal Life, and many other books on local history were consulted. The twentieth-century city council scene, which formed the second part of this section, was based on visits to the Coventry council chamber when the aldermen and councillors were in session. The girls also used a copy of the minute book of the city council and some published correspondence between the council and the ministry of labour. The minutes were carefully studied for present-day reference to matters mentioned in the Tudor council scene and this provided a continuity of theme and an illustration of the change of social pattern during four centuries.The girl who took the part of the mayor in both scenes was specially interested in this aspect ; some girls were able to do some research in Coventry records themselves. Gradually the reconstruction was evolved, not in one consecutive writing, but in sections. Each girl was responsible for the words of her own part. A few minutes in class were devoted to piecing together the sections, but most of it was done out of class. Some of the sixth-formers not in the history sixth were willing to be extras in the scenes. Some speeches on non-controversial topics were invented by the girls to replace others which dealt with matters still awaiting legal decisions. As in the manorial court scenes both parts were performed in costume on the floor of the school hall. Speeches were not learnt by heart. Costumes of the Tudor period were difficult to collect and only the chief speakers could aspire to any correctness of detail. But the general effect was useful and in this section costume seemed to matter less than usual. It was easy enough to imitate the tradi- tional setting of the modem meeting and to illustrate the swiftly moving nature of part of the modem councils work in public, e.g. the quick turning over of pages of reports which the members had received in advance. An extract from each of these Scenes follows: the names of persons are actual ones taken from the Coventry Leet Book. They are seen again in their modem form in the twentiethcentury scene. The place n b e s are also r e d and the matter of the conduit a real issue.
I. EXTRACT FROM PROCEEDINGS OF THE COVENTRY CITY COUNCIL IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Will Joynour-Mayor. Tho. Gardner, Cuth. Joynour, Chr. Warden, Joh. Saunders, Hen. Over, Joh. Tallents, Jac. Rogers, Tho. Kevet, Will.
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Saunders, Ric. Nickeyn, Edw. Damport, Ric. Hurte, Ric. Ley, Will. Norton, Tho. Amorsam, Will. Beylie, Rob. Colman, Joh. Thompson, Hugo Harvey, Tho. Saunders, Hen. Deves, Hen. Collins, Joh. Bollet, Ric. Warren, Hen. Lyngham, Tho. Taylor. Warden John Saunders: Master Mayor, be it known to you
that I have examined the conduit and declare that repairs must be made, as well that divers people have offended contrary to the permission and have made openings into the said conduit. It is well known to you that there was great scarcity of water in the city before the feast of St. John, and many persons have broken the regulations forbidding them to use water from the conduit for brewing ale.
(Consultation follows.) Mayor: Master Saunders, you have done well to bring this
matter to our notice. For the repairing of the conduit, every person inhabiting within the wards of Cross Cheaping, Smythford, Broadgate, Spon Street, Earl Street, and Bailey Lane, shall pay quarterly towards the reparation of the conduit. You,'Thomas Gardner for Cross Cheaping
Henry Over for Smythford Will. Saunders for Broadgate Richard Hurte for Spon Street Robert Colman for Earl Street Henry Collins for Bailey Lane shall collect the rate ;
one penny for everyone having and opening a hall door, and halfpenny for every shop or cottage. In addition, all manner of persons, having grounds adjoining to the River Sherborne, shall see that they cast not any 61th or muck in the said river, and that they cleanse the river before the feast of St. Martyn next coming, upon pain of fine paid to the common sergeant.
Will. Norton : Master Mayor, it is good that you have spoken of the rivers and conduit of our city, but there be some'ill disposed persons who care not for the beauty of our streets. They have cast filth and dung into Cheylesmore Court itself and about the churchyards of St. Michael and Trinity.
&vet: Moreover the Redditch is filthy and choked with muck and inhabitants of Cross Cheaping have not only laid dung
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and other filth high into the cross, to the great incommoding of the market and danger of the plague but have swept up the pavement there, thus raising the dirt and defacing the said cross.
Mayw: This cannot be. Let it be ordained that no man shall lay filth at the cross, nor shall at any time the pavement be swept, except they do sprinkle water upon the said pavement, upon default to the Common Sergeant and the Crier.
Collins: It was ordained in the days of our forefathers that a cart should carry weekly the filth away. Let the aldermen see to it each in his own ward that the carter does his work and collects the rent for it quarterly.
Mayor: Common Sergeant, you shall inspect the pavement every Saturday, and see that they have been swept, and that the dirt has been cleared away.
11. EXTRACT FROM MEETING OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF COVENTRY IN THE 1940s
(All rise as Mayor enters preceded by Mace and Sword Bearers.) Clerk: You are hereby summoned to attend a meeting of the
Council of the City of Coventry at the Council House in the said city on Tuesday next the 7th January at 7 oclock in the evening to take into consideration the following matters and to make such orders and adopt such proceedings as may be deemed expedient.
Mayor: Waterworks and Fire Brigade Committee. Minutes for confirmation, pages 30, 31. Those in favour. Any against ? Camed. Section 2, pages 31-35. Any questions ? Health Committee. Minutes for confirmation, pages 35-38. Yes, Councillor Rogers ?
Rogers: I wish to refer back a resolution that an allowance should be made to private persons who wish to change their grates for smokeless type. The City Architect has said that in his opinion the smoke pollution in the centre of the city is due to domestic chimneys not factory. That may be so but if private persons had their chimneys swept regularly the smoke pollution would not happen. Why should these people who wont have a sweep receive an allowance to enable them to change their grate ?
(Some interchange of remarks.)
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Mayor: Those in favour of the reference back of this minute. Any against? Lost. Those in favour of confirming the minutes ? Any against ? Carried. General Works Committee, Minutes to be confirmed, pages 53-57. Those in favour ? Any against ? Carried. Section 2, pages 57-63. Any questions ? Yes, Alderman Amorsam ?
Amursam: It is most unfair to expect citizens to clear the snow from their pavements when-
Mayor: Question-Alderman. Amorsam: What steps are the Council taking to see that the
streets are not choked with snow as they were last year? Chairman Bailey: The Council is in consultation with experts
and examining the recent experiments in snow removal. Taylor: Alderman Amorsam has spoken of snow removal. The
resolution on page 61 states that the refuse is collected every fourteen days. Cant the Council do any better than that ? Even in Tudor days the refuse cart collected every week.
Chairman Bailey: Owing to the shortage of dustmen and dust carts it is impossible to collect more often.
Mayor : Watch Committee. Minutes to be confirmed, pages 64-65. Those in favour ? Against ? Carried. Section 2, pages 65-68. Any questions ?
[NOTE. A years work of the modem City Council as recorded in the Minute Book was examined to find examples analagous to those recorded in the Leet Book.]
* * * * The Early Growth of Coventry had a different principle
and method. It was the work of a junior form and a much simpler production; not so much a reproduction of words once used and of scenes that once took place, but rather a practical demonstration of the building of the city. This piece of work appealed to those who like making models and to those who learn easily from models. There was no dialogue. A few characters briefly explained the plans and models. The city records used were not written documents, except the Domesday Book passage, but old maps and plans. Similar work could be done for many cities, towns or villages.
Four large plans were constructed and completed in sequence over a course of lessons. The first was of Coventry in early Saxon times, the second 200 years later, the third after the Conquest,
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and the last 200 years later. The plans were on white paper on a firm background and were laid on tables. The girls coloured them to show rivers, ponds, woods and arable land. Match-box models of cottages, the manor-house and the nunnery were made by the girls. When all was complete the class gathered round the plan, and the speaker, in this case a Saxon, made a little speech, pointing to the various buildings or areas as he mentioned them.
EXTRACTS FROM COVENTRY IN SAXON TIMES , ETC. Saxon Speaker: I live in the village of Cofantreo. Our houses
are close together on the top of the hill because it is marshy in the valley. We may fish from our coracles in the lake and from the banks of the Sherborne, but we generally live on porridge made from dried peas or beans, with bread and green cheese. The second plan in this series is the same size but there are
changes ; more houses etc. The new speaker begins : We have drained the lake and made a ford across the river so that we can go to the hill on the other side. Our lord is Leofric, the earl of Mercia and his lady is the Lady Godiva. They are a good master and mistress and the tolls are light. A Benedictine monk then puts a model of the abbey in position and describes its features, pointing to each important detail in turn.
In the third plan, showing Coventry after the Conquest, the whole plan is laid out except for the models of the two churches. The new speaker then puts these in place. A castle takes the site of the Manor House, a mill is added and a park laid out where once there was a field. EXT~ACT : We have a new Master, My Lord the Earl of
Chester, a Norman. The Earl and Countess were buried beneath the Abbey porch and the Normans have pulled down the Manor House and built a castle on the hill. We have two churches made in the new fashion by our masters ; one in the Monastery grounds for the Priors men and one near the Castle for the Earls men. On the last plan, much is added by the speakers, including
the City Wall and some gates. EXTRACT: Mary Botoner: There were four of us in our
family ; two brothers, William and Adam, and my sister Ann
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and myself. Our two brothers were both Mayors three times and gave money to build this new tower of St. Michaels. My sister and I are giving money to build the spire.
Burgher: Others gave land and money to build friaries for the Greyfriars and the Whitefriars. The King is our master now and his mother, Queen Isabella, has given the land Bablake and the money to found the church of St. John. She and our Lord Edward the Black Prince have lived for some time in the new Manor House. It was she who begged the King to grant us in our great Charter the right to choose our own Mayor and to judge in our own Courts. We have our Coat of Arms : Elephant, Castle and Wild Cat. We have our own fair and we are one of the six largest cities in the kingdom. We lack one thing ; the means to protect ourselves. The plans were destroyed at the end of the course though
manv of the makers kept the little model houses and other buildings.
* * * * The French Revolution trials and the debates leading to
the repeal of the Corn Laws are further examples of this reconstruction method being used in detailed work in the sixth. As the accounts of the trials and the records of the parliamentary debates are accessible, the work was chiefly one of selection. In a sixth-form lesson on the usual lines the teacher might trace the development of the idea of Free Trade, the changing views of Peel and the attacks of Disraeli. In this reconstruction the class is showing the changes, not listening to someone else giving an explanation. These productions were long and detailed. Arguments were taken verbatim from the speeches of Peel and Disraeli and reference was made to the usual biographies, e.g. Monypenny and Buckles Life of Disraeli. Placards were used in the Corn Law Debates scenes to show the stages, February 1842, May 1842,1844,1845,1846. Costumes were easily imitated and the dialogue was full of human interest and learned references. The enthusiasm aroused by some of the speeches was a tribute to the eloquence of the statesmen of the 1840s. In the French Revolutionary trials, there were three scenes from the trial of Louis XVI, one from that of Charlotte Corday and one from that of Madame Du Barry. A recorder was chosen to give a summary of the
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history of the Revolution up to the opening of these trials. The dialogues were imaginary, written after standard accounts of the trials had been read. Some translations from the French had to be made and these were awkward in places. But the trial scenes are dramatic in their nature and the speakers threw themselves into attack or defence by choice and with vigour. In the last two examples the girls made up many of their own speeches, given the theme and the sources.
To a generation which has grown accustomed to very good radio school and other broadcasts, this method may not seem anything unusual. Our reconstructions differ, however, from the broadcasts in that they arise out of the lessons and are the work of pupils themselves. We were moved by Dr. Happolds plea for some training in historical method. We attempted to maintain in a municipal grammar school a scholarly standard of learning and at the same time introduce a more joyous participation by the pupils.
L. M. SMITH^ M. K. SCHOLES~
1 Miss L. M. Smith, B.A., was history mistress at Barrs Hill Girls Grammar
Miss M. K. Scholes. M.A., was senior history mistress at Barrs Hill School, Coventry, (193148) and is now senior history mistress there.
Girls Grammar School, (191348).