Amphibian Conservation - University of Neuchأ¢tel This should be quoted as Smith, R.K. and Sutherland,

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  • Amphibian Conservation Evidence for the effects of interventions

    Rebecca K. Smith & William J. Sutherland

    SYNOPSES OF CONSERVATION EVIDENCE SERIES

  • Amphibian Conservation

    Global evidence for the effects of interventions

    Rebecca K. Smith and William J. Sutherland

    Synopses of Conservation Evidence, Volume 4

    Pelagic Publishing | www.pelagicpublishing.com

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    Copyright © 2014 William J. Sutherland

    This should be quoted as Smith, R.K. and Sutherland, W.J. (2014) Amphibian conservation: Global evidence for the effects of interventions. Exeter, Pelagic Publishing.

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    Contents 1. About this book ................................................................. 10 2. Threat: Residential and commercial development ............. 17

    Key messages ................................................................................................................ 17 2.1. Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites ................................................... 17 2.2. Restrict herbicide, fungicide and pesticide use on and around ponds on golf courses ................................................................................................................. 17 2.3. Legal protection of species ........................................................................ 18

    3. Threat: Agriculture ............................................................ 20 Key messages – engage farmers and other volunteers ................................................ 20 Key messages – terrestrial habitat management ......................................................... 20 Key messages – aquatic habitat management ............................................................. 21 Engage farmers and other volunteers .......................................................................... 21

    3.1. Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures ....................... 21 3.2. Engage landowners and other volunteers to manage land for amphibians23

    Terrestrial habitat management .................................................................................. 26 3.3. Manage cutting regime ............................................................................. 26 3.4. Manage grazing regime ............................................................................. 26 3.5. Reduce tillage ............................................................................................ 29 3.6. Maintain or restore hedges ....................................................................... 29 3.7. Plant new hedges....................................................................................... 29 3.8. Manage silviculture practices in plantations ............................................. 30

    Aquatic habitat management ....................................................................................... 30 3.9. Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs by fencing ................................... 30 3.10. Manage ditches ...................................................................................... 32

    4. Threat: Energy production and mining ............................... 34 Key messages ................................................................................................................ 34

    4.1. Artificially mist habitat to keep it damp .................................................... 34 5. Threat: Transportation and service corridors ..................... 35

    Key messages ................................................................................................................ 35 5.1. Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings .............................................. 35 5.2. Install barrier fencing along roads ............................................................. 46 5.3. Modify gully pots and kerbs ...................................................................... 49 5.4. Use signage to warn motorists .................................................................. 49 5.5. Close roads during seasonal amphibian migration ................................... 50 5.6. Use humans to assist migrating amphibians across roads ........................ 51

    6. Threat: Biological resource use .......................................... 53 Key messages – hunting & collecting terrestrial animals ............................................. 53 Key messages – logging & wood harvesting ................................................................. 53 Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals ....................................................................... 54

    6.1. Use amphibians sustainably ...................................................................... 54 6.2. Reduce impact of amphibian trade ........................................................... 55 6.3. Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations ............................. 56 6.4. Commercially breed amphibians for the pet trade ................................... 56

    Logging & wood harvesting .......................................................................................... 57

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    6.5. Thin trees within forests ............................................................................ 57 6.6. Harvest groups of trees instead of clearcutting ........................................ 61 6.7. Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting ............................ 63 6.8. Use leave-tree harvesting instead of clearcutting .................................... 64 6.9. Use shelterwood harvesting instead of clearcutting ................................. 65 6.10. Leave standing deadwood/snags in forests ........................................... 68 6.11. Leave coarse woody debris in forests .................................................... 69 6.12. Retain riparian buffer strips during timber harvest ............................... 72

    7. Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance ........................ 78 Key messages ................................................................................................................ 78

    7.1. Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance .......................... 78 8. Threat: Natural system modifications ................................ 79

    Key messages ................................................................................................................ 79 8.1. Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime ........................... 79 8.2. Use herbicides to control mid-storey or ground vegetation ..................... 86 8.3. Mechanically remove mid-storey or ground vegetation ........................... 88 8.4. Regulate water levels ................................................................................ 89

    9. Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species ......... 92 Key messages – reduce predation by other species ...................................................... 92 Key messages – reduce competition with other species ............................................... 93 Key messages – reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species ........................... 93 Key messages – reduce parasitism and disease – chytridiomycosis ............................. 93 Key messages – reduce parasitism and disease – ranaviruses ..................................... 95 Reduce predation by other species ............................................................................... 95

    9.1. Remove or control mammals .................................................................... 95 9.2. Remove or control fish population by catching ........................................ 96 9.3. Remove or control fish using Rotenone .................................................... 99 9.4. Remove or control fish by drying out ponds ........................................... 102 9.5. Exclude fish with barriers ........................................................................ 104 9.6. Encourage aquatic plant growth as refuge against fish predation ......... 104 9.7. Remove or control invasive bullfrogs ...................................................... 104 9.8. Remove or control invasive viperine snake ............................................. 106 9.9. Remove or control non-native crayfish ................................................... 106

    Reduce competition with other species ...................................................................... 107 9.10. Reduce competition from native amphibians ..................................... 107 9.11. Remove or control invasive cane toads ............................................... 107 9.12. Remove or control invasive Cuban tree frog ....................................... 108

    Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species ................................................... 109 9.13. Prevent heavy usage or exclude wildfowl from aquatic habitat ......... 109 9.14. Control invasive plants ......................................................................... 109

    Reduce parasitism and disease ................................................................................... 110 Chytridiomycosis ......................................................................................................... 110

    9.15. Sterilize equipment when moving between amphibian sites ............. 111 9.16. Use gloves to handle amphibians ........................................................ 113 9.17. Remove the chytrid fungus from ponds .................