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AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CONSERVATION CONSERVATION

AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CONSERVATION Yosemite Monteverde

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  • AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CONSERVATION
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  • Yosemite Monteverde
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  • Global Amphibian Assessment The first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world's 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians Extinct (or extinct in the wild) Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Not Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient
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  • Exam III Last day of classThurs, Dec. 9 Read Ch 8, 9, 10, and 11 from Gibbs et al. (short chapters) Read Ch. 14 from Vitt and Caldwell Be familiar with invited lecture (Thomas) and Demography and Conservation overview lecture by Gibbs Know your NYS herp regs
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  • Global Amphibian Assessment Key Findings Nearly one-third (32%) of the worlds amphibian species are threatened, representing 1,856 species (vs. 12% of birds and 23% of mammals) As many as 168 amphibian species may already be extinct 43% of species are declining in population, vs. < 1 % increasing Highest numbers of threatened species are in Latin American countries such as Colombia (208), Mexico (191), and Ecuador (163)
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  • Reptiles in Decline The Global Decline of Reptiles, Dj Vu Amphibians BioScience 2000* by J. Whitfield Gibbons, David E. Scott, Travis J. Ryan, Kurt A. Buhlmann, Tracey D. Tuberville, Brian S. Metts, Judith L. Greene, Tony Mills, Yale Leiden, Sean Poppy, and Chris Winne *http://www.uga.edu/srelherp/staff/Winne% 20-%20gibbons%20et%20al%202000.pdf
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  • Most anurans and many salamanders breed in wetlands. Many reptiles also highly dependent Loss of wetlands = loss of amphibians and reptiles Lower 48 states lost an average of 54% of the estimated original 221 million acres of wetlands from 1780s to the 1980s Iowa, for example, lost approximately 95% of its wetlands. HABITAT LOSS IS THE GREATEST THREAT
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  • Extinct! Vegas Valley Leopard frog (Rana fisheri)
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  • Declines in habitat quality
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  • Losses of Temporary Wetlands Especially important Many eliminated by: Grading, Mosquito control, Human tidiness Extremely vulnerable Largely unprotected
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  • Created by John Rozum, NEMO National CoordinatorJohn RozumNEMO National Coordinator
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  • Source: Megan Griffiths
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  • Introduced Species Predation of alien species on native species Competition for resources Introduction of pathogens by non-native species Hybridization
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  • Decline of the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog Rana mucosa
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  • Impact of stocked fish on yellow-legged frog Knapp et al. 2001 Ecological Monographs
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  • Reptiles and amphibians can be invaders, too
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  • Over-harvesting of reptiles Sea turtles for food Freshwater turtles for food Iguanids for food Anything intriguing for the pet trade
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  • Last Saturday in January at the new RattleSnake Grounds US 84 Whigham, Georgia 9:00 am to 5:00pm Arts and Crafts - Food Booths RATTLESNAKE EXIHIBITS Don't forget to try some deep-fried Western Diamondback Rattlesnake meat and The Gun, Knife and Coin show that will be offered as well Over 123 tons of Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes turned in to date Rattlesnake Round-up
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  • Gopher tortoises in Florida http://www.empireoftheturtle.com/Florida/gopherus_polyphemus.htm
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  • Asian turtle crisis
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  • Over-collecting and amphibians People collect amphibians for food medicines bait, pets even for teaching biology. In some parts of the world collecting alone appears to cause declines. India, for example, has banned frog exports because of pest increases in rice paddies
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  • Real 3" to 4" frogs preserved in anise scented liquid. Three frogs per jar A sure thing for all game fish.
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  • Eating Frogs to Extinction, IAN G.WARKENTIN et al., Conservation Biology
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  • Dried newts in Lhasa market
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  • NYS law protecting reptiles and amphibiansknow these! Regulation: Chapter 1 Fish and Wildlife http://www.dec.ny.gov/regs/2494.html Part 3: Reptiles and Amphibians * Section 3.1: Diamondback Terrapins * Section 3.2: Native Turtles * Section 3.3: Native Snakes * Section 3.4: Native Lizards * Section 3.5: Native Frogs * Section 3.6: Native Salamanders
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  • Parasites and disease: Emerging pathogens: Chytridiomycosis Frogs may be suffocating because of the fungal growth In reaction to chytrid infections, they lay down extra layers of keratin in their skin. Another possibility is that the fungus is releasing a toxin. Latest news: ionic balance
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  • Carcass of an Australian amphibian (Myxophyes fasciolatus) that died from cutaneous chytridiomycosis. This individual died in a mass mortality event in a captive collection.
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  • Chytrid Fungi Chytrid fungi is at least a proximate cause of current die-offs in Central and North America New chytrids moving in waves around world Direct cause? Stress-induced? New pathogen?
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  • Spread by Xenopus? In the 1930s, discovered that a female Xenopus would ovulate if injected with the urine from a pregnant woman Hormone chorionic gonadotropin was the active ingredient. In the 1940s and 50s, the only available pregnancy test Many hospitals kept Xenopus but many releases: California, Chile, England etc. Future? Probiotics? Adaptation?
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  • Contaminants Consider Atrazine, a common weed killer More than 60 million pounds applied last year in the United States alone. Used to control weeds on about two-thirds of all U.S. corn and sorghum acreage - improves corn yield by slightly more than 4%
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  • Collects in frog breeding ponds Atrazine ups production of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgen hormones to estrogen hormones Contaminants - Atrazine
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  • Abnormal gonads in a male Xenopus frog, the result of exposure to the herbicide atrazine. The frog has become a hermaphrodite, that is, it has both male (testes) and female (ovaries) sex organs Tyrone Hayes with Colorado river toad (Bufo alvarius). Peg Skorpinski photo. April 16 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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  • Deformities see: http://www.hartwick.edu/biology/def_frogs/index.html
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  • Parasites and deformities 5% natural background rate At least 41 species representing 35 genera and 21 families of trematodes have amphibian larvae as intermediate hosts Also use snails as hosts Trematode larvae burrow into amphibian tissues to form cysts and affect limb development
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  • Trematodes? Natural or unnatural? Trematode densities are heavily influenced by water quality Snail hosts benefit from wetland eutrophication Increased N concentrations can boost populations
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  • Please join!..and participate
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  • Happy Holidays!