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Page 1: Amity School of Communication Adobe Photoshop CS2 … · Web viewDept. of Photography. Adobe Photoshop CS2 Tutorial. By. Amit Chawla INDEX. General. Special Terms . The Photoshop

Amity School of Communication

Dept. of Photography

Adobe Photoshop CS2 Tutorial

By

Amit Chawla

Adobe Photoshop CS2 Tutorial Amit Chawla - 1 -

Page 2: Amity School of Communication Adobe Photoshop CS2 … · Web viewDept. of Photography. Adobe Photoshop CS2 Tutorial. By. Amit Chawla INDEX. General. Special Terms . The Photoshop

INDEX

General Special Terms The Photoshop Toolbox Tips and Rules

Basics Basics for Working with Image Files Selecting an Area Working with Text Adding Borders Undoing Previous Actions Cropping an Image Working with Colors Working with Color Swatches Layer Basics Working with Layers Advanced Layer Options

Image Manipulation Adjusting Images Adjusting Image Resolution Creating Transparent Images Working with Filters Removing Red Eye Feathering a Selection Using Layer Masks Applying a Gradient Creating New Gradient Styles Blend Modes: An Introduction Converting Black and White Photos to Color

Photoshop Tools The Pen Tools Retouching Images

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Special Terms

Photoshop is a program that allows you to work with graphics and photographs. To understand Photoshop completely, you must first become familiar with special terms used by the program. This document provides definitions of many terms you may encounter when working with Photoshop.

Image Modes Additional Terms

Image Modes Image mode refers to Bitmap, Grayscale, Duotone, Indexed Color, RGB Color (red, green, blue), CMYK Color (cyan, magenta, yellow, black), Lab Color, and Multichannel. Image modes display colors in slightly different ways and each has special characteristics for certain applications or uses. Below you will find descriptions of the image modes in order of appearance from the Image » Mode menu.

Grayscale Displays images in black, white, and 254 shades of gray. This mode will allow you to use layers and certain filters. Working in this mode also allows you to save the file in jpeg and gif formats along with several other file formats.

DuotoneThis image mode is only available after the grayscale image mode has been selected. The duotone image mode has four types of tones: mono, duo, tri, and quad. Thus, you can select either one, two, three, or four tones to represent your image. Duotone is like grayscale except you select the tones, which can include color, that will be used to create/represent your picture.

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Indexed Color This image mode is constrained to a color palette of 256 colors or less. In this mode you cannot add layers, apply filters, or add colors that are not already used in the image. You cannot use most of the editing tools. This mode allows the file to be saved as a gif, psd or pdf (Photoshop formats), or png. Saving as other types of files may cause a distorted image.

RGB (recommended) This image mode has three channels: Red, Green, and Blue. RGB mode is the recommended working mode for images in Photoshop. It allows you to apply layers, filters, and non-constrained color palettes. Working in RGB mode also allows you to save the file in jpeg and gif formats along with several other file formats.

CMYK ModeThis image mode has four channels: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). These are the colors that printers use when printing a document. Since monitors use RGB, the colors may not appear to be the same color when they are printed. So use CMYK image mode when you want the colors in your document to print exactly how they are used in the document.

Lab ColorThis image mode has 3 channels: lightness, chroma A and chroma B. Chroma A controls 128 colors ranging from green to red. Chroma B controls 128 colors ranging from blue to yellow. Lightness controls the luminosity of the image. Some filters are disabled in this mode: artistic, brush strokes, sketch, and texture.

MultichannelThis image mode has 3 channels: Alpha 1, Alpha 2 and Alpha 3. This mode has 256 colors: black, white, and 254 colors of gray. This mode is for specialized printing.

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Additional TermsAliased vs. Anti-Aliased options Photoshop allows you to create anti-aliased text. Anti-aliased edges on a selection or text produces a smooth-edged appearance. This effect is produced by automatic blending of the edge pixels with the surrounding pixels. If aliasing is turned on (aliased), a jagged, stair-stepped appearance results.

Bitmapped Squares (pixels) of color placed in uniform rows to form an image. You can save as a Bitmap file (bmp or btmp) and several other file types.

Canvas size The height and width dimensions of the image. You can add whitespace behind your image, which will appear as a border of blank canvas around the image.

Color bands Distinct bands of color visible on an image after the reduction of the color palette of an image.

Dpi/ppi Dots per inch/pixels per inch. These are resolution measurements used by scanners, printers and Photoshop. The resolution of computer monitors is 72 dpi/ppi. Gif and jpg images should be adjusted to this resolution for final saving and display.

Fill Fills an area with color or a percentage of color (opacity). See also Paint Bucket.

Filters Special effects that are applied to all areas, selected areas, or layers of the image. You can choose from a variety of effects, from adding artistic rendering to sharpening and blurring images.

Grow Uses the tolerance specified in the Magic Wand Options palette to select pixels adjacent to the selected pixel.

Image size The overall size of an image in print size. Print size can be determined by percent, inches, centimeters, points, or picas. Using Image size, you can choose measurement type and adjust height and width dimensions and resolution. NOTE: Use caution when increasing the resolution or actual dimension of the image: it may result in a less sharp image.

LayersLayers act as separate films, much like transparency sheets. Each layer contains objects which, when layered together, create a composite image.

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Opacity The transparency that you affix to a tool, layer, or color. The lower the percentage is, the more transparent the effect; the higher the percentage, the more opaque the effect.

Paint Bucket Applies color to an area within the tolerance setting of the pixel addressed. This differs from Fill because it affects those pixels within the tolerance, whereas Fill affects all pixels within the selection.

Pixel A grid square that consists of one color. In combination with all of the other pixels, it makes up the image that we see on screen. All Photoshop images are bitmapped into pixels.

Similar Selects like-color pixels throughout the image.

Stroke A border applied using the foreground color to selected portions of an image. Stroke is measured in pixels and can be placed on the outside, center, or inside of the selection.

Tolerance A value range from 0-255. The lower the value, the more similar the color that will be selected. The higher the value, the broader the color range that will be selected.

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Photoshop Toolbox: An Introduction

Photoshop is a program that allows you to work with images and graphics. This document will give an overview of the tools you can use when working with them. These tools are found in the Toolbox, which appears on the left side of the screen when you first start Photoshop.

Button Tool Name Action

Rectangular Marquee

Makes a rectangular selection and provides access to the Elliptical , Single Row , and Single Column Marquee Tools

Move Moves selections, layers, and guides

Lasso Draws free-hand segments of a selection's border and provides access to the Polygonal Lasso Tool and Magnetic Lasso Tool

Magic Wand Selects consistently colored areas without requiring you to trace the outline

Crop Removes unwanted portions from an image. For more information see, Cropping an Image

Slice Creates slices so you can separate your document into areas, which makes it more functional. It also provides access to the Slice Select Tool

Spot Healing Brush

Corrects imperfections in an image by making them disappear into the surrounding image. It also provides access to the Healing Brush Tool, Patch Tool, and the Red Eye Tool

Brush Paints brush strokes onto an image and provides access to the Pencil Tool and Color Replacement Tool

Clone Stamp Paints a clone of an image or area of an image you have already selected. It also provides access to the Pattern Stamp Tool

History Brush Paints a copy of one image state or snapshot of an image into your current image's window. It also provides access to the Art History Brush Tool

Eraser Erases pixels wherever the mouse is clicked. It also provides access to the Background Eraser and Magic Eraser Tools

Gradient Creates a gradual blend between colors and also provides access to the Paint Bucket Tool. For more information, see Working with the Gradient Tool

Blur Softens the edges of an image. It also provides access to the Sharpen and Smudge Tools

Dodge Allows you to darken or lighten areas of an image. It also provides access to the Burn and Sponge Tools

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Path Selection Makes shape or segment selections that show anchor points, direction lines, and direction points. It also provides access to the Direct Selection Tool

Horizontal Type

Allows you to insert text onto an image. It also provides access to the Vertical Type, Horizontal Type Mask, and Vertical Type Mask Tools

Pen Allows you to create, edit, or smooth lines and shapes. It also provides access to the Freeform Pen, Add Anchor Point, Delete Anchor Point, and Convert Point Tools

Rectangle Allows you to draw different shapes. It also provides access to the Rounded Rectangle, Ellipse, Polygon, Line, and Custom Shape Tools.

Notes Allows you to add notes to any image. It also provides access to the Audio Annotation Tool

Eyedropper Allows you to get colors from an image to designate as a new background or foreground color. It also provides access to the Color Sampler and Measure Tools

Hand Moves an image within its window

Zoom Magnifies or reduces the view size of an image

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Tips and Rules

This document offers advice relating to general tips and rules for working with the Photoshop CS2 program.

Save your file as a psd file before saving it as a gif or jpg. The psd is a Photoshop file and it preserves all the layers and colors used to create the original image.

Save frequently to ensure that you do not lose any desired content in an image when you add or make modifications to it. Create a snapshot in the History palette, when you have created or modified an image to your liking, preserve this image state and refer back to it. See Using the History Palette for more information.

Layers can be used with an image in RGB, Grayscale, Lab, and CMYK mode.

An image in Index mode will not work with filters and will not allow layering. It cannot be saved as a jpg.

You can hide, and make visible again, the selection lines (marching ants) by pressing [Ctrl]+[H]. The area will remain selected. If you wish to deselect an area you can do so by pressing [Ctrl]+[D]. It is important to remember that if you hide the selection lines, the area is still selected.

Photoshop is an excellent file-conversion application. Tiff, bmp, eps, pict, pcx, can all be converted to gif or jpg files.

When scanning photos, be sure the pixels per inch (ppi) is set at 150. To learn more about image resolution and how to set the ppi of an image, see Adjusting Image Resolution.

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Basics for Working with Image Files

Photoshop is a program used for editing images and graphics. This document will get you started by providing instructions for basic tasks including:

Opening Images Creating New Images Saving Images Printing Files

Opening ImagesFollow these instructions to open an image in Photoshop.

1. From the File menu, select Open...The Open dialog box appears.

2. Using the Look in pull-down list, navigate to the desired image

3. Select the image

4. Click OPENThe image appears.

Creating New Images You can create a new image by using the New dialog box. The New dialog box allows you to specify the name, width, height, resolution, and mode of your new image. 

1. From the File menu, select New...ORPress [Ctrl] + [N]

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The New dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type a name for your image

3. Under the Preset section, in the Width text box, type a value for the width of your image

4. From the Width pull-down list, select a unit of measurementNOTE: You have several unit choices: pixels, inches, centimeters (cm), millimeters (mm), points, picas, and columns.

5. In the Height text box, type a value for the height of your image

6. From the Height pull-down list, select a unit of measurementNOTE: You have several unit choices: pixels, inches, centimeters (cm), millimeters (mm), points, and picas.

7. In the Resolution text box, type a value for the resolution of your imageNOTES: Resolution should be determined according to how the image will be used. You have two unit choices: pixels/inch and pixels/cm.HINT: In the lower right corner of the dialog box is the Image Size; it adjusts according to the image specifications.

8. From the Color Mode pull-down list, select an image modeNOTES: For more information on image modes in Photoshop, see Image Modes.You have two choices: 8 bit or 16 bit.

9. From the Background Contents pull-down list, select the image backgroundNOTE: You have three choices: White, Background Color or Transparent.

10. Click OK: A new Photoshop image is created.

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Saving ImagesThe Save and Save As commands are located under the File menu. If you are saving a document for the first time, either selection will take you to the Save As dialog box.

NOTE: Different image file types allow you to save an image with a variety of options. This section provides instructions for saving an image that has a good balance of image quality and file size.

Saving a New Image

Layers allow for flexibility and creativity when working with an image, however, few other software programs can read the layers in a Photoshop image file.RECOMMENDATION: Save the file as a PSD, so that you can make changes to the file in the future.

1. From the File menu, select SaveThe Save As dialog box appears.

2. Using the Save in pull-down list, select the location for saving the image

3. In the File name text box, type a name for the file

4. Continue with the appropriate section according to the file type you are creating:To save as a .PSDTo save as a .GIFTo save as a .JPEGTo save as a .TIFF

To save as a PSD:

PSD is a Photoshop file. It has a large file size and it allows you to make changes to your graphic. With this file type no information is lost, thus it is the highest image quality.

1. From the Format pull-down list, select Photoshop (*.PSD; *.PDD)

2. Click SAVEThe image is saved.

To save as a GIF:

GIF has a small file size and low image quality.

1. From the Format pull-down list, select CompuServe GIF (*.GIF) 2. Click SAVE

A dialog box appears asking you to flatten layers.

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3. Click OKThe Indexed Color dialog box appears.

4. In the Options section, from the Dither pull-down list, select None

5. Click OKThe GIF Options dialog box appears.

6. If you want the image to load section by section, select NormalIf you want the image to load by fading in, select Interlaced

7. Click OKThe image is saved.

To save as a JPEG:

JPEG has a good balance between file size and image quality.

1. From the Format pull-down list, select JPEG (*.JPG; *.JPEG; *.JPE)2. Click SAVE

The JPEG Options dialog box appears.

3. In the Image Options section, move the slider to adjust the image quality and file sizeHINT: A quality rating of 8 results in a good balance between image quality and file size.

4. Under Format Options, select Baseline ("Standard")

5. Click OKThe image is saved.

To save as a TIFF:

TIFF has a large file size and high image quality.

1. From the Format pull-down list, select TIFF (*.TIF; *.TIFF)2. Click SAVE

The TIFF Options dialog box appears.HINT: The default settings provide a good balance between image quality and file size.

3. Click OKNOTE: If you did not select Discard Layers and Save a Copy, an alert regarding layers and file size appears, click OK.

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Saving an Existing Image

1. From the File menu, select SaveThe image is saved to its original location.

Using Save As

Using Save As allows you to save variations of an image or the same file in a different location.

1. From the File menu, select Save As...2. Using the Save in pull-down list, select the location for saving the image

3. In the File name text box, type a name for the file

4. From the Format pull-down list, select a file type.

5. Click SAVEThe image is saved to the selected location.

Printing FilesPrinting files in Photoshop is easily done through the Print dialog box.

1. From the File menu, select Print...The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Name pull-down list, select your printer

3. Under the Copies section, in the Number of copies text box, type or use the nudge buttons to specify the number of copies

4. Click OK

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SELECTING AN AREA

Photoshop has multiple selection tools to accommodate the different types of selections. All of these tools are found in the Toolbox.

This document contains information on:

Selecting with the Marquee Tools Selecting with the Lasso Tools Selecting with the Magic Wand Tool Saving a Selection Loading a Selection Deselecting an Area

Selecting with the Marquee ToolsMarquee Tools make rectangular, elliptical, and single row or single column selections. The Marquee Tools are found in the uppermost left corner of the Toolbox.  

To recognize this tool, look for one of these buttons:

1. From the Toolbox, select and hold the Marquee Tool The hidden Marquee Tools appear.

2. Select one of the toolsHINT: You can switch between the Rectangular Marquee Tool and the Elliptical Marquee Tool by pressing [Shift] + [M].

3. To select an area, click and drag the the crosshair pointer to surround your desired selectionHINTS:To obtain a perfect square or circle, press and hold [Shift] before clicking and dragging the mouse.To keep the proportions of the shape, press and hold [Shift] after clicking the mouse.

4. To finish the selection, release the mouse buttonNOTE: The selected area is now surrounded by animated dashes. HINT: If your selection is not quite right, press [Ctrl] + [D] and repeat steps 2-4.

5. Complete the desired action (e.g., copy, add color)NOTE: The area remains selected.

6. To prevent inadvertent changes to the selected area, when complete, deselect the area

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Selecting with the Lasso ToolsLasso Tools make free-hand selections of irregularly shaped areas, with or without straight edges. When working with these tools, the pointer takes the shape of the tool. To make the selection process more precise, you can convert it to a crosshair pointer by pressing [Caps Lock].

HINT: You can switch between the Lasso Tools by pressing [Shift] + [L].

Making Free Hand Selections

Selecting with the Lasso Tool is similar to drawing a line around an area with a pen.

NOTE: The method used is click and drag. When you release the mouse button, the selection is completed.

1. From the Toolbox, select Lasso Tool 2. Click and drag around the contours/border of the area you want to select

HINT: If the pointer is not in the form of a lasso, press [Caps Lock]

3. Release the mouse buttonThe point at which you release will be connected with the beginning point to enclose the area.NOTE: The selected area is now surrounded by animated dashes.HINT: If your selection is not quite right, press [Ctrl] + [D] and repeat steps 2-3.

4. Complete the desired action (e.g., copy, add color)The area remains selected.

5. To prevent inadvertent changes to the selected area, when complete, deselect the area

Making Straight-Edged Selections

The Polygonal Lasso Tool allows you to select oddly shaped areas of an image. You can use this tool if you want to select a triangular or other polygonal area of an image. 

1. From the Toolbox, select the Polygonal Lasso Tool NOTE: The Polygonal Lasso tool is a hidden lasso tool. Click and hold the

lasso tool button on the Toolbox to select the lasso tool of your choice, e.g., the Polygonal Lasso Tool.

2. Position the polygonal lasso pointer where you want to start selecting and click the mouse HINT: If the pointer is not in the form of a polygonal lasso, press [Caps Lock]

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3. Move to the next corner of the area you want to select and click HINT: To ensure a straight line selection, press [Shift] before clicking.A line and an anchor point appear.

4. Repeat step 3 until the desired area is selected 

5. To finish the selection, double click on the last point ORMove the pointer to the starting point of the selection and clickNOTE: The last point you double clicked will connect to the first point you created.HINT: If your selection is not quite right, press [Ctrl] + [D] and repeat steps 2-5.The selected area is now surrounded by animated dashes.

6. Complete the desired action (e.g., copy, add color)The area remains selected.

7. To prevent inadvertent changes to the selected area, when complete, deselect the area

Making a Combination of Free Hand and Straight-Edged Selections

The Magnetic Lasso Tool allows you to make free hand and straight-edged selections. This tool is helpful if you need to select a circular, oval, or irregularly shaped area. The Magnetic Lasso works by detecting differences in color pixels between the area that is being selected and what surrounds it. Therefore, it works best when the color difference is significant.

1. From the Toolbox, select the Magnetic Lasso Tool NOTE: The Magnetic Lasso tool is a hidden lasso tool. Click and hold the

lasso tool button on the Toolbox to select the lasso tool of your choice, e.g., the Magnetic Lasso Tool.

2. Position the lasso pointer where you want to start selecting and click to set the first Fastening PointHINT: If the pointer is not in the form of a magnetic lasso, press [Caps Lock] NOTE: Fastening Points anchor your selection border in place.

3. To draw a freehand selection, move the mouse along the edge of the area you want to selectIt automatically draws a moveable line that "clings" to areas of similar color between Fastening Points.

4. To add a straight-edge selection, a. Release the mouse button

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b. Press [Alt] + click at the starting point of the straight-edge selectionThis sets the Fastening Point for the start.

c. Release [Alt] and the mouse button d. Move the mouse to the endpoint of the straight edge e. Click the mouse button

This sets the Fastening Point at the end of the straight-edge selection. Your cursor returns to the Magnetic Lasso and you can resume freehand selection.

5. If the border does not automatically snap to the desired edge, click the mouse button once to add a Fastening Point manually

6. To erase recently drawn segments and Fastening Points, press [Delete]

7. To finish the selection, double click on the last point ORMove the pointer to the starting point of the selection and clickNOTE: The last point you double clicked will connect to the first point you created.HINT: If your selection is not quite right, press [Ctrl] + [D] and repeat steps 2-6.

8. Complete the desired action (e.g., copy or add color)

9. To prevent inadvertent changes to the selected area, when complete, deselect the area

Selecting with the Magic Wand ToolThe Magic Wand Tool selects areas of similar colors. To increase or decrease the range of colors selected, you can adjust the Tolerance, or color range, of the Magic Wand Tool.

To adjust the Tolerance:

1. Select the Magic Wand Tool

2. From the Objects toolbar, in the Tolerance text box, specify a value

NOTE: Low levels of Tolerance result in a smaller selection area. High levels of Tolerance result in a larger selection area.

To select an area:

1. From the Toolbox, select the Magic Wand Tool 2. In your image, click a spot within the area that you want to select

Similar colors around the area where you clicked are selected.

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3. OPTIONAL: Enlarge or reduce the selected area:     a. To add to the selected area, press [Shift] while clicking areas not included in the original selection     b. To subtract from the selected area, press [Alt] while clicking areas you want to exclude

4. Complete the desired action (e.g., copy, add color)The area remains selected.

5. To prevent inadvertent changes to the selected area, when complete, deselect the area

Saving a SelectionFocusing on a particular area of an image is done using the selection tools; however, many times you need to work with different areas at different times. Photoshop allows you to save selection areas to make re-selecting these areas more efficient.

1. Select the desired area2. From the Select menu, select Save Selection...

The Save Selection dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type a name for the selectionNOTE: A Channel is how Photoshop saves the selection information. You can view your saved channels by clicking on the Channels tab next to the Layers tab in the Layers palette .

4. Click OK

Loading a SelectionIn order to work with a saved selection, it needs to be loaded.

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1. From the Select menu, select Load Selection...The Load Selection dialog box appears.

2. From the Channel pull-down list, choose the desired selection

3. Click OKThe selection is loaded.

Deselecting an AreaTo prevent inadvertent changes to a selected area, you should deselect it.

WARNING: If you have not saved the selection, you will need to re-select the area in order to work with it again. For information on saving selections, see Saving a Selection.

1. From the Select menu, select DeselectORPress [Ctrl] + [D]

Working with Text

Photoshop allows you to create elements to enhance images or to use as images themselves. Similarly, text can be added to an image or can be created for use as an image by itself. This document contains information on:

Adding Text Deleting Text Layers Positioning Text Enhancing Text

Adding TextAdding text can be done in two ways. You may add text to an existing selected layer, or if no layer is selected, you may add text to the image and a new layer will automatically be created.

NOTE: By default, a text layer takes the first 22 characters as the layer name. You can Rename the Layer at anytime.

1. OPTIONAL: To select a color for the text, from the Swatches palette, click a colorThe foreground (active) color will be used for the text that you type unless you select another.NOTE: For more information on selection and foreground color, refer to Working with Colors.

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2. From the Toolbox, click and hold the mouse over HORIZONTAL TYPE

TOOL The Type Tool list appears.

3. Select Horizontal Type Tool or Vertical Type Tool

4. Click within the image where you want your text to begin

5. From the Options toolbar, make selections for Font, Size, Style, and Alignment

6. Type your text

Modifying Text

1. Select the layer that contains the desired text to be modified

2. From the Toolbox, click the TYPE TOOL

3. Select the desired text

4. Make the appropriate changes

Deleting Text LayersIf you are dissatisfied with your text layer, or decide not to use it, it can be deleted.

1. In the Layers palette, select the layer to be deleted2. From the Layer menu, select Delete » Layer

ORFrom the Layers palette, right click the layer containing the text » select Delete LayerA confirmation dialog box appears.

3. Click YESThe text layer is deleted.

Positioning TextIn order to position the text, make certain that the layer containing the text you want to move is selected.

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1. From the Toolbox, click MOVE TOOL2. From the Layers palette, select the text layer

3. Click and drag the text to its new locationORTo move the text pixel by pixel, use the arrow keys.

Enhancing Text Photoshop allows you to enhance your text by using special effects including, drop shadowing, bevel and emboss, color overlay, and other special artistic effects.

1. In the Layers palette, double click the layer you would like to enhance NOTE: Click an empty area of the layer. Do not click on the name of the layer. ORFrom the Layer menu, select Layer Style » Blending Options...The Layer Style dialog box appears.

2. Under Styles, select the desired optionNOTE: More options for enhancement corresponding to your selection appear under Blending Options on the right of the dialog box.

3. Make the desired selections and adjustments

4. Click OK

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Adding Borders

Photoshop allows you to create elements, such as borders, to enhance images. You can specify the color, location, size, and opacity of a border. This document explains how to add customized borders to your Photoshop images.

1. Right click Rectangle Marquee Tool and select the tool to apply your border

2. Click and drag the mouse until the marquee is in the desired shape of your border A moving dashed line appears around your selection.

3. From the Edit menu, select Stroke...The Stroke dialog box appears.

4. Under Stroke, in the Width text box, type the desired pixel width

5. To select the color of the border:

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a. Click the Color swatch The Color Picker dialog box appears.

b. Select the desired colorNOTE: For additional help on selecting a color, see Working with Colors.

c. Click OK

6. In the Location section, make the desired selectionInside: the border appears inside of the dashed-selection lineCenter: the border appears centered over the dashed-selection lineOutside: the border appears outside of the dashed-selection line

7. In the Blending section, from the Mode pull-down list, select the desired mode

8. OPTIONAL: In the Blending section, in the Opacity text box, type the desired percentage of opacityNOTE: A higher percentage will result in a darker border, while a lower percentage will result in a lighter, more transparent border.

9. Click OKThe border is applied.

10. To remove the dashed line within the border, press [Ctrl]+[D]The dashed line disappears.

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Undoing Previous Actions

If you have mistakenly deleted or added an unwanted element to an image, you can use one of Photoshop's undo features to correct the mistake. You can undo your last action using the Undo command found in the Edit menu. If you would like to undo a previous action, but the Undo command is disabled, you may use the Step Backward command or the History palette.

Using the Undo Command Using the Step Backward Command Using the History Palette

Using the Undo CommandYou can undo your last action using the Undo command found in the Edit menu. Unlike Microsoft Word, Photoshop does not allow you to use the Undo command to correct multiple actions. NOTE: If the Undo command is unavailable, the option either appears disabled or as a Redo command function.

1. From the Edit menu, select UndoORPress [Ctrl] + [Z]NOTE: The Undo menu option will read Undo Action (where Action represents the last action you completed).

Using the Step Backward CommandThe Step Backward menu option allows you to sequentially undo more than one action.

1. From the Edit menu, select Step BackwardORPress [Alt] + [Ctrl] + [Z]

2. Repeat step 1 as needed

Using the History PaletteEvery action or change in an image constitutes a new image state. By default, the History palette records and displays the 20 most recent image states. By selecting a previous image state from the History palette you can begin working from that point, erasing all states that followed it. To keep a particular state saved in the History palette throughout the whole work session, a snapshot can be made.

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Accessing the History Palette

The History palette shares a window with the Actions palette and Tool Presets palette. If the History palette is closed, open it by doing the following:

1. From the Window menu, select HistoryNOTE: A checkmark will appear next to History when the History palette is displayed.ORIf the History palette window is open, but the Actions palette or Tool Presets palette is visible, select the History tabThe History palette appears on the right side of the screen.

Undoing Actions with the History Palette

1. From the History palette, select the image state you would like to revert to

2. Begin working on the image from that state

Making a Snapshot

The Snapshot command lets you make a temporary copy (or snapshot) of any image-state. The new snapshot is added to the list of snapshots at the top of the History palette. Selecting a snapshot lets you work from that version of the image.

1. At the bottom of the History palette, click CREATE NEW SNAPSHOPThe new snapshot is created in the snapshot section of the History palette.ORRight click the state you want to make the snapshot of,

a. Select New Snapshot... The New Snapshot dialog box appears.

b. In the Name text box, type a name for the snapshot c. In the From pull-down menu, make the appropriate selection

Full Document makes a snapshot of all layers in the image at that state

Merged Layers makes a snapshot that merges all layers in the image at that stateCurrent Layer makes a snapshot of only the currently selected layer at that state

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Cropping an Image

The Crop Tool in Photoshop allows you to remove portions of an image and focus on the remaining components within an image. This document shows you how to crop an image in Photoshop CS2.

1. From the Toolbox, select the CROP TOOLThe cursor changes into the Crop Tool.

2. Click and drag the mouse over the part of the image you would like to keep

3. Release the mouse button. A dotted line appears around your selection and the rest of the image becomes dim. HINT: You do not have to be precise because the selection area can be moved

and resized.

4. To cancel the crop, press [Esc]ORFrom the Options bar, click CANCEL CURRENT CROP OPERATION

The dotted line is removed from around the selection and nothing is changed within the image.

5. OPTIONAL: To move the selection area a. Place your pointer inside the selection area

HINT: The adjusts the center point of the image, it does not move the image.

b. Click and hold the mouse button c. Drag the selection area to the desired position

6. OPTIONAL: To resize the selection area a. Place your pointer on one of the handles that appears on the edge of the

selection area b. Click and hold the mouse button c. Drag the selection area to the desired size

NOTE: Each handle along the edge of the selection area sizes the selection area differently.

7. OPTIONAL: To rotate the selection area a. Place your pointer outside of the selection area b. Click and hold the mouse button c. Rotate the selection area to the desired position

NOTE: To move the point of rotation, click the center point and drag it to the desired position

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8. To crop the image, press [Enter] ORFrom the Options bar, click COMMIT CURRENT CROP OPERATION

The image is cropped.

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Working with Colors

With Photoshop, you can alter the appearance of an image by changing the colors that make up the image. Photoshop allows you to work with the Foreground color and the Background color. This document includes information on:

Selecting Colors Recoloring Graphics

Selecting ColorsYou can move between two color options at a time, the Foreground and Background colors. One of these two colors will be active depending on which color square is active in the Toolbox. The color that is active can be applied to any selected area. For instructions on how to select an area, refer to Selecting an Area.

The Color Picker Dialog Box

The Color Picker dialog box allows you four options to set the color: the color field, the color slider, numeric values, and hexadecimal values.

Option Definition

Color Field Identify which color will be added by moving a small

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circle which appears in the Color Field.

Color Slider Change the color tone by moving the arrows along the bar or by clicking inside the Color Slider.

Numeric Values Select a color by typing the numeric value in the group of text boxes. Four groups of text boxes appear:

a. HSB (hue, saturation, brightness) b. RGB (red, green, blue) c. Lab (lightness, green-red axis, blue-yellow axis)

d. CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black)

Hexadecimal Values

Enter a six digit hexadecimal value representing the color you want.

Using the Color Picker Dialog Box

1. From the Toolbox, click the FOREGROUND or BACKGROUND color square. The Color Picker dialog box appears.

2. Using the Color Picker dialog box, select the desired colorYour selection appears in the Color Preview box.

3. When you have decided on a color, click OKYour new color now appears on the Toolbox in the color square that you clicked in step one.

Moving Between Foreground and Background Colors

The Color Selection box on the Toolbox contains a toggle switch to alternate between the Foreground and Background colors.

1. In the Color Selection box, click the TOGGLE SWITCHThe background color has now moved to the foreground color.

Using the Foreground and Background Default Colors

In addition to your Foreground and Background colors, the Color Selection box on the Toolbox also contains default black and white colors.

1. In the Color Selection box, click DEFAULT COLORSThe default black and white colors have now become your foreground and background colors, respectively.NOTE: Any custom colors you previously selected will disappear.

Recoloring Graphics

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Photoshop allows you to recolor images. For example, if you wish to change the color scheme of a document, you can recolor related images in Photoshop. The active Foreground or Background color can be applied to any selected area of the image. For information on how to select an area, refer to Selecting an Area.

Recoloring Graphics: Using the Fill Command

One way to change the color of an image is by using the Fill command. The Fill dialog box allows you to fill with either the Foreground or Background color, or with black, white, or gray.

1. If you will be using the Foreground or Background color, verify that the color is correct

2. Select the area you wish to apply color toFor information on how to select an area, refer to Selecting an Area.

3. From the Edit menu, select Fill...The Fill dialog box appears.

4. From the Use pull-down list, select the desired option.

5. OPTIONAL: In the Blending section, make any necessary changes to the Opacity and/or Mode setting

6. Click OKYour selected area is filled with the color you chose.

Recoloring Graphics: Using the Paint Bucket

You can use the Paint Bucket Tool to change the color of an image. The Paint Bucket Tool does not require you to select the area to be filled. The Paint Bucket Tool, like the Magic Wand, selects like-colored pixels to fill. You can affect which pixels are filled by adjusting the tolerance.

NOTE: The Paint Bucket command will not work on a bitmap image. If this tool is not available, check your image mode. For additional information on image modes, refer to Special Terms: Image Modes.

1. From the Image menu, select Mode » RGB ColorNOTE: The option is selected if a checkmark appears before it.

2. Verify that the color you want to use is the selected Foreground color

3. From the Toolbox, select the Paint Bucket Tool NOTE: If it is not visible, it is hidden behind the Gradient Tool

a. To display the Paint Bucket Tool, click and hold the mouse over the Gradient ToolORRight click the Gradient Tool » select Paint Bucket Tool

4. Position the Paint Bucket Tool over the area you would like to color

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5. Click the mouseThe area you pointed to is now filled with the Foreground color.

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Working with Color Swatches

For easy and accurate color selection, the Swatches palette provides over 130 of the most used colors. If you are working with a specific color scheme, you can customize the Swatches palette to display your choice of colors and color names in addition to the pre-selected colors.

The Swatches palette consists of small color squares called "swatches." When selected, a swatch-color becomes the active foreground color for the image you are working with. For more information about selecting colors in Photoshop CS2, refer to Working with Colors.

Accessing the Swatches Palette Selecting Swatches Creating New Swatches Renaming Swatches Deleting Swatches

Accessing the Swatches PaletteThe Swatches palette shares a window with the Color and Styles palettes. If the Swatches palette is not visible, do the following:

1. From the Window menu, select SwatchesORIf the window is open, but the Color palette or Styles palette is active, select the Swatches tabThe Swatches palette appears.

Selecting SwatchesTo select a color currently displayed on the Swatches palette:

1. Position the mouse over the Swatches palette

The arrow becomes the Eyedropper Tool.2. Click the desired color

That color becomes the active foreground color.

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Creating New SwatchesIn addition to using the pre-selected Swatches palette colors, you can customize new color swatches for a specific color or set of colors that you use frequently. For more information on selecting a color, see Working with Colors.

Creating New Swatches: Button Option

1. Set the foreground color to the color you wish to save as a swatch

2. From the Swatches palette, click CREATE NEW SWATCH OF FOREGROUND COLOR A new color swatch is added to the unused portion of the Swatches palette.

Creating New Swatches: Swatch Option

1. Set the foreground color to the color you wish to save as a swatch2. Position your mouse over the unused portion of the Swatches palette

NOTE: The pointer appears as the Paint Bucket Tool.

3. Click the unused portion of the Swatches paletteThe Color Swatch Name dialog box appears with a sample of the new color swatch next to the Name text box.

4. In the Name text box, type the new color name

5. Click OKA new color swatch is added to the Swatches palette.

Creating New Swatches: Right Click Option

1. Set foreground color to the color you wish to save as a swatch2. Right click within the Swatches palette » select New Swatch...

The Color Swatch Name dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type the new color name

4. Click OKA new color swatch is added to the Swatches palette.

Renaming Swatches

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You can rename the pre-selected color swatches that Photoshop has already named or change the name of your own saved swatches.

Renaming Swatches: Swatch Option

1. Double click the color swatch you wish to renameThe Color Swatch Name dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type the new color name

3. Click OK

Renaming Swatches: Right Click Option

1. Right click the color swatch you wish to rename » select Rename Swatch...The Color Swatch Name dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type the new color name

3. Click OK

Deleting Swatches Deleting the unused swatches from the color palette makes finding your other swatches easier and faster.

Deleting Swatches: Swatch Option

1. Click and drag the color swatch to DELETE SWATCH

2. Release the mouse buttonThe color swatch is removed from the Swatches palette.

Deleting Swatches: Right Click Option

1. Right click the color swatch you wish to delete » select Delete SwatchThe color swatch is removed from the Swatches palette.

Deleting Swatches: Keyboard Option

1. Position the mouse over the Swatches palette

The pointer appears as the Eyedropper Tool.2. Press [Alt] + click the color swatch you wish to delete

The pointer appears as a scissors and the color swatch is removed from the Swatches palette.

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Layer Basics

Photoshop's layers can be thought of as separate films, much like transparency sheets. Each layer contains its own discrete contents. Individual layers contain objects which together create your composite image. The following document will introduce some of the basic concepts related to layers. For more information about layers, refer to Working with Layers or Advanced Layer Options for more advanced instructions.

Active Layer Tips Hiding/Displaying the Layers Palette Hiding/Displaying Layers

Active Layer TipsWhen you select a layer in the Layers palette, that layer is active. Review the following tips to learn about active layers:

Only one layer can be active at a time. The name of the active layer appears in the title bar of the image window. Changes affect only the active layer even though you view the whole image in

the image window.

Hiding/Displaying the Layers PaletteThe Layers palette is your essential tool for working with layers. It contains a list of all the layers, starting with the topmost layer. To the left of the name is a thumbnail of the contents of each layer. You can use the Layers palette to perform many tasks (e.g., create, delete, hide, merge, and flatten layers).

1. From the Window menu, select LayersThis action toggles the feature on and off. NOTE: A check mark will appear in front of Layers when the Layers palette is displayed.

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Hiding/Displaying LayersYou may find it useful to hide layers while working in Photoshop. For example, when merging layers, you can hide some layers so that they will not be merged. Visible layers have a VISIBILITY icon next to them; hidden layers do not.

1. On the Layers palette, for the layer(s) you wish to hide, click the VISIBILITY iconHINT: To hide several layers at once, click and drag within the Visibility column. This action toggles the layer between hidden and displayed.

Working with Layers

Each layer operates independently with its own contents. This allows you to change one layer without effecting the other layers or the background of the image. When layered together, the contents of each layer combine to create a composite image. You may wish to review Layer Basics for general tips on using the Layers palette, or Advanced Layer Options for information on rearranging, linking, merging, and flattening layers. This document contains information on the following:

Creating Layers Deleting Layers Retrieving Deleted Layers Renaming Layers Changing Layer Opacity

Creating LayersPhotoshop allows you to create multiple layers in an image. Each layer is automatically named according to its contents and assigned a default opacity of 100%. You can rename layers or change the opacity while you create the layer or at a later time.

You can create layers using the New Layer dialog box or the Layers palette.

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Creating Layers: Dialog Box Option

Using the dialog box method, you can create a new layer and change the layer name, opacity, color, and mode.

1. From the Layer menu, select New » Layer...ORPress [Shift] + [Ctrl] + [N]ORPress [Alt] + CREATE A NEW LAYER on the Layers palette The New Layer dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type the desired nameNOTE: Giving layers a name that is descriptive to your project or the layer's contents, allows you to manage layers more effectively.

3. OPTIONAL: To change the layer opacity, in the Opacity text box, type the desired percentage of opacityOR Click the arrow and adjust the Opacity slide bar NOTE: The percentage of opacity determines the extent to which other layers can be seen through this layer.

4. OPTIONAL: To color-code the layer, from the Color pull-down list, select the desired color

5. OPTIONAL: To change the layer mode, from the Mode pull-down list, select the desired modeNOTE: A layer's mode determines how its pixels blend with underlying pixels in the image. You can create a variety of special effects using layer modes.

6. Click OKThe new layer appears on the Layers palette.

Creating Layers: Layers Palette Option

1. From the Layers palette, click CREATE A NEW LAYERThe new layer appears on the Layers palette.

Deleting LayersIf you no longer need a layer, or wish to replace a layer, you can delete it. If you delete a layer in error, you can retrieve the layer by using either the Undo or Step Backward functions.

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Layers can be deleted by using the menu option, right click option, or drag and drop option.

Deleting Layers: Menu Option

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you want to delete2. From the Layer menu, select Delete » Layer

A confirmation dialog box appears.

3. Click YESThe layer is deleted.

Deleting Layers: Right Click Option

1. From the Layers palette, right click the layer you want to delete » select Delete LayerA confirmation dialog box appears.

2. Click YESThe layer is deleted.

Deleting Layers: Drag and Drop Option

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you want to delete2. Click and drag the layer over the Delete Layer button

3. Release the mouse button The layer is deleted.

Retrieving Deleted LayersIf you delete a layer in error, it is best to retrieve the layer immediately so that you do not lose any changes that have been made to the image since the layer was deleted.

Retrieving Deleted Layers: Undo Option

You can use this option only if you have not performed any other actions since deleting the layer.

1. From the Edit menu, select Undo Delete LayerORPress [Ctrl] + [Z]The deleted layer reappears.

Retrieving Deleted Layers: Step Backward Option

You can use this option to retrieve a deleted layer, but you will lose any changes that you have made to the image since the layer was deleted.

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1. From the Edit menu, select Step BackwardORPress [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Z]The most recent change to the image is erased.

2. Repeat until the layer reappears

Renaming LayersSince Photoshop assigns default names to layers, you may find it helpful to rename them. By identifying layers with a name that is meaningful to your project or the layer's contents, you can keep better track of your layers. You can name layers as you create them, or any time thereafter. Layers can be renamed by using the Layer Properties dialog box or the mouse option.

Renaming Layers: Layer Properties Dialog Box

1. Select the layer you want to rename2. From the Layers menu, select Layer

Properties...ORFrom the Layers palette, right click the layer you wish to rename » select Layer Properties...The Layer Properties dialog box appears.

3. In the Name text box, type an appropriate name for the layer

4. Click OKThe layer's new name appears on the Layers palette.

Renaming Layers: Mouse Option

1. Double click the name of the layer you wish to renameA text box appears around the layer name.

2. Type the new layer name

3. Press [Enter]The layer's new name appears on the Layers palette.

Changing Layer OpacityYou can set a layer's opacity at any value from 0-100%. A layer with an opacity of 0% is completely transparent; a layer with an opacity of 100% is completely opaque. For example, if you create a layer with 50% opacity and apply a paint with 100% opacity to that layer, that layer will only be capable of displaying the paint at 50% opacity.

You can change the opacity when you create a layer, or anytime thereafter. To change the opacity of an existing layer,

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1. Select the layer whose opacity you wish to change2. From the Layers palette, in the Opacity text box, type the desired percentage

of opacityORClick the arrow and adjust the Opacity slide barThe layer's opacity is adjusted.

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Advanced Layer Options

Although layers are constructed individually, it is helpful to rearrange and link layers when creating more advanced images. After you have fully experimented with the layers in your image, you can merge and flatten layers so that they function collaboratively. For introductory information on layers, see Layer Basics. For information on working with layers, see Working with Layers. This document contains information on the following:

Rearranging Layers Linking Layers Merging Layers Flattening Layers

Rearranging LayersLayers are arranged within the Layers palette with the topmost layer on the Layers palette being the topmost layer of the image.

Since objects in an image often overlap, changing the stacking order of layers will change the appearance of your overall image. Rearranging layers can reveal and hide visible shapes.

NOTE: The Background layer cannot be moved.

Rearranging Layers: Drag-and-Drop Option

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you wish to move2. Click and drag the layer to the desired position

3. Release the layerThe layer is now in the new position.

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Rearranging Layers: Menu Option

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you wish to move

2. From the Layer menu, select Arrange » desired option

Rearranging Layers: Keyboard Option

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you wish to move2. Press the keyboard command for the desired option

The layer moves to the selected position. Confirm the new layer placement by checking the layer position on the Layers palette.

Option Action Keyboard Command

Bring to Front Sends layer to topmost position [Shift] + [Ctrl] + ]

Bring Forward Sends layer up one position [Ctrl] + ]

Send Backward Sends layer down one position [Ctrl] + [

Send to Back Sends layer to bottommost position

[Shift] + [Ctrl] + [

Linking LayersIf you want multiple layers to move as a single unit within the image window, you should link them. You can link as few as two layers, or as many as all layers. Layers do not need to be contiguous in order to be linked. All layers will retain their individual characteristics. Linking and unlinking layers can happen repeatedly throughout the creation of an image.

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1. On the Layers palette, press [Ctrl] + select the layer(s) you want to link other layers to

2. From the Layer palette, select LINK LAYERSA LINK icon appears next to layer names, indicating that the layers are linked.

Moving Linked Layers in an Image

1. From the Layers palette, select which linked layer you want to move

2. From the Toolbox, select the Move Tool

3. Within the image window, click and drag to the new locationNOTE: The layers move in unison while maintaining their distance relationships to each other.

Unlinking Layers

1. From the Layers palette, select the layer you want to unlink 2. From the Layers palette, select LINK LAYERS

The LINK icon disappears and the layer is no longer linked.

Merging Layers Merging layers fuses layers together so that they no longer function individually. Images saved with individual layers occupy a lot of file space; merging layers compresses your image so that it takes up less file space. In Photoshop, you can merge linked layers, visible layers, or merge down

Merging Linked Layers

Merging linked layers allows you to determine which layers will be merged into one layer and which will remain independent. Layers that are linked will combine into one layer, while those that are not linked will remain independent.

1. From the Layer menu, select Select Linked Layers 2. From the Layer menu, select Merge Layers

ORPress [Ctrl] + [E]The selected, linked layers combine to form a single layer.

Merging Visible Layers

You can also merge visible layers. Visible layers are identified by the VISIBILITY icon , which appears in the left column of the Layers palette. You can toggle between visible and hidden by clicking the icon in the Visible Layer column. For

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more information on hiding layers, see Hiding/Displaying Layers.

1. On the Layers palette, hide the layers you do not wish to merge (including the background if you do not wish to merge it)

2. Select one of the remaining visible layers

3. From the Layer menu, select Merge VisibleORPress [Shift] + [Ctrl] + [E]All of the visible layers on the Layers palette are merged into a single layer. The hidden layers are preserved as independent layers.

Merging Down

Even if you do not have any layers linked, you can combine two contiguous layers on the Layers palette.

1. Select the topmost layer of the two layers you wish to merge2. From the Layer menu, select Merge Down

ORPress [Ctrl] + [E]The selected layer merges with the layer immediately below it on the Layers palette.

Flattening LayersAlthough flattening layers compresses your image so that it takes up less file space, it is different from merging in that it discards hidden layers, combines visible layers into a single layer, and removes transparent areas from an image.

1. Make sure that all the layers you wish to flatten are visible on the Layers palette

2. From the Layer menu, select Flatten ImageIf there are hidden layers in the image, a dialog box appears confirming your request to discard hidden layers.

3. Click OKThe visible layers are now flattened and hidden layers have been discarded.

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Adjusting Images

Photoshop provides you with techniques to adjust the quality of graphics and photographs. These techniques are especially helpful for images that have been scanned. This document shows you how to adjust images in Photoshop.

Using Auto Levels Adjusting Shadows Adjusting Colors

Using Auto LevelsPhotoshop's Auto Levels feature often provides sufficient adjustment to a poorly scanned image. Auto Levels works by detecting the brightest and darkest pixels and setting them to pure white and black, respectively. Auto Levels can greatly improve contrast in dark or shadowy images.

1. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Auto LevelsThe image is adjusted.

Adjusting ShadowsUsing the Levels dialog box allows you to change the levels of white and black throughout your image. Your image will change to reflect your new settings as you adjust the levels.

1. From the Layers palette, select a layer to adjustNOTES:You must adjust the levels for each layer separately.If the Layers palette is not displayed, from the Window menu, select Layers.

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2. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Levels...The Levels dialog box appears.

3. OPTIONAL: In the Levels dialog box, click AUTONOTE: This will make a subtle change. If you want a more pronounced change, continue with steps 4-6.

4. In the Levels dialog box, within the Input Levels section, a. to alter the darkest tones, adjust the left triangle b. to alter middle tones, adjust the middle triangle c. to alter the lightest tones, adjust the right triangle

5. Output levels allow you to reduce an image's contrast. On the Levels dialog box, from the Output Levels section, move the left triangle to adjust the image's contrast and the right triangle to adjust the image's highlights

6. If you are satisfied with the changes, click OKIf you are not satisfied with the changes, click CANCEL

Adjusting Colors One way to adjust image colors is by adjusting the hue, saturation, and lightness. Your image will change to reflect your new settings as you adjust the colors.

Hue distinguishes color by bringing out more of one color than the other (e.g., more green than red)

Saturation refers to the purity of a color (i.e., the amount of gray in proportion to the hue)

Lightness refers to how light or dark a color is (i.e., 0% lightness is black, 100% is white)

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1. Select a layer to adjustNOTES:You must adjust the levels for each layer separately.If the Layers palette is not displayed, from the Window menu, select Layers.

2. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Hue/Saturation...The Hue/Saturation dialog box appears.

3. To adjust all colors, from the Edit pull-down list, select Master To adjust a specific color, from the Edit pull-down list, make the appropriate selection

4. To adjust Hue, drag the triangle to the left or rightOR In the Hue text box, type a valueHINT: Make sure Preview is selected so that you can view these effects on the image.

5. To adjust Saturation, drag the triangle to the left to decrease color intensity, or move the triangle to the right to increase color intensity ORIn the Saturation text box, type a value

6. To adjust Lightness, drag the triangle to the left for added contrast (black) or move the triangle to the right for less contrast (white) ORIn the Lightness text box, type a value

7. OPTIONAL: Select Colorize, which sets the Hue value to 0, the Saturation level to 25, and the Lightness level to 0 that creates an antique-photo quality. Adjusting the top slider will change the color accordingly.

8. If you are satisfied with the changes, click OKIf you are not satisfied with the changes, click CANCEL

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Adjusting Image Resolution

Images consist of pixels, which are little squares of color; the higher the number of pixels in an image, the more defined that image will appear. The density of pixels impacts image quality and file size. This density is most often measured as pixels per inch (ppi) and is the resolution value.

When preparing images for the Web, consider that images with high resolution have larger file sizes and take longer to load. To reduce the size of your file, reduce the dimensions of the image or decrease the resolution measurements (pixels/inch) of the image. HINT: For best results, do all fine-tuning and adjusting of the image before you lower the resolution. This will result in a clearer image.

To change image resolution:1. From the Image menu, select Image Size...

The Image Size dialog box appears.

2. Under the Document Size section, in the Resolution text box, type the desired resolutionNOTE: A common change in resolution is from 150 to 72 pixels per inch (ppi)

3. Click OK

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Creating Transparent Images

Because Photoshop offers a unique layer system when creating images, many options are available relating to the background of an image. One option is creating a transparent background for an image. Another option is to make an existing image's background transparent.

Using the Transparency Option Making an Existing Background Transparent Exporting Transparent Images

For more information on recoloring a background, refer to Working with Colors.

Using the Transparency OptionYou can use the Transparency option to create an image on a single layer with no background color values. If you use the Transparency option, you can save your file only in the Photoshop format because no other software can read Photoshop's layer format. However, you can export the image so the file can be used by other programs.

1. From the File menu, select New...The New dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, type the name of your image

3. Set the width and height for the image

4. From the Background Contents pull-down list, select Transparent

5. Click OK

Making an Existing Background Transparent

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You may find an image you want to use, but may not want the background of that image. Removing the background color works best if the image has a simple one-color background. While it is possible to make a multicolored background (e.g., the background in a photograph) transparent, this process is more complicated and the results vary.

1. In the Layers palette, double click the background layerNOTE: This may be the only layer present.The New Layer dialog box appears.

2. In the Name text box, verify that it reads Layer 0NOTE: Do not make changes to the Opacity and Mode settings.

3. Click OK

4. From the Toolbox, select Magic Wand Tool

5. In the image, click the backgroundNOTES: The Magic Wand tool selects similar colors in the vicinity of where you click.An animated dashed line appears around the background or area of similar color.HINTS:To add to the selected area, press and hold [Shift] while clicking.To deselect areas, press and hold [Alt] while clicking.

6. Once the background is selected, press [Delete]The background (or selected area) becomes transparent.

7. OPTIONAL: If the image has a multicolored background (e.g., the background of a photograph), you may find it necessary to repeat steps 5-6 to delete the remaining parts of the background.

Exporting Transparent Images If you would like to use a Photoshop image in another program, but you need a transparent background, you can use the Export Transparent Image option. This option allows you to open the image with other programs. This is a very precise process and works well for images such as clip art; however, it may not work as well for more complex images like scanned photographs. You can save the image for use in print or on the Web.

Exporting Transparent Images: for Print

1. If you have not already done so, make the background transparent

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2. From the Help menu, select Export Transparent Image...The Export Transparent Image Wizard appears.

3. Select My image is on a transparent background and click NEXT

4. Select Print

5. Click NEXTThe Save As dialog box appears.

6. From the Save in pull-down menu, select the desired save location

7. In the File name text box, type an appropriate name for the image

8. From the Format pull-down list, select the desired image format NOTE: JPEG and CompuServe GIF are the most compatible with other programs.

9. Click SAVEA dialog box appears. NOTE: The dialog box that appears will depend on the format chosen in step 8.

10. Make the appropriate changes

11. Click OK

12. Click FINISHThe image is saved and ready for use in another program.

Exporting Transparent Images: for the Web

1. If you have not already done so, make the background transparent

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2. From the Help menu, select Export Transparent Image...The Export Transparent Image Wizard appears.

3. Select My image is on a transparent background

4. Click NEXT

5. Select Online

6. Click NEXT

7. Select the desired image format NOTE: GIF only supports 8 bit color but can be used in most browsers. PNG supports 24 bit color but may not be accepted in older browsers.

8. Click NEXTIf PNG was selected, go to step 10. If GIF was selected, go to step 9.

9. If GIF was selected in step 7, a. Click NEXT

The Index Color dialog box appears. b. Make the appropriate changes c. Click OK

The Save As dialog box appears.

10. From the Save in pull-down menu, select the desired save location

11. In the File name text box, type an appropriate name for your image

12. Click SAVEA dialog box appears corresponding to the image format selected in step 7.

13. Make the appropriate changes

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14. Click OK

15. Click FINISHThe image is saved and ready for use on the Web.

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Working with Filters

You can dramatically change the appearance of an image using one of the many Filter options available in Photoshop. Filters can be applied to an entire image, a layer, or a selection. The table below displays a few examples of a single image that has been altered with a variety of Filter effects.

Applying a Filter Filter Options: A Sampling

Applying a FilterTo apply a filter effect:

1. From the Filter menu, select the desired category » desired effect EXAMPLE: From the Filter menu, select Artistic » Colored Pencil

Filter Options: A SamplingPhotoshop offers many different styles of filters. The effects of some filters are shown in this table.

Category Effects     

Artistic Original Image

Colored Pencil Cutout Dry Brush Paint Daubs

           

Blur Original Image

Gaussian Blur Motion Blur

Radial Blur Smart Blur

           

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Brush Strokes

Original Image

Crosshatch Ink Outlines

Spatter

Distort Original Image

Glass Pinch Twirl ZigZag

Noise Original Image

Dust & Scratches

Add Noise

Pixelate Original Image

Crystallize Mosaic Pointillize

Render Original Image

Lens Flare Lighting Effects

           

Sharpen Original Image

Sharpen More  

           

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Sketch Original Image

Graphic Pen Halftone Pattern

Note Paper Water Paper

           

Stylize Original Image

Emboss Glowing Edges

Wind

           

Texture Original Image

Mosaic Tiles Patchwork Texturizer

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Removing Red Eye

This document explains how to remove red eye from your photos using Photoshop.

1. From the Toolbox, select the Zoom Tool The arrow becomes a magnifying glass with a plus sign in the center.

2. Position the mouse over the area containing the red eye, and click until you can easily see the red eye(s)

3. Right click the SPOT HEALING BRUSH TOOL » Red Eye Tool The mouse changes into a crosshair. NOTES:The Red Eye Options bar allows you to alter the Pupil Size percent value and the Darken Amount percent value. The Pupil Size percentage affects how much of the red eye in the pupil is removed. The default value for both of these options is 50%.RECOMMENDATION: Do not alter the Red Eye options.

4. On the image, click and drag the mouse to select the red-eye of the pupil

5. Release the mouseThe red eye is adjusted.

8. If necessary, repeat steps 4 and 5 until all the red eye is removed

9. To save your changes press [Ctrl] + [S] ORFrom the File menu, select SaveThe image is saved.

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Feathering a Selection

Feathering is Photoshop's term for "soft edges." Creating a soft edge around a selection is a nice way to blend images, highlight an object within an image, or adjust harsh edges for web graphics. This document explains two ways of feathering an image in Photoshop.

Feathering a Selection Feathering a Selection Using Inverse

Feathering a SelectionFeathering a selection blurs the edge of the selection. The selection can then be copied and pasted to create a new image or copied and pasted to an existing image to create a composite image.

1. Using a marquee tool, make your selection HINT: Leave a little room along the edges for the feathering action. It feathers on both sides of the selection border.

2. From the Select menu, select Feather... ORPress [Alt] + [Ctrl] + [D] The Feather Selection dialog box appears.

3. In the Feather Radius text box, type your desired feather pixel valueRECOMMENDED: Select a number between 5 and 10 for best results with resolution values around 72 ppi. The higher the image resolution, the higher the feather radius value can be.

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4. Click OK

5. You can now copy and paste your selection to a new image or an existing imageNOTE: Paste the selection onto a new image with a transparent background if you are planning on moving it to another image.

Feathering a Selection Using Inverse If you want to feather only a part of an image, use the Inverse function. The Inverse function simplifies the process of deleting the background detail. You have to select what you want to keep and then invert the selection by using the Inverse function; all details surrounding the selection will be selected. The feathered selection remains on a plain background. You may want to use this to create a composite image.

1. Using a marquee tool, make your selection HINT: Leave a little room along the edges for the feathering action. It feathers on both sides of the selection border.

2. From the Select menu, select Feather... ORPress [Alt] + [Ctrl] + [D] The Feather Selection dialog box appears.

3. In the Feather Radius text box, type your desired feather pixel valueRECOMMENDED: Select a number between 5 and 10 for best results with resolution values around 72 ppi. The higher the image resolution, the higher the feather radius value can be.

4. Click OK

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5. From the Select menu, select InverseORPress [Shift] + [Ctrl] + [I]

6. Press [Backspace]The detail surrounding the selection is deleted, leaving only the feathered selection.

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Using Layer Masks

Photoshop CS2 allows you to mask selected areas of a layer. Masking gives you the ability to hide, edit, and protect, selected areas of an image. Further, masking allows you to blend, merge, and add fade attributes to multiple images within the same document. This document will define the two types of layer masks available in Photoshop CS2, it will detail the necessary steps to add a mask to a selected area of a layer, and it will explain how to hide and reveal portions of a layer within another layer.

Masks Creating a mask Hiding and Revealing Selections

MasksIn Photoshop CS2 there are two types of mask available, the layer mask and the vector mask. Both of these masks are grayscale images; meaning, you should cover a selected area in black that you would wish to hide and anything you would want to be partially visible you would paint using various shades of gray. The lighter the gray the more transparent the selected area is, white is fully visible. Once you hide part of an image using a mask, you can modify or fully restore it at any time since the mask is just covering up, and has not deleted, that part of the image. This is one of the distinct advantages of masking.

Layer Masks

Layer masks are the most common type of mask used. Layer masks are created by using the Painting Tools, primarily the Brush Tool. The layer masking method will cover a large area of an image quickly. While this method may save time, your masked area is more likely to be imprecise and have uneven edges that are not present with the vector masking method.

Vector Masks

Vector masks will give you a much cleaner and defined looking image than a layer mask will. Vector masks are created by using the Pen, Shape, or Path Selection Tool. While the edges of the mask are more precise, it takes a little more time and precision to create this mask than is necessary with a layer mask.

Creating a MaskThese steps will explain how to add a mask to your image in your Photoshop CS2 document. NOTE: Layer masks and vector masks can be applied to the same layer.

1. Open or create your image(s) in Photoshop CS2

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2. Create the number of appropriate layers for your document For more information on creating layers see Creating Layers

3. Place the image(s) you wish to add masking properties to in their respective layers NOTE: Name each individual layer with a meaningful name. This will allow you to identify the contents of the layer quicker. For more information on naming layers see Renaming Layers.

4. Select the layer which you wish to apply a mask to

5. From the bottom of the Layers Palette, click ADD LAYER MASKA white thumbnail will appear in the Layers palette on your selected layer. This thumbnail will display the masking properties you add to this layer.

6. From the Toolbox, click the PAINT BRUSH TOOL , if you would like a layer mask OR

Click the PEN , PATH SELECTION , or SHAPE TOOL , if you would like a vector mask.NOTE: Layers masks consist of only white and black. Therefore, you can only apply the colors white and black to a layer mask with the tools referred to here. To hide areas of a layer you will want to apply black. If later you wish to reveal an area that you have masked, apply white.

7. Use your desired tool to designate the areas on the image you would like to hide or mask.

8. When you are finished, the areas that you have masked will be hidden from view.

Hiding and Revealing Selections You can use a layer mask to hide or reveal a selected area.

Hiding a Selection

Hiding a selection applies a mask over the selected area; the selection is not visible. The portion of the layer directly beneath the masked layer which corresponds to the selection is now visible. In the Layers palette, the layer which has a hidden selection will display a white thumbnail with the selected area in black. The example below shows a hidden selection along with the Layers palette.

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Revealing a Selection

Revealing a selection applies a mask to the area surrounding the selected area; only the selection is visible. The portion of the layer directly beneath the masked layer which corresponds to the area outside of the selection is now visible. In the Layers palette, the layer which has a revealed selection will display a black thumbnail with the selected area in white. The example below shows a selection revealed along with the Layers palette.

To hide or reveal a selection:

1. Select the layer which you wish to apply a mask to NOTE: Any layers above the layer you have selected in the Layers palette will not be effected by the mask.

2. Using a selection tool, select the portion of the image you wish to hide or reveal

3. From the Layer menu select » Layer Mask » Hide Selection or Reveal Selection

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Applying A Gradient

Photoshop allows you to make a gradual transition between two colors by using the Gradient Tool. A gradient color can be applied to any selected area of an image or background. If no area is selected, the gradient will be applied to the entire layer. Photoshop offers many patterns for the gradient to follow, or you can create your own pattern. This document shows you how to apply a preset gradient. To create a custom gradient, refer to Creating A New Gradient Style.

Fill an area with a gradient by clicking and dragging in the image. The starting point and ending point affect the gradient appearance in different ways, depending on the Gradient Tool used.NOTE: The Gradient Tool will not work in Bitmap or Indexed Color modes.

1. Select your Foreground and Background colors 2. Select the area you wish to apply the gradient to

3. From the Toolbox, select the Gradient ToolNOTE: If the gradient tool is not visible: to reveal the Gradient Tool , click

and hold the mouse over the Paint Bucket Tool .The Gradient Tool Options toolbar appears.

4. On the Gradient Tool Options toolbar, from the Gradient Options pull-down list, select a gradient fill option

5. From the Presets section, select a gradient fill

6. On the Gradient Tool Options toolbar, select one of the following:

Button Name Description

Linear Gradient Creates a gradient spanning from one side to the other side of the

layer. Follows the direction of the mouse path.

Radial Gradient Creates a circular gradient based on the center point and radius that

you specify by dragging the mouse. The outermost color in the gradient expands across the entire layer.

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Angle Gradient Creates a gradient from one point to another along an angled line.

Reflected Gradient Creates a gradient reflected from the center; design is reflected either

vertically or horizontally

Diamond Gradient Creates a gradient extending from the center point in a diamond

shape7. OPTIONAL: In the Gradient Tool Options toolbar, from the Mode pull-down

list, select a mode

8. OPTIONAL: Adjust the Opacity slider bar until you reach the desired opacity setting

9. OPTIONAL: To reduce the appearance of stripes in the gradient, select Dither

NOTES:For some gradients and color combinations, the dithering feature will not change anything. A preview of your gradient appears on the Gradient Tool Options toolbar.

10. On your image, position the pointer over the place where you would like the gradient to begin

11. Click and drag over the image in the direction you would like the gradient to follow

12. Release the mouse buttonThe gradient is applied to the entire layer.

Creating New Gradient Styles

The Gradient Editor dialog box lets you create a new gradient by modifying an existing gradient. There are two types of gradients that you are able to create: solid gradient and noise gradient.

Solid Gradient

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1. From the Toolbox, select the Gradient ToolThe Options toolbar will refresh and display the Gradient options.

2. Click GRADIENT SAMPLE The Gradient Editor dialog box appears.

3. Under Presets, select an existing gradient that is similar in style to the gradient you wish to makeORClick MENU » select a new gradient style to loadA Gradient Editor warning dialog box appears.

a. To add to the preset list, click APPENDTo display only the new style, click OK

4. In the Name text box, type a name for the new gradient

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5. From the Gradient Type pull-down list, select Solid

6. To define a color within the gradient, double click a COLOR STOPThe Color Picker dialog box appears.NOTES: When a color stop is being edited, the triangle above the stop turns black. For more information about choosing a color, refer to Working with Colors.

7. To create another color stop, click anywhere along the bottom of the color bar

8. To delete a color stop,

a. Click the COLOR STOP b. Press [Delete]

9. To adjust the location of a Color Stop, click and drag the COLOR STOP to the desired locationORTo adjust the location of a Color Stop by percentage

a. Click the COLOR STOP b. In the Stops section, within the Location text box, type a percentage

valueNOTE: A value of 0% places the point at the far left end of the gradient bar, and a value of 100% places the point at the far right end.

10. To define the opacity along the gradient, a. Click an OPACITY STOP b. In the Stops section, from the Opacity pull-down list, select the desired

opacityORType the desired opacity

11. To adjust the location of the color midpoint (i.e., the point where the gradient displays an even mix of the starting and ending colors for that section)

a. On the side of the section you wish to edit, click a COLOR STOP b. Below the Gradient bar, drag the MIDPOINT to the right or left

12. To set the smoothness (i.e., degree of pixelation) for the entire gradient, in the Smoothness text box type a value ORTo use the slider bar, click the SMOOTHNESS ARROW

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NOTE: The lower the value, the more pixelated the gradient will appear.

13. To save the gradient as a preset, click NEW

14. Click OK The new solid gradient style is appended to the list of preset gradients in the Preset section .NOTE: To delete any gradient preset, right click on the preset, select delete.

Noise Gradient A noise gradient is a gradient that contains randomly distributed colors within the range of colors that you specify.

1. From the Toolbox, select the Gradient ToolThe Options toolbar will refresh and display the Gradient options.

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2. Click GRADIENT SAMPLE The Gradient Editor dialog box appears.

3. Under Presets, select an existing gradient that is similar in style to the gradient you wish to makeORClick MENU » select a new gradient style to loadA Gradient Editor warning dialog box appears.

a. To add to the preset list, click APPENDTo display only the new style, click OK

4. In the Name text box, type a name for the new gradient

5. From the Gradient Type pull-down list, select Noise

6. To set the roughness for the entire gradient, in the Roughness text box type a percentage value ORTo use the slider bar, click the ROUGHNESS ARROW NOTE: The higher the roughness, the more noise there will be in the gradient.

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7. OPTIONAL: From the Color Model pull-down list, select a color model: RGB, HSB, or LAB

8. To adjust the range of colors, in the Color Model section, drag the sliders to define the range of acceptable values for each component of the color model you have selected

9. Under Options, select the desired optionsRestrict Colors prevents colors from over saturating.Add Transparency automatically adds transparency to your gradient.

10. To randomize a gradient that conforms to the settings that you have made thus far, click RANDOMIZE until you find a setting you like

11. To save the gradient a. Click SAVE...

The Save dialog box appears. b. Navigate to the location you want the gradient to be saved to

NOTE: It is recommended that you save it in the Gradients folder. c. In the File name text box, type a name for the gradient d. Click SAVE

12. Click OKThe new noise gradient preset has been appended to the list of preset gradients in the Preset section.NOTE: To delete a gradient style, right click and select delete.

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Blend Modes: An Introduction

In the Layers palette, the blend modes affect how the pixels of a layer will interact with the pixels of the layer(s) below it. Photoshop CS2 has twenty-three layer blend modes. This document briefly describes what blending modes do to a layer.NOTES:If the layer is a copy of the background layer, only certain blend modes will work: Darken, Multiply, Color Burn, Linear Burn, Lighten, Screen, Color Dodge, Linear Dodge, Overlay, Soft Light, Hard Light, Vivid Light, and Linear Light.The examples in this document show a butterfly layer on top of a background layer. The blend modes will be applied to the butterfly at 100% opacity.

Blending ModesNormalThis blend mode has no effect on the layer below it.

DissolveThis blend mode randomly selects pixels that make up the top layer image and sets their opacity to zero. Adjusting the opacity level of the entire layer will change the appearance of the dissolve effect. In the example, the opacity of the butterfly layer is set at 75%. NOTE: When the opacity of the top layer is set at 100% for this blend mode, there is no dissolve. The opacity needs to be less than 100%.

DarkenThis blend mode looks at the pixels of both the top and bottom layers and "projects" the darker color on the bottom layer to "come through" the lighter color on the top layer. In the example below, notice how the darker colors of the clothing show through the butterfly, but the detail of the lighter buildings in the background does not.

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Normal Dissolve Darken

MultiplyThis blend mode multiplies the color intensity of the top layer with the bottom layer. This produces darker colors within the composite image, giving the blend more contrast.

Color BurnThis blend mode brightens the light pixels of the top layer and darkens the dark pixels of the top and bottom layers.

Linear BurnThis blend mode uses channels (i.e., colors) to determine the degree of darkness for each pixel in the top layer. Channel information for each color is used and the darkest color's intensity is increased by a certain degree. NOTE: Channels contain color information in each pixel. For example, RGB color mode has four channels: RGB, Red, Green, and Blue.

Multiply Color Burn Linear Burn

LightenThis blend mode lightens the composite image by comparing the pixels in the top and bottom layers: the pixel that is the lightest is the one that is shown. Therefore all dark colors are replaced with the lighter color. In the example, notice how the butterfly almost disappears, since the background pixels were almost all lighter than the butterfly's pixels.

ScreenThis blend mode is used for highlighting. It lightens all colors on the top layer by decreasing its opacity. The dark colors are not lightened as dramatically as the light colors are.

OverlayThis blend mode blends the two layers together by changing the opacity, darkness, and lightness of the top layer.

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Lighten Screen Overlay

Color DodgeThis blend mode brightens all of the colors of the top layer and then blends the two layers together. No changes are made to black.

Linear DodgeThis blend mode brightens the color on the bottom layer using the channel information of the top layer colors to increase the brightness of the colors on the top layer. The bright colors show up on black, unlike in the Color Dodge blend mode.

Soft LightThis blend mode lightens or darkens the image depending on the color of the top layer: if the top layer's pixel is dark, then the bottom layer's pixel is darkened; if the top layer's pixel is light, then the bottom layer's pixel is lightened.

Color Dodge Linear Dodge Soft Light

Hard LightThis blend mode combines two other blend modes. If a pixel of the bottom layer is darker than midgray (50% gray), then the Multiply mode is applied to that pixel. If a pixel is lighter than midgray, then the Screen mode is applied to that pixel.

Vivid LightThis blend mode specifically dodges or burns the colors on the bottom layer. If the top color is darker or lighter than midgray, contrast in the bottom layer will increase or decrease.

Linear LightThis blend mode adjusts the brightness of the bottom layer depending on whether the top layer is darker or lighter than midgray. If it is lighter than midgray, it is brightened; if it is darker, there is no change.

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Hard Light Vivid Light Linear Light

Pin LightThis blend mode replaces the colors on the bottom layer if they are lighter than the blend color.

Hard MixThis blend mode is a combination of the Vivid Light mode and a posterization effect (i.e., where the image appears more pixelated). It will posterize the bottom layer pixels through the blend layer and recolor the image using the specifications of the Vivid Light mode. A higher Fill Opacity on the top layer will increase the posterization effect on the image. In the example, the Fill Opacity is set at 100%.

HueThis blend mode uses the hue of the top layer color and the saturation and luminance of the bottom layer to create the composite image.

Pin Light Hard Mix Hue

SaturationThis blend mode uses the saturation of the top layer color and the luminance and hue of the bottom layer.

ColorThis blend mode uses the luminance of the top layer color and the saturation and hue of the bottom layer.

Luminosity This blend mode uses only the luminance of the top layer color and ignores the hue and saturation values of the bottom layer.

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Saturation Color Luminosity

To see how different colors affect the blend modes, see More Examples Of Blend Modes.

For a more extensive definition of what each blend mode does to the image, refer to the Photoshop Help Center, List of Blending Modes.

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Converting Black and White Photos to Color

Photoshop CS2 allows you to give black and white images and photos new life and vibrancy by adding color to them. This document explains two different ways Photoshop allows you to colorize your black and white images.

Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool Colorizing with Image Adjustments

Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool Colorizing an image with the Color Replacement Tool allows you to quickly and easily add color to an image or photo. This is the simplest method of adding color, however, the colors produced are often light and unconvincing.

1. Open your scanned or saved black and white image or photo in Photoshop CS2NOTE: If you are not able to apply color to your image or photo, you may need to change the Image Mode to RGB Color.

2. Using the EYE DROP TOOL from the Color palette, select an appropriate color OR

From the Color Swatch box , click FOREGROUND color The Color Picker dialog box appears.

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a. Select your desired color b. Click OK

Your selected color is now the Foreground color in the Color Swatch box.

2. Click and hold the BRUSH TOOL This will reveal alternate options for the Brush Tool.

3. Select the Color Replacement Tool NOTE: If you use any other paint tool besides the Color Replacement Tool, you will be coloring over the image thereby losing the image's distinct shapes and characteristics.

4. Using the Color Replacement Tool, apply your selected color to the black and white image or photo NOTE: To ensure that you only colorize exactly what you want, use a selection tool and highlight the particular area you wish to color. With an area selected, you may only color within that area. If you wish to color outside of the highlighted area again, simply deselect it.

 Colorizing with Image Adjustments You can also colorizing a black and white image or photo using Color Balance, Hue/Saturation, or Variations. All of these options are located in the Image menu under Adjustments. Using these options to colorize your image or photo may take more time and effort, however, the color produced will be much more life like.

NOTE: These instructions assume you have selected an area to colorize. For more information, refer to Selecting an Area.

Color Balance

The Color Balance option allows you to increase or decrease numerically the color values of the Cyan/Red, Magenta/Green, and Yellow/Blue channels. By incrementally increasing or decreasing the amount of these color channels in your image or photo, you can create a color to your exact specifications.

1. Select an area of you image or photo to colorize 2. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Color Balance

OR [Ctrl]+[B]

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The Color Balance dialog box appears.

3. Use the color sliders and the Tone Balance options to create a precise color for your selected area NOTE: With the Preview box selected, you will be able to observe the changes in color occurring to the area selected as you move the color sliders.

4. Click OKThe changes you made will be reflected in your image or photo.

Hue/Saturation

The Hue/Saturation option allows you to use color sliders to impact the amount of Hue, Saturation, and Lightness.This option allows you to produce a distinct color, however, you cannot impact the Shadow or Highlight attributes of your selection.

1. Select a color 2. Select an area of you image or photo to colorize

3. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Hue/Saturation OR [Ctrl]+[U]

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The Hue/Saturation dialog box appears.

4. Select Colorize The color sliders will move to display the color that is currently selected in your Color palette.

5. Move the color sliders until you create the precise color for your selected area NOTE: With the Preview box selected, you will be able to observe the changes in color occurring to the area selected as you move the color sliders.

6. Click OK The changes you made will be reflected in you image or photo.

Variations

The Variations option allows you to add more of one individual color channel or degree of lightness/darkness to your image. This image adjustment option is the most time consuming; however, it will produce the most customized and realistic color for your image or photo.

1. Select an area of your image or photo to colorize

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2. From the Image menu, select Adjustments » Variations... The Variations dialog box appears.

3. Select what you want to change EXAMPLE: Shadows

4. Select the degree of adjustment by moving the Fine/Coarse slider

5. Add the desired color by clicking a color thumbnail

6. To adjust brightness, click the LIGHTER or DARKER thumbnailChanges are reflected in the CURRENT PICK thumbnail.

7. Repeat steps 3-6 until you have the desired effect

8. Click OK The changes you made will be reflected in your image or photo.

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Using the Pen Tools

In Photoshop, the Pen Tool is another way to draw shapes or make selections. For more information on making selections, refer to Selecting an Area.

The Pen Tools Creating Shapes with the Pen Tools Selecting with the Pen Tool

The Pen Tools The Pen Tool, located in the Toolbox, has five hidden tools, the Pen, the Freeform Pen, Add Anchor Point, Subtract Anchor Point, and the Convert Point Tool.

Pen ToolAllows you to make very precise selections that would be difficult to accomplish using the Marquee Tools. By using the Pen Tool you are creating a path of adjustable anchor points. To adjust an anchor point, use the Delete Anchor Point Tool, the

Convert Point Tool, or the Direct Selection Tool .

Freeform Pen Tool Allows you to make customized paths that are not straight by default. The path/selection follows the same path as your mouse. This tool is useful for making fast selections that do not require as steady of a hand as the Marquee Tools do. You can edit the selection further using the other selection tools.

Add Anchor Point ToolAdds anchor points along a path.

Delete Anchor Point Tool Deletes anchor points from a path.

Convert Point ToolConverts a smooth point (e.g., an arc) into a corner point or a corner point into a smooth point.

Creating Shapes with the Pen Tools The Pen Tool works in much the same way as the Lasso Selection Tool, except that when you are drawing, nothing becomes selected. The Pen Tool automatically creates a closed shape filled with your chosen foreground color by connecting each new anchor point with both the first anchor point and the previous anchor point. The Pen Tool allows you to draw straight lines and curves, and the Freeform Pen Tool allows you to draw customized shapes.

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1. From the Toolbox, select the PEN TOOLThe cursor becomes a pen tip.

2. From the Options bar, select the SHAPE TOOL

3. To begin drawing your shape, click the mouse button to create your first anchor point

4. To draw a straight line, click the mouse button to create a second anchor pointA straight line connects the two anchor points.

5. To draw a curved line connecting the last anchor point with a new anchor point,

a. Click and hold the mouse button where you would like to add the new anchor point

b. Drag the mouse to create the proper curve for that segmentNOTE: Dragging the mouse will not change the position of the anchor point, but will adjust the arc of the curve.

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to create the desired shape

7. To finish your shape, click on the first anchor point you created

Using the Freeform Pen Tool

1. From the Toolbox, select the FREEFORM PEN TOOLThe cursor becomes a pen tip.

2. From the Options bar, select the SHAPE TOOL

3. To begin drawing, click and drag the mouse anywhere on the canvas to create your shape NOTE: With the Freeform Pen Tool, you do not need to add anchor points, they are automatically added.

4. To finish a freeform shape, release the mouse button NOTE: The ending point does not have to be the same as the beginning point.

HINT: To edit a Freeform Pen shape, select the Direct Selection Tool , which is a hidden tool under the Path Selection Tool.

Selecting with the Pen Tool

Using the Pen Tool to make selections allows for a high degree of precision due to the anchor points. Anchor points can be adjusted after the path is created. You will begin by creating a path around the object you want to select, which you will then turn into a selection.

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Creating a Path

1. From the Toolbox, select the PEN TOOL2. From the Options bar, select the PATH TOOL

3. Select your object by creating a path of anchor points around it NOTE: A path is a line of anchor points. HINT: This is like creating a shape with the pen tool, except the shape is not filled with the foreground color.

Turning a Path into a Selection

1. To select your path, select the PATH SELECTION TOOL2. From the Window menu, select Paths

3. From the Paths palette, select MENU » Make SelectionORFrom the Paths palette, select LOAD PATH AS A SELECTION The Make Selection dialog box appears.

4. To feather your selection, in the Rendering section, in the Feather Radius text box, type a numberHINT: The higher the number, the more pronounced the feathering action will be.

5. To smooth the corners of the selection, select Anti-Aliased

6. Click OK The path becomes a selection.

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Retouching Images

There are several options to choose from when retouching your images. Three of those tools are the Spot Healing Brush Tool, Healing Brush Tool, and the Patch Tool.

The Healing Tools Healing Brush Options Using the Spot Healing Brush Tool Using the Healing Brush Tool Using the Patch Tool

The Healing Tools The Healing tools allow you to fix flaws such as scratches, blemishes, or inconsistencies in your images. Located in the Toolbox, the Healing Brush tool contains three additional hidden tools: the Spot Healing Brush tool, the Patch tool, and the Red Eye tool.

Healing Brush toolAllows you to conceal an undesirable portion of an image, such as a scratch, by covering the area with a sample that you select from elsewhere in the image.

Spot Healing Brush toolAllows you to conceal an undesirable portion of an image by covering the area with a sample that Photoshop automatically draws from the surrounding area.

Patch toolAllows you to select an irregularly shaped portion of an image to conceal before selecting the sample that will cover it.

Red Eye toolDarkens a specific point to hide red eye in an image.

Healing Brush OptionsEach of the Healing Brush tools offers several options to adjust the effects upon your image.

Hardness refers to how dramatic the retouch is going to be. The greater the percentage, the more defined the retouch will appear. The smaller the percentage, the less obvious the edges of the retouch will appear.

Spacingrefers to how much space is between each instance of the brush in a brush stroke. A

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low percentage makes the brush strokes tighter and a high percentage makes them farther apart.

Anglecontrols the alignment of the brush tip

Roundnesscontrols the height of the brush, although the width remains the same. This can control whether the brush appears more circular or more elliptical. The lower the percentage, the shorter and more elliptical the brush will appear.

Size: Offkeeps the diameter of the brush consistent

Size: Pen Pressurevaries the diameter of the brush based on the force applied with the pen. This option is only relevant if using a pressure-sensitive pad and pen.

Size: Stylus Wheelvaries the diameter of the brush based on your manipulation of the stylus wheel. This option is only relevant if using a pressure-sensitive pad and stylus.

Mode Replace leaves the edges of the retouched area naturally jagged, as opposed to smoothing the edges as the Healing Brush tools usually do. For information about additional modes, see Blend Modes: An Introduction.

Proximity Matchcovers the area with pixels copied from the neighboring area.

Create Texturecovers the area with a new texture created by sampling and recombining pixels from the neighboring area.

 

Using the Spot Healing Brush ToolThe Spot Healing Brush tool works best on small flaws that require only a few clicks to retouch. With the Spot Healing Brush tool, you do not need to select a sample first; it will automatically heal the inconsistency using the surrounding pixels to blend the retouched area. The Spot Healing Brush tool samples the new pixels for the area randomly, so if you do not like your first result, undo it and try using it again.

1. From the Toolbox, click the SPOT HEALING BRUSH TOOLThe Options bar changes to the Spot Healing Brush Tool Options bar.

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2. To adjust the brush, on the Spot Healing Brush Tool Options bar, click

BRUSH:The Brush Options palette appears.NOTE: For more information about the options available, please refer to Healing Brush Options.

3. To adjust the Diameter, Hardness, or Spacing, slide the arrow until you reach the desired value ORIn the text boxes, type the desired size or percentage

4. In the Angle text box, type the desired angle

5. To adjust the Roundness, type the desired percentage of roundness in the text box.

6. For Size, choose one of the three options: Off, Pen Pressure, Stylus Wheel

7. To adjust how the healing action will affect the image, select a mode

8. To adjust how the Spot Healing Brush Tool will interact with the pixels of the image, select which type of retouching action you want

9. If you have more than one visible layer that you want to make adjustments to, select Sample All Layers

10. On the image, click on the blemish you want to retouch

Using the Healing Brush Tool The Healing Brush tool requires that you first select an area of pixels that you want to copy, then decide where to paste them. This tool is useful for retouching larger areas that require more attention to detail and cannot be handled by the Spot Healing Brush tool. After you set your brush and sample options, you are ready to select your sample area and begin touching up your image.

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1. From the Toolbox, click the HEALING BRUSH TOOL The Options bar changes into the Healing Brush Tool Options bar.

2. To adjust the settings for the Brush,

a. On the Healing Brush Tool Options bar, click BRUSH:The Brush Options palette appears.NOTE: For more information about the options available, please refer to Healing Brush Options.

b. To adjust the Diameter, Hardness, or Spacing, slide the arrow until you reach the desired value ORIn the text boxes, type the desired size or percentage

c. In the Angle text box, type the desired angle d. To adjust the Roundness, type the desired percentage of roundness in

the Roundness text box.e. To select a control for size variance, in the Size pull-down list, choose

one of the three options: Off, Pen Pressure, Stylus Wheel

3. To adjust the mode, in the Healing Brush Tool Options bar, from the Mode pull-down list, select a mode

4. To retouch areas with one hand-picked sample, a. In the Source section, select Sampled b. To select the sample that will cover the areas to be retouched, press

[Alt] + click the area to copy c. To cover a portion of the image with the copied portion, drag or click

the mouse HINT: Dragging the brush will begin to "repaint" the entire original image, beginning with the selected sample point.

5. To retouch the image with a pattern, a. In the Source section, select Pattern b. From the drop-down Pattern Picker, select a pattern c. To cover a portion of the image with the pattern, drag or click the

mouse

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6. To retouch areas with a sample relative to the distance and direction from the source point,

a. In the Source section, select Aligned b. Select your sample area c. Click the area to retouch

HINT: Until you define a new sample area, each time you click the Healing Brush tool, the sample area will be drawn from the same relative distance and direction from the area to be retouched as it was in this first sample.

d. Drag or click the brushThe sampled area will move with the brush, it will stay parallel with the brush even after you release the mouse.HINT: Dragging the brush will begin to "repaint" the entire original image, beginning with the selected sample point

Using the Patch ToolThe Patch tool is another Healing Brush tool, but it is different from the other healing tools in that you first select the area to retouch and then find the part of the image to replace it.

1. From the Toolbox, click the PATCH TOOL

The mouse pointer turns into a patch .The Options bar changes into the Patch Tool Options bar.

2. On the Patch Tool Option bar, click NEW SELECTION

3. From the Patch section, select SourceNOTE: If you want the edges of the selection to be more blended, you can feather the selection before you move it, but only if the Patch Type is Destination. For more information, see Feathering a Selection.

4. To minimize the effects of the patch, select Transparent

5. Select the area to retouch by clicking and dragging the mouse to encircle itA ring of marching ants appears around your selection.HINT: To hide the marching ants, press [Ctrl] + [H].

6. Click and hold the mouse inside the selection

The patch pointer turns into a patch with an arrow

7. To select the area which will replace the section, drag the selection to the area that will replace it NOTE: The selected area displays a "preview" of the sample as you drag over the image.

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8. Release the mouse This area blends into and replaces the selected area.

9. When finished, to deselect the area, press [Ctrl] + [D]

Src: http://www.uwec.edu/help/pshopCS2.htm

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