America Claims an Empire (Imperialism) Chapter 10

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  • America Claims an Empire(Imperialism)Chapter 10

  • Imperialism and AmericaSection 1

  • ImperialismThe policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories

  • Why take over weaker nations?European nations had been competing for colonies in Africa and Asia for centuriesFor Americans, this type of expansion was a natural outgrowth of manifest destiny

  • 3 factors driving American imperialism:Desire for military strengthAlfred T. Mahan urged building up our navyNew marketsIndustrialization allowed America to produce more food and products than Americans could consumeWe needed more raw materials and more markets (people to buy our stuff)Cultural superiority Some believed we had a moral duty to spread our superior Anglo-Saxon Christian culture to others

  • Examples of early American imperialism:AlaskaSecretary of State William Seward wanted to buy Alaska back in 1867Many called it Sewards Folly or Sewards Icebox - thought it was a bad ideaCongress allowed the purchase from Russia for $7.2 millionBecame a state in 1959 rich in natural resources

  • Examples of early American imperialism:Hawaii- Put events in appropriate chronological order

  • How did we acquire Hawaii?Mid-1800s U.S. citizens owned many sugar plantations on the Hawaiian Islands1870s native Hawaiians only 1/3 of the population of Hawaii1875 Hawaii signs treaty with U.S. we will allow sugar to be imported without a duty

  • 1887 King Kalakaua convinced to give voting rights only to white landowners Treaty was signed allowing construction of a naval base at Pearl Harbor1890 McKinley Tariff eliminated duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar

  • 1891 King Kalakaua dies and his sister Liliuokalani becomes QueenShe wants to give power back to the HawaiiansU.S. businessmen organize a revolution to overthrow her

  • 1893 U.S. Marines go to Hawaii to protect American lives and propertySanford Dole is established as president after the Queen is overthrownHe asks Washington to annex HawaiiPres. Cleveland wants the Queen returned to powerDole refuses so Cleveland wont annex Hawaii

  • 1898 McKinley becomes president and he annexes Hawaii

    1959 Hawaii becomes our 50th state

  • The Spanish-American WarSection 2

  • Chronology of the Spanish-American-Cuban War1825 Spain had lost most overseas possessions1854Discussion of the U.S. buying Cuba1860Democrats wanted to admit Cuba as a slave state

  • 1868-1878Cuba fought for independence from Spain1884U.S. abolishes tariff on Cuban sugar1886Spain abolishes slavery in Cuba1894high tariff on Cuban sugar destroyed their economy

  • 1895Jose Marti leads Free Cuba movement1896Spain sends Valeriano Weyler (the butcher) to Cuba to restore order1897McKinley takes office tries to resolve crisis diplomatically

  • February, 1898New York Journal publishes DeLome letterU.S.S. Maine explodes in CubaApril 9, 1898Spain agrees to all U.S. demandsApril 11, 1898McKinley gets Congress to declare war with Spain anyway American public wanted it yellow journalism played a role

  • April 20, 1898U.S. goes to war with SpainMay 1, 1898George Dewey leads U.S. navy into PhilippinesJune 1898American forces land in Cuba

  • July 1, 1898Battle of San Juan Hill (Teddy Roosevelt leads the Rough Riders)July 17, 1898Spain surrenders CubaJuly 25, 1898U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico

  • August 1, 1898Spanish troops in Philippines surrender to AmericansAugust 12, 1898U.S. and Spain sign armisticeDecember 10, 1898U.S. and Spain sign Treaty of ParisFebruary 6, 1899U.S. Senate passes Treaty of Paris

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarAmerican business owners

    urged U.S. intervention to protect American business interests in Cuba

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarJose Marti

    Provoked U.S. intervention by deliberately destroying American-owned sugar mills and plantations

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarValeriano Weyler

    Took harsh actions against the Cuban people, including forcibly removing them to camps, where thousands died

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarYellow journalism

    Encouraged the American public to sympathize with Cuban rebels and the war

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarDe Lome Letter

    Angered the American public because of its criticism of President McKinley

  • Causes of the Spanish-American WarU.S.S. Maine

    Led to widespread support for the war; led McKinley to ask Congress to declare war

  • Effects of the Spanish-American WarCuba

    Achieved independence from Spain

  • Effects of the Spanish-American WarPuerto Rico

    Went from Spanish to American rule

  • Effects of the Spanish-American WarGuam

    Went from Spanish to American rule

  • Effects of the Spanish-American WarPhilippine Islands

    Sold by Spain to U.S., annexed by U.S.

  • Provisions of the Treaty of ParisCuba got its independence from SpainSpain gave Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.U.S. would pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines

  • Acquiring New LandsSection 3

  • U.S. relationship with Puerto RicoAfter Spanish-American War, some wanted self-government while others wanted to become a state of the U.S.1900 Foraker Act ended U.S. military rule and set up civil government1917 given U.S. citizenship1952 given commonwealth status this means they can move freely to U.S., are subject to the military draft, but cant vote in presidential elections

  • U.S. relationship with CubaTeller Amendment and Treaty of Paris had guaranteed independenceBut, American soldiers occupied the country after war endedAmerican military improved lives of the peopleU.S. insisted Platt Amendment be added to their Constitution creating a protectorate relationship for 31 yearsToday, Cuba not under any U.S. control - tense relationship

  • U.S. relationship with Philippines1899 revolt against American annexation led by Emilio AguinaldoTook U.S. 3 years to put down the rebellionBecame an independent republic on July 4, 1946

  • U.S. relationship with ChinaChina was weak and vulnerable to foreign influenceU.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued Open Door notes indicating that the U.S. would not allow other nations to shut U.S. out of China1900 Boxer Rebellion Chinese revolting against foreign influence thousands of Chinese killedOpen Door Policy towards China became key to protecting our economic interests there

  • Controversy Over U.S. Imperialist GainsSupportersPres. McKinleyBig businessPres. T.RooseveltOpponentsWilliam Jennings BryanGrover ClevelandAndrew CarnegieJane AddamsMark TwainAnti-Imperialist League

  • America as a World PowerSection 4

  • Teddy Roosevelts DiplomacyMediated a settlement in Russo-Japanese War he won the Nobel Peace Prize for thisSupported building of the Panama Canal (by supporting a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia)Added Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine warned Europe to stay out of Latin AmericaRoosevelt Corollary U.S. would use force to protect our interests in Latin AmericaSpeak softly and carry a big stick diplomacy

  • Tafts DiplomacyU.S. government guaranteed loans to foreign countries to support side we wanted to win in their disputesThis was referred to as dollar diplomacy

  • Woodrow Wilsons DiplomacyU.S. had a moral obligation to deny recognition to Latin American governments that were oppressive and undemocratic This was referred to as missionary diplomacyLed to U.S. intervention in Mexico

  • Mexican RevolutionRuled by Porfirio Diaz military dictator, but we liked him because he protected the interests of American businessmen in Mexico1911 Francisco Madero led a revolt and overthrew Diaz he promised Democratic reforms1913 Victoriano Huerta overthrew Madero and murdered himPresident Wilson refused to recognize government of Huerta

  • U.S. used incident at Tampico with U.S. sailors as an excuse to intervene in Mexico against Huertas govtAlmost resulted in war Huerta regime collapsed and Venustiano Carranza came to powerWilson agreed to remove troops and recognize the Carranza govtMexican rebels Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata were not happy killed Americans on border with Mexico

  • Wilson sent General John J. Pershing into Mexico to chase Pancho Villa for over a yearCarranza ordered U.S. troops out of MexicoAdded to the negative image of the U.S. amongst Latin American nations

  • Early 20th Century Foreign Policy Achievements of the U.S.Expanded access to foreign markets so our economy could continue to growU.S. built a modern navy to protect interests around the worldU.S. exercised international police power by dominating Latin America