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<ul><li><p>Advances in Biometrics</p></li><li><p>Editors</p><p>Advances in Biometrics</p><p> Venu Govindaraju</p><p>Sensors, Algorithms and Systems </p><p>.Nalini K. Ratha </p></li><li><p>Hawthorne, New York, USA IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center </p><p>University of Buffalo, New York, USA </p><p>British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data </p><p>A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library </p><p>Library of Congress Control Number: 2007929188 </p><p>Printed on acid-free paper </p><p> Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008 </p><p>springer.com Springer Science+Business Media </p><p>Whilst we have made considerable efforts to contact all holders of copyright material contained in this book, we have failed to locate some of these. Should holders wish to contact the Publisher, we will be happy to come to some arrangement with them. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case </p><p>Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing </p><p>specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. </p><p>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 </p><p>Venu Govindaraju, BTech, MS, PhD </p><p>ISBN: 978-1-84628-920-0 e-ISBN: 978-1-84628-921-7</p><p>The use of registered names, trademarks, etc., in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a </p><p>Department of Computer Science and Engineering Nalini K. Ratha, BTech, MTech, PhD </p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>Overview and Goals</p><p>Recognizing people based on their physiological or behavioral characteristicsis the main focus of the science of biometrics. With the ever-increasing needfor secure and reliable human identification methods in a highly security-conscious society spurred by recent events around the world, biometrics hassurged from an interesting application of pattern-recognition techniques toa vibrant mainstream research topic over the last decade. The exponentialgrowth of research in this area focuses on many challenging research prob-lems including evaluating new biometrics techniques, significantly improvingaccuracy in many existing biometrics, new sensing techniques, and large-scalesystem design issues. Biometrics technology relies on advances in many alliedareas including pattern recognition, computer vision, signal/image processing,statistics, electrical engineering, computer science, and machine learning. Sev-eral books, conferences, and special issues of journals have been published andmany are in the active pipeline covering these advanced research topics.</p><p>Most of the published work assumes the biometric signal has been reliablyacquired by the sensors and the task is one of controlling false match and falserejection rates. Thus, the focus and thrust of many researchers have been onpattern recognition and machine-learning algorithms in recognizing biometricssignals. However, the emphasis on the sensors themselves, which are criticalin capturing high-quality signals, has been largely missing from the researchdiscourse. We have endeavored to remedy this by including several chaptersrelating to the sensors for the various biometric modalities. This is perhapsthe first book to provide a comprehensive treatment of the topic. Althoughcovering the sensing aspect of biometrics at length, we are also equally excitedabout new algorithmic advances fundamentally changing the course for someof the leading and popular biometrics modalities as well as new modalitiesthat may hold a new future. There has also been interest at the systems levelboth from a human factors point of view and the perspective of networking,</p></li><li><p>vi Preface</p><p>databases, privacy, and antispoofing. Our goal in designing this book has beenprimarily based on covering many recent advances made in these three keyareas: sensors, algorithms, and systems.</p><p>Organization and Features</p><p>The chapters in this book have been authored by the leading authorities inthe field making this book a unique blueprint of the advances being made onall frontiers of biometrics with coverage of the entire gamut of topics includ-ing data acquisition, pattern-matching algorithms, and issues such as stan-dards, security, networks, and databases that have an impact at the systemlevel. Accordingly, the book has been organized under three roughly clus-tered parts: Part I pertains to sensors, Part II is about advances in biometricmatching algorithms, and Part III deals with issues at the systems level. Chap-ters within any one cluster are self-explanatory and do not depend on priorchapters.</p><p>We have emphasized the advances and cutting-edge technologies in eachof the parts with the understanding that readers have other options for look-ing up matching algorithms for commonly used modalities such as fingerprintand face recognition. Our focus has been on the newer modalities, be it theuse of infrared imaging for measuring the distinguishing features in vascularstructures, multispectral imaging to ensure liveness, or iris on the move for un-obtrusive identification in surveillance scenarios. With respect to fingerprints,we have devoted chapters in Part I to touchless image capture, ultrasonic imag-ing, and swipe methods.</p><p>Part II is divided roughly equally between behavioral (handwriting, voice)and physical biometrics (face, iris) with an additional chapter on a strikinglynovel modality in headprint biometrics.</p><p>Readers will also find the inclusion of the chapter on standards in Part IIIto be an extremely convenient reference.</p><p>Target Audience</p><p>The primary intended audience for this book is the research community bothfrom industry and academia as reflected by the authorship of the chapterswhere we have roughly equal participation from both. The insight providedby the industry chapters is invaluable as it provides the perspective of actualworking systems. We anticipate the book to be a ready reference on the stateof the art in biometric research.</p><p>The secondary audience is graduate students taking an advanced researchtopics course on their way to a doctoral dissertation. This will be well suited forstudents specializing in biometrics, image processing, and machine learning as</p></li><li><p>Preface vii</p><p>it can provide ideal application testbeds to test their algorithms. The bench-marks provided for several modalities in Part II should prove to be useful aswell.</p><p>Acknowledgments</p><p>We are extremely thankful to all the chapter authors who have contributed tomake this book a unique resource for all researchers. The 24 chapters are thecombined effort of 53 authors. We have truly enjoyed interacting with themat all stages of book preparation: concept, drafts, proofs, and finalization. Wewould also like to thank Achint Thomas for helping with the FTP submissionsof the manuscripts and proofreading. Last, but not least, we are grateful toSpringer for constantly driving us for timely completion of the tasks on ourend.</p><p>Hawthorne, New York Nalini K. RathaBuffalo, New York Venu GovindarajuApril 2007</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v</p><p>Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii</p><p>Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii</p><p>Part I Sensors</p><p>1 Multispectral Fingerprint Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Robert K. Rowe, Kristin Adair Nixon, and Paul W. Butler</p><p>2 Touchless Fingerprinting Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Geppy Parziale</p><p>3 A Single-Line AC Capacitive Fingerprint Swipe Sensor . . . . . . 49Sigmund Clausen</p><p>4 Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63John K. Schneider</p><p>5 Palm Vein Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Masaki Watanabe</p><p>6 Finger Vein Authentication Technology andFinancial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Mitsutoshi Himaga and Katsuhiro Kou</p><p>7 Iris Recognition in Less Constrained Environments . . . . . . . . . . 107James R. Matey, David Ackerman, James Bergen,and Michael Tinker</p></li><li><p>x Contents</p><p>8 Ocular Biometrics: Simultaneous Capture andAnalysis of the Retina and Iris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133David Usher, Yasunari Tosa, and Marc Friedman</p><p>9 Face Recognition Beyond the Visible Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157Pradeep Buddharaju, Ioannis Pavlidis, and Chinmay Manohar</p><p>Part II Algorithms</p><p>10 Voice-Based Speaker Recognition Combining Acousticand Stylistic Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183Sachin S. Kajarekar, Luciana Ferrer, Andreas Stolcke,and Elizabeth Shriberg</p><p>11 Conversational Biometrics:A Probabilistic View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203Jason Pelecanos, Jir Navratil, and Ganesh N. Ramaswamy</p><p>12 Function-Based Online Signature Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225Julian Fierrez and Javier Ortega-Garcia</p><p>13 Writer Identification and Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247Lambert Schomaker</p><p>14 Improved Iris Recognition Using Probabilistic Informationfrom Correlation Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265Jason Thornton, Marios Savvides, and B.V.K. Vijaya Kumar</p><p>15 Headprint-Based Human Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287Hrishikesh Aradhye, Martin Fischler, Robert Bolles, and Gregory Myers</p><p>16 Pose and Illumination Issues in Face-and Gait-Based Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307Rama Chellappa and Gaurav Aggarwal</p><p>17 SVDD-Based Face Reconstructionin Degraded Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323Sang-Woong Lee and Seong-Whan Lee</p><p>18 Strategies for Improving Face Recognitionfrom Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339Deborah Thomas, Kevin W. Bowyer, and Patrick J. Flynn</p><p>19 Large-Population Face Recognition (LPFR)Using Correlation Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363Chunyan Xie and B.V.K. Vijaya Kumar</p></li><li><p>Contents xi</p><p>Part III Systems</p><p>20 Fingerprint Synthesis and Spoof Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385Annalisa Franco and Davide Maltoni</p><p>21 Match-on-Card for Secure andScalable Biometric Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407Christer Bergman</p><p>22 Privacy and Security Enhancements in Biometrics . . . . . . . . . . 423Terrance E. Boult and Robert Woodworth</p><p>23 Adaptive Biometric Systems That CanImprove with Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447Fabio Roli, Luca Didaci, and Gian Luca Marcialis</p><p>24 Biometrics Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473Farzin Deravi</p><p>Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491</p></li><li><p>Contributors</p><p>David AckermanSarnoff Corporation,Princeton, NJ 08543-5300, USA,dackerman@sarnoff.com</p><p>Gaurav AggarwalCenter for Automation Research andDepartment of Computer Science,University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742, USA,gaurav@cs.umd.edu</p><p>Hrishikesh AradhyeSRI International,333 Ravenswood Avenue,Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA,hrishikesh.aradhye@sri.com</p><p>James BergenSarnoff Corporation,Princeton, NJ 08543-5300, USA,jbergen@sarnoff.com</p><p>Christer BergmanPrecise Biometrics AB,Lund, Sweden,christer@novexus.com</p><p>Robert BollesSRI International,333 Ravenswood Avenue,Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA,robert.bolles@sri.com</p><p>Terrance E. BoultDepartment of Computer Science,University of Colorado at ColoradoSprings, EAS#3, 1420,Austin Bluffs Parkway,Colorado Springs,CO 80933-7150,tboult@vast.uccs.edu,andSecurics, Inc, Colorado Springs,CO, USA</p><p>Kevin W. BowyerDepartment of ComputerScience and Engineering,University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN, USA,kwb@cse.nd.edu</p><p>Pradeep BuddharajuDepartment of Computer Science,University of Houston, 4800 CallhounRoad, Houston, TX 77204, USA,braju@cs.uh.edu</p><p>Paul W. ButlerLumidigm, Inc.,801 University Blvd. SE,Suite 302,Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA,pbutler@lumidigm.com</p></li><li><p>xiv Contributors</p><p>Rama ChellappaCenter for Automation Research,and Department of Electricaland Computer Engineering,University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742, USA,rama@cfar.umd.edu</p><p>Sigmund ClausenIdex ASA, Snarya,Norway,sc@idex.no</p><p>Farzin DeraviDepartment of Electronics,University of Kent, UK,F.Deravi@kent.ac.uk</p><p>Luca DidaciDepartment of Electricaland Electronic Engineering,University of Cagliari Piazza dArmi,I-09123 Cagliari, Italy,luca.didaci@diee.unica.it</p><p>Luciana FerrerDepartment ofElectrical Engineering,Stanford University, CA, USA,lferrer@speech.sri.com</p><p>Julian FierrezATVSBiometric Recognition Group,Escuela Politecnica Superior,Universidad Autonoma de Madrid,Spain,julian.fierrez@uam.es</p><p>Martin FischlerSRI International,333 Ravenswood Avenue,Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA,martin.fischler@sri.com</p><p>Patrick J. FlynnDepartment of ComputerScience and Engineering,University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN, USA,flynn@cse.nd.edu</p><p>Annalisa FrancoC.d.L. Scienze dellInformazione,University of Bologna,Via Sacchi 3, Cesena,Italy,annalisa.franco@unibo.it</p><p>Marc FriedmanRetica Systems Inc, Waltham,Massachusetts, USA,mfriedman@retica.com</p><p>Mitsutoshi HimagaR&amp;D Division, Hitachi-OmronTerminal Solutions, Corp.,Owari-asahi, Aichi, Japan,mitsutoshi himaga@hitachi-omron-ts.com</p><p>Sachin S. KajarekarSRI International,Menlo Park, CA, USA,sachin.kajarekar@sri.com</p><p>Katsuhiro KouAutomated Teller Machine SystemsGroup, Hitachi-Omron TerminalSolutions, Corp., Shinagawa-ku,Tokyo, Japan,katsuhiro kou@hitachi-omron-ts.com</p><p>B.V. K. Vijaya KumarDepartment of Electricaland Computer Engineering,Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA,kumar@ece.cmu.edu</p><p>Sang-Woong LeeKorea University, Anam-dongSeongbuk-ku, Seoul 136-713, Korea,sangwlee@image.korea.ac.kr</p></li><li><p>Contributors xv</p><p>Seong-Whan LeeKorea University, Anam-dongSeongbuk-ku, Seoul 136-713, Korea,swlee@image.korea.ac.kr</p><p>Davide MaltoniScienze dellInformazione,Universita di Bologna,Via Sacchi 3, 47023Cesena (FO), Italy,davide.maltoni@unibo.it</p><p>Chinmay ManoharDepartment of Internal Medicine,Endocrine Research Unit,Division of Endocrinology,Mayo Clinic, Rochester,MN 55905, USA,...</p></li></ul>