8. Community Participation

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  • 7/31/2019 8. Community Participation




    Dr. Mushtaq A. Khan

    Sr. Associate Professor,

    J&K IMPA.

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    Community Mobilization

    Community Participation

    Participatory Development

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    A Social Group of people havingcommon features.

    Common Features:

    - language; - common interest;

    - culture; - occupations;- area/territory; - common past (history, heritage);

    - religion; - level of education;

    - community consciousness

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    people do not

    Participate in

    Community Affairs: Lack of time, energy and money for the working class;

    Fear of deviation from original job.

    Sense of futility.

    Fatalistic attitude.

    Floating populations.

    Absence of civic pride/sense.

    Sense of alienation from the mainstream of local life.

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    Constraints/problems in Community participation:

    Programmes run by Govt. are generally taken by people as

    an agenda/propaganda of government or a political party at

    its face.

    People may not have time available when their participation

    is required.

    The programme may not attract public or may not come .

    Sometimes political environment is hostile and participating

    in such activities becomes risky.

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    The issue of Govt. control is not generally liked by people.

    Initially people may resist.

    [ it is normal and natural, dont get panicky]

    People may oppose.

    [ people generally oppose new things and are also

    apprehensive of the results].

    A Silver Lining in the Cloud

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    Community Affairs:

    You can loose motivation

    [you can get discouraged, as this is time consuming, even irritating]

    Dont fall in the trap !

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    Community Mobilization:

    A situation through which a

    well thought out and properly plannedaction is stimulated by a communityitself for making progress on social,

    economic and political front.

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    Social Issues:

    Health problems, Educational backwardness, Hostility by

    other communities, Infrastructure development, etc.

    Economic Issues:

    To work together to increase employment opportunities.

    Political Issues:

    To keep checks and balances on political leadership.

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    Why should Community be interested in Mobilization:

    1. It cements and helps the community to grow successfully.

    2. It increases its capacity to encounter problems of economic,

    social or political nature.

    3. It promotes common interest of the community.

    4. It helps it to gain access to resources.

    5. It facilitates proper planning of available and required


    6. It enables it govern itself.

    7. It enables it to exert political pressure for getting


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    8. It gives a feeling of transparency and accountability to the

    funding agencies and funds flow becomes easy.

    9. It ensures intervention of political parties above political


    10. It ensures equity in which no distinction and discrimination

    is made.

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    How Can The Community Be Mobilized ?

    Community should be motivated to

    the positive outcome of the drive

    with the help of a

    Mobilization Programme.

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    of a

    Community Mobilization programme:

    * Need based.

    * Well planned.

    * Non-controversial.

    * Attractive.

    * Specific

    * Community should understand it.

    * Language used should be local.

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    Steps in Mobilizing Community (General) :

    1. Identify the problems and issues :

    Creates relevance of the programme for the community. Creates sense of belongingness and ownership of the


    2. Scan the community to get leaders:

    Sociogram techniques may help.

    Leaders cooperation is a must. Leaders help in building opinions.

    Followers understand and respect their leaders.

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    3. Profile the community:

    Curriculum vita or an overall sketch of the community.

    Profiling aspects:

    i) Location of the community:- Settlement details

    - Map (s) showing the location of the community.

    - Permanent/temporary migration of people.

    ii) Population:- Number of people

    - Age composition

    - Sex composition

    iii) Social life:- Caste/class groups

    - Inter-relationships among castes

    - Dress pattern

    - Unique habits

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    4. Identify other stake holders:

    Religious institutions like Mosques/Temples,Gurduwaras,

    Asthans, etc. Social-cultural groups.

    Sports groups.

    Youth clubs.

    Political groups/parties.

    Voluntary groups.

    Minority groups.

    Government servants.

    Influence Groups:

    Parents, Elder Community members,

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    5. Involve the Community:

    In working out the Mobilization programme.

    In implementing the Mobilization programme.

    In monitoring and supervising the Mobilization programme.

    * Awareness camps,

    * Cultural programmes and fairs,

    * Collaborative programmes,

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    Guiding Principles:

    - go to the people

    - live with them

    - learn from them

    - serve them

    - love them

    - plan with them

    - start with what they know

    - build on what they have

    d if f h i

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    6. Identify response of the Community:

    - Pilot run of the programme.

    - Analyse and remove reservations or oppositions.

    7. Make an Advisory Committee of the Community members

    with the following characteristics:

    -Experience/expertise of diverse areas;

    - Understanding of the problems and issues of the community;

    - Capacity to give new and fresh ideas and opinions;

    - Excellent/required communication skills;

    - Leadership qualities;

    - Public speaking skills;

    - Motivational capacity;

    -A representative character;

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    8. Avoid Prejudice:

    - Ensure nobody is left out.

    - Approach to all the members equally.

    - Give a feeling to them that they are all important.

    - Do as a duty and not as a favour.

    9. Be transparent and clear:

    - Dont keep anything behind the curtain.

    - Culture of secrecy associated with Govt. should be put off.- Be honest in your working.

    - Keep your promise.

    - Be highly sensitive to the community conflicts.

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    Precautions in CM Programmes:

    - Strictly avoid prejudice.

    - Dont touch sensitive and emotional issues.

    - Dont give a promise which you cannot fulfill. - Dont undermine opposition.

    - Dont neglect community leaders.

    - Dont forget that respect is the hallmark.

    - Dont hide transparency and clarity.

    - Dont agitate on criticism. - Dont run after cheap publicity.

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