5b. Polity - Preamble

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    Chapter in Detail:

    WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a

    SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICand to secure to all

    its iti!ens"JUSTICE,social, economic and #olitical$ LIBERTY o% thought, eression, 'elie%, %aith and

    (orshi#$ EUALITYo% status and o% o##ortunity$ and to #romote among them all

    !RATERNITY assuring the dignity o% the individual and the unity and integrity o% the Nation$IN O)* ON+TIT)ENT A++E-L. this t(enty/si&th day o% Novem'er, 0121, do HE*E-.

    ADOPT, ENAT AND 3I4E TO O)*+EL4E+ THI+ ON+TIT)TION5

    The onstitution 627nd Amendment8 Act 019: introduced the (ords ; socialist, secular andintegrity/ into the Pream'le5 A committee under the chairmanshi# o% +ardar +(aran +ingh

    recommended that this amendment 'e enacted5

    " : #Prea$%le i& a Mi'r('(&$ () the C(n&tit*ti(n an+ i& a e- t( the C(n&tit*ti(n./ Di&'*&&the &tate$ent 0ith 1ari(*& S*pre$e C(*rt J*+2e$ent&3

    Pream'le contains the essence o% the onstitution/ its values and goals5 It is a microcosm o% theonstitution and has the %ollo(ing signi%icance

    It categorically says that #eo#le o% the country are sovereign

    It has the

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    It is the modern notion o% su#reme #olitical authority (ithin a territory5 According to the

    Pream'le o% the onstitution, #eo#le o% India are sovereign5 That is, Pream'le esta'lishes

    #o#ular sovereignty (hich means that no la( or rule is legitimate unless it rests directlyCorindirectly on the consent o% the #eo#le5 All modern democracies are 'ased on #o#ular

    sovereignty5 According to some constitutional eerts, the (ord etsin economic develo#ment and retreat o% state5 It has triggered a de'ate as to (hether the

    onstitutional goal o% socialism is 'eing im#lemented or not5 Ho(ever, the 'asis %or the ne(

    economic #olicy centered around li'erali!ation o% economy is to generate (ealth (hich in turncan 'e distri'uted to all sections5 ar>ets have #roven their

    value as (ealth generators5 3overnment continues to #lay an active role in social security and

    distri'utive ?ustice5

    Thus, (hile India continues to strive %or the Pream'ular value o% socialism, the method o%

    achieving the goal is modi%ied to(ards mar>et %orces #laying a greater role in the economy5

    9 : Di&'*&& the (ther i+ea& () the Prea$%le () (*r '(n&tit*ti(n/

    +ecularism means se#aration o% religion %rom #olitics5 *eligion is #rivate (hile #olitics is #u'lic5

    That is one elanation5 Another #ers#ective is that i% religion and #olitics are mi&ed, it may

    create social tensions and distur' democracy5

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    Also, in a multi/religious society li>e India, democracy necessarily means secularism, #luralism

    'eing the essence o% democracy (ith all religions 'eing given eual right to e&ist5 +ecularism

    means euidistance o% the +tate to(ards all religions/ +tate should not sho( discrimination either#ositive or negative to(ards any one religion5 All individuals have the right to %ollo( religion o%

    their choice (hile res#ecting the same right o% others5

    De$('ra'-

    Democracy means rule 'y #eo#le5 E%%ectively, it is the adult #o#ulation (hich constitutes theelectorate/ 'ased on universal adult %ranchise/ that is the %oundation %or democracy5 Periodical

    elections are held to constitute #arliament to govern the country5 Democracy is #luralism5

    Plurality o% o#inions, #arties, ideologies, languages, religions and cultures coe&ist and %lourish(ithout any discrimination5 Other im#ortant %eatures o% democracy are rule o% la(, inde#endent

    ?udiciary, individual rights and so on5

    Rep*%li'*e#u'lic is a #olitical order in (hich the su#reme #o(er lies in a 'ody o% citi!ens5 Will o% #eo#leis the 'asis %or governance5 Pu'lic o%%ices are thro(n o#en to all citi!ens It also means a country

    (here the Head o% +tate is elected and is not a hereditary institution li>e the monarchy in -ritain5

    *e#u'lican values, li>e democratic values are aimed at em#o(ering the citi!en5

    J*&ti'e

    ustice is a conce#t involving the %air and moral treatment o% all #ersons, 'oth in the %ormulation

    and en%orcement o% la(5 It is o%ten seen as the e%%ort to de%ine and do (hat is right5G It involves

    re(ard %or doing right and #unishment %or deviating %rom it5 Pream'le s#ea>s o% social, #oliticaland economic ?ustice5 +ocial ?ustice means the (hole society should #rogress (ithout some

    sections %alling 'ehind and eloited5 It is inclusive gro(th5 Eual treatment %or all #eo#le

    inde#endent o% gender, caste, religion, language or any %orm o% ethnicity is a #art o% social?ustice5 +ocial #rotection #rogrammes are initiated 'y the 3overnment and cor#orate agencies

    and N3Os to ensure that the (ea> and im#overished are u#li%ted and, at any rate, are not allo(ed

    to 'ecome (ea>er5

    +imilarly, economic ?ustice means ensuring that gro(th 'ene%its all 'y alleviating #overty andgenerating ?o's5 I% gro(th does not #ositively im#act on all, the government ta>es u# distri'utive

    ?ustice #rogrammes to su##ly essential goods at a%%orda'le #rices and so on5

    Political ?ustice means all citi!ens are given the right to vote and stand %or #olitical o%%ice e&ce#t

    those (ho are not adults or 'elo( the age #rescri'ed %or the o%%ice and are not mentally sound or'arred %or violation o% la(5

    Li%ert-

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    Li'erty is derived %rom the Latin (ord s to

    em#o(er the marginali!ed sections (ith additional rights and government #olicies5 The 'asis o%the conce#t o% euality o% o##ortunity is that %ormal euality does not in reality 'ene%it all

    eually5 The vulnera'le sections o% society need additional #rotection and #re%erence in

    education and em#loyment5 For e&am#le, a%%irmative action as contained in Art5 0 and Art5 0: in%avour o% the +C+T and the O-s5

    !raternit-

    Fraternity means common 'rotherhood o% all Indians5 It asserts that social divisions (ill 'e

    removed and integration achieved as emotional integration is the goal o% national integration5One common citi!enshi#, the %eeling o% o% the onstitution and

    can not 'e amended5 Amendment, (hen it means a'ridgement, is not allo(ed5 That is, Pream'le

    can 'e enriched 'ut not restricted5

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